Infrared radiation (IR) refers to the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum where wavelengths range from about 700 nm to 1 mm. Any object with a temperature above absolute zero (0 K) radiates in the infrared region, and a material that transmits radiant energy in the range of 0.74 to 1.4 um is referred to as a near-infrared optical material. Germanatebased glass is attracting attention as a glass material for infrared optical lenses because of its simple manufacturing process. With the recent development of the glass molding press (GMP) process, thermal imaging cameras using oxide-based infrared lenses can be easily mass-produced, expanding their uses. To improve the mechanical and optical properties of commercial materials consisting of ternary systems, germanate-based heavy metal oxide glasses were prepared using a melt-cooling method. The fabricated samples were evaluated for thermal, structural, and optical properties using DSC, XRD, and XRF, respectively. To derive a composition with high glass stability for lens applications, ZnO and Sb2O3 were substituted at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mol%. The glass with 1 mol% added Sb2O3 was confirmed to have the optimal conditions, with an optical transmittance of 80 % or more, a glass transition temperature of 660 °C, a refractive index of 1.810, and a Vickers hardness of 558. The possibility of its application as an alternative infrared lens material to existing commercial materials capable of GMP processing was confirmed.
이 연구는 코르크보드를 보강하여 건축부재 및 놀이기구의 안전부재 등으로 폭넓게 활용할 것을 목적으로 코르크보드의 중층에 금속, 유리섬유, 탄소섬유를 삽입하여 보강한 3종의 코르크복합보드를 제조하였고, 코르크복합보드의 수분흡수에 따른 치수안정성 및 접착층 박리성능을 조사하였다. 코르크복합보드의 흡수율은 0.37% - 0.45%의 범위에 있었고, 코르크보드에 비해 0.61배 - 0.74배의 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 코르크복합보드의 두께팽창률은 0.92% - 1.58%의 범위에 있었고, 코르크보드 보다 1.4 - 2.4배의 높은 값을 나타내었다. 그러나 이 값들은 일반 목질보드보다 현저히 낮았고, KS규격의 12%이하를 하회하는 것이 확인되었다. 코르크복합보드의 준내수 및 내수침지박리시험후의 접착층박리율은 0%로 전혀 접착층의 박리가 일어나지 않아 우수한 내수성을 나타내었고, 흡수율과 흡수두께팽창률은 상온침지에 비해 다소 증가하였으나, 목질보드에 관한 KS규격을 하회하는 우수한 치수안정성을 나타내는 것이 확인되었다.
해양산업시설에서는 많은 종류의 유해물질의 배출 가능성이 존재하기 때문에 이에 대한 체계적인 대응체계가 필요하다. 그 중 연속자동 측정이 가능하면서 ppb 수준의 낮은 검출하한 (limit of detection:LOD)를 갖는 센서 구현은 매우 중요하다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서 는 활성탄소(carbon black)와 Indium tin oxide (ITO) 나노입자를 혼합한 film의 표면저항의 변화를 이용한 고성능 센서 제안 및 구현을 위해 성능인자를 최적화하였다. 센서 구조는 접촉 면적과 전극 간격을 최적화하였다. 접촉 면적이 증가하면 감도, LOD 성능이 향상되었으며 60 mm2에서 최적화되었다. 또한, 전극 간격은 접촉 면적을 일정하게 유지한 상태에서 변화시켰으며 센서 응답은 전극 간격이 감소함에 따라 증가하는 것을 확인하였다. 마지막으로 센서 표면에서의 유해물질의 잔류시간 증가를 위해 화학흡착제를 적용하였다. 화학흡착제는 유해 물질을 선택적으로 흡수할 수 있는 polyester계를 선택하였다. 그 결과 농도가 증가함에 따라 응답이 선형적으로 증가하여 센서로 활용이 가능한 것을 확인하였다. 이러한 3가지의 방법을 통해 센서를 제작하였을 때 액상 유해물질을 기존 센서의 LOD(89.9 ppb)와 비교 10~40 ppb 정도의 낮은 농도를 검출할 수 있는 센서를 구현하였다.
The metal bush assembling process is a process of inserting and compressing a metal bush that serves to reduce the occurrence of noise and stable compression in the rotating section. In the metal bush assembly process, the head diameter defect and placement defect of the metal bush occur due to metal bush omission, non-pressing, and poor press-fitting. Among these causes of defects, it is intended to prevent defects due to omission of the metal bush by using signals from sensors attached to the facility. In particular, a metal bush omission is predicted through various data mining techniques using left load cell value, right load cell value, current, and voltage as independent variables. In the case of metal bush omission defect, it is difficult to get defect data, resulting in data imbalance. Data imbalance refers to a case where there is a large difference in the number of data belonging to each class, which can be a problem when performing classification prediction. In order to solve the problem caused by data imbalance, oversampling and composite sampling techniques were applied in this study. In addition, simulated annealing was applied for optimization of parameters related to sampling and hyper-parameters of data mining techniques used for bush omission prediction. In this study, the metal bush omission was predicted using the actual data of M manufacturing company, and the classification performance was examined. All applied techniques showed excellent results, and in particular, the proposed methods, the method of mixing Random Forest and SA, and the method of mixing MLP and SA, showed better results.
본 연구는 금속 인공물을 감소시키기 위한 VAT(view angle tilting)와 SEMAC(slice encoding for metal correction) 기법 적용에 따른 온도 변화 범위를 관찰하고자 하였다. 제작된 인체 모방 팬텀을 활용하였고, 검사방법으로는 임상에서 실제로 사용하고 있는 고속스핀에코(fast spin echo, FSE) 기법의 영상 파라미터들을 그대로 이용하였다. VAT 와 SEMAC 기법은 FSE와 같은 파라미터로 설정한 다음 VAT 파라미터는 100%와 SEMAC 파라미터는 25로 설정하였다. 온도 측정 방법으로는 수소원자 공명주파수전이법(proton resonance frequency shift, PRFS)기법을 활용하였으며, 광 섬유 온도계(fiber-optic sensor, FOS)로 절대 온도를 측정한 후 비교 분석하였다. 온도 변화는 SEMAC 기법에서 기존 FSE 기법 (0.28℃±0.10℃)에 비해 1.63℃±0.12℃로 약 6배 상승하였고(SEMAC-FOS = 1.59℃), VAT 기법은 약 2배 증가(VAT-FOS = 0.51℃)가 확인되었다. 특히, SEMAC 기법은 VAT 기법(VAT-FOS = 0.51℃, VAT-PRFS = 0.54℃ ±0.02℃)과 비교하여 약 3배가 증가하여 가장 높은 온도 상승이 관찰되었다. 이는 SEMAC 기법 적용 시 자기공명영상 전자파 인체 영양에 대한 안전기준을 충족하기 위해 영상 파라미터 최적화 작업의 필요성을 시사한다.
The standards for heavy metal levels in crustaceans are 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg or lower for lead and cadmium, respectively. Further, the contamination levels of arsenic, mercury, methyl mercury, and tin are being continuously investigated, considering their current exposure levels. Shrimps are potentially exposed to heavy metals because they inhabit areas with abundant organic matter, such as sandy or muddy shores, places with a lot of seaweed, and estuaries. This study measured the monetary value of reducing consumer anxiety and increasing consumer confidence if the government prohibits the sale of shrimp species that exceed the threshold for specific heavy metals and of the top shrimp species for which no threshold for heavy metals is specified. We derived consumer willingness-topay (WTP). Combining the estimated WTP with the number of households in the country, the total value of benefits was estimated to be 363.9 billion won. The results of this study will provide an important empirical finding, showing to what extent specific policies regarding heavy metals in seafood can alleviate consumer anxiety and provide psychological reassurance.
담도 스텐트가 인접한 담도 주위 혈관에 손상을 주어 혈액 담즙증을 유발하거나 스텐트 제거 시 손상으로 발생할 수 있다고 드물게 보고된다. 스텐트 제거 시 활력징후가 불안정 해질 정도의 혈액 담즙증이 생기는 경우, 혈관조영술을 시행 하기 전 구조 요법으로 피막형 팽창성 금속 스텐트의 압박 효과를 통한 지혈을 기대하고 삽입할 수 있다. 본 두 증례는 간문부 담관암 환자에서 간문부 폐색에 대해 삽입한 담도 스텐트 그리고 간세포암종 환자에서 간동맥 화학색전술 이후 동반된 간농양의 내배액 목적으로 삽입한 담도 스텐트를 각각 교체 목적으로 제거 후 급격히 악화된 대량의 혈액 담즙증을 피막형 팽창성 금속 스텐트를 삽입하여 성공적으로 치료된 사례이다. 한편, 해당 상황에선 정확한 출혈 위치를 알기 어려워 예상되는 출혈 위치를 포함할 수 있을 만큼 높은 위치에 스텐트를 삽입해야 하며 적절한 위치에 삽입되었더라도 지혈이 되지 않을 수 있기에 일시적인 방안이며 스텐트 자체의 한계점들도 있다. 따라서, 기존의 스텐트 제거 시 혈액 담즙증이 발생할 수 있음을 인지하고, 그중 출혈의 위험성이 높은 환자에서는 제거 전 영상 검사를 고려해야 하며 출혈이 발생한 뒤 스텐트를 통해 성공적으로 지혈을 시행했더라도 출혈 및 가성동맥류와 같은 혈관 기형의 확인을 위한 영상 검사를 고려해야한다.
Micro-electronic gas sensor devices were developed for the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as binary mixed-gas systems. Four gas sensing materials for different target gases, Pd-SnO2 for CO, In2O3 for NOx, Ru-WO3 for NH3, and SnO2-ZnO for HCHO, were synthesized using a sol-gel method, and sensor devices were then fabricated using a micro sensor platform. The gas sensing behavior and sensor response to the gas mixture were examined for six mixed gas systems using the experimental data in MEMS gas sensor arrays in sole gases and their mixtures. The gas sensing behavior with the mixed gas system suggests that specific adsorption and selective activation of the adsorption sites might occur in gas mixtures, and allow selectivity for the adsorption of a particular gas. The careful pattern recognition of sensing data obtained by the sensor array made it possible to distinguish a gas species from a gas mixture and to measure its concentration.
As a filler metal for lowering the melting point of Ag, many alloy metal candidates have emerged, such as cadmium, with zinc, manganese, nickel, and titanium as active metals. However, since cadmium is known to be harmful to the human body, Cd-free filler metals are now mainly used. Still, no study has been conducted comparing the characteristics of joints prepared with and without cadmium. In addition, studies have yet to be conducted comparing the typical characteristics of brazing filler metals with special structures, and the joint characteristics of brazing filler metals with available frames. In this study, the characteristics of junctions of silver-based intercalation metals were compared based on the type of filler metal additives, using a special structure, a filler metal sandwich structure, to protect the internal base metal. The general filler metal was compared using the structure, and the thickness of the filler metal according to the thickness was reached. A comparison of the characteristics of the junction was conducted to identify the characteristics of an intersection of silver-based brazing filler metal and the effect on joint strength. Each filler metal’s collective tensile strength was measured, and the relationship between joint characteristics and tensile joint strength was explored. The junction was estimated through micro strength measurement, contact angle measurement with the base metal when the filler metal was melted, XRD image observation, composition analysis for each phase through SEM-EDS, and microstructure phase acquisition.
The volatilization of alkali ions in (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN) ceramics was inhibited by doping them with alkaline earth metal ions. In addition, the grain growth behavior changed significantly as the sintering duration (ts) increased. At 1,100 °C, the volatilization of alkali ions in KNN ceramics was more suppressed when doped with alkaline earth metal ions with smaller ionic size. A Ca2+-doped KNN specimen with the least alkali ion volatilization exhibited a microstructure in which grain growth was completely suppressed, even under long-term sintering for ts = 30 h. The grain growth in Sr2+-doped and Ba2+-doped KNN specimens was suppressed until ts = 10 h. However, at ts = 30 h, a heterogeneous microstructure with abnormal grains and small-sized matrix grains was observed. The size and number of abnormal grains and size distribution of matrix grains were considerably different between the Sr2+-doped and Ba2+-doped specimens. This microstructural diversity in KNN ceramics could be explained in terms of the crystal growth driving force required for two-dimensional nucleation, which was directly related to the number of vacancies in the material.
The surge in food delivery systems during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic necessitated this study of heavy metal migration from food contact materials (FCMs). A total of 104 samples of FCMs, comprising 51 polypropylene (PP), 21 polyethylene (PE), and 32 polystyrene (PS) samples of six different types of FCMs (containers, covers, table utensils, cups, pouches, and wrappers) used for food delivery distributed in Korea, were collected and investigated for migration of three heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and As) using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine whether they complied with Korea’s Standards and Specifications for Utensils, Containers, and Packages. Acetic acid (4%, v/v) was used as the food simulant, and tests were performed at 100oC (in harsh conditions) for 30 min. Linearity of Pb, Cd, and As showed acceptable results with a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of Pb, Cd, and As were 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001 μg/L and 0.002, 0.003, and 0.003 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy and precision results complied with the criteria presented in the European Commission Joint Research Centre guidelines. The average concentration of Pb, Cd, and As migration detected in a total of 104 samples was 0.009–0.260 μg/L, which was very low compared with the migration specification set in the Standards and Specifications for Utensils, Containers, and Packages. The maximum level of Pb corresponded to 0.23% of the migration limit. There were no samples exceeding the limit. Thus, this study confirmed that the heavy metal contents of FCMs used for delivery food distributed in Korea were safely managed. The data from this study represent an invaluable source for science-based safety management of hazardous heavy metals migrating from FCMs used in the food delivery industry.