In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
APro, developed in KAERI for the process-based total system performance assessment (TSPA) of deep geological disposal systems, performs finite element method (FEM)-based multiphysics analysis. In the FEM-based analysis, the mesh element quality influences the numerical solution accuracy, memory requirement, and computation time. Therefore, an appropriate mesh structure should be constructed before the mesh stability analysis to achieve an accurate and efficient process-based TSPA. A generic reference case of DECOVALEX-2023 Task F, which has been proposed for simulating stationary groundwater flow and time-dependent conservative transport of two tracers, was used in this study for mesh stability analysis. The relative differences in tracer concentration varying mesh structures were determined by comparing with the results for the finest mesh structure. For calculation efficiency, the memory requirements and computation time were compared. Based on the mesh stability analysis, an approach based on adaptive mesh refinement was developed to resolve the error in the early stage of the simulation time-period. It was observed that the relative difference in the tracer concentration significantly decreased with high calculation efficiency.
Various linear system solvers with multi-physics analysis schemes are compared focusing on the near-field region considering thermal-hydraulic-chemical (THC) coupled multi-physics phenomena. APro, developed at KAERI for total system performance assessment (TSPA), performs a finite element analysis with COMSOL, for which the various combinations of linear system solvers and multi-physics analysis schemes should to be compared. The KBS-3 type disposal system proposed by Sweden is set as the target system and the near-field region, which accounts for most of the computational burden is considered. For comparison of numerical analysis methods, the computing time and memory requirement are the main concerns and thus the simulation time is set up to one year. With a single deposition hole problem, PARDISO and GMRESSSOR are selected as representative direct and iterative solvers respectively. The performance of representative linear system solvers is then examined through a problem with an increasing number of deposition holes and the GMRES-SSOR solver with a segregated scheme shows the best performance with respect to the computing time and memory requirement. The results of the comparative analysis are expected to provide a good guideline to choose better numerical analysis methods for TSPA.
In this study, as the proportion of aged pipelines increases rapidly, in the event of an accident caused by corrosion and structural deterioration of metal pipes, appropriate overlay welding is applied in the field to partially repair it. The size of the base steel plate and the selection of a stable welding method were evaluated, and possible problems caused by the overlay welding were identified, and improvement measures were proposed. For the test, a new steel pipe coated with epoxy lining on the inner surface and polyethylene on the outer surface was subjected to a tensile test by processing the repaired specimen through overlay welding with a steel plate after artificial cracking, and structural safety was evaluated after repair. Furthermore, the influences of the size of the throat and the size of the steel plate were analyzed. As a result of the tensile test by dividing the repaired steel plate overlay into a constraint and non-constraint conditions, the tensile load was concentrated in the welded part and damage occurred in the welded part. It was found that the maximum load leading to breakage increases as the size of the welding throat increases. In addition, it was found that the resistance to load increased slightly as the size of the overlaid steel plate increased, but the effect was not significant, confirming the need for repair in consideration of the site conditions. As a result of evaluating the damage to the coating material on the back side of the welding, it was confirmed that the coating material on the opposite side of the welding burned black(epoxy) or was greatly deformed by heat(polyethylene). Therefore, it is necessary to secure structural stability through repainting, etc. in order to prevent damage to the coating material on the opposite side during overlay welding.
The purpose of this study is to present a diagnostic evaluation tool that can more accurately determine the academic performance level in Korean language proficiency of foreign undergraduate students studying at domestic universities. The diagnostic evaluation diagnoses the academic Korean language proficiency of foreign undergraduates, and provides the diagnosis results to foreign undergraduates, professors, and university institutions so that teaching activities can be conducted efficiently. In this study, it was considered that the ‘Basic Academic Ability Diagnostic Test for the Korean Language Subject' was suitable as a test tool for diagnosing to diagnose the academic achievment of foreign undergraduates. This diagnostic test is a diagnostic tool designed for Korean students in Korea, and it not only continuously verifies its reliability and validity, but also includes background knowledge that Korean university students in Korea are basically acquiring. To prove that the 'Basic Academic Ability Diagnostic Test' is suitable as a diagnostic evaluation tool for foreign undergraduates, the correlation with the Korean language achievement evaluation was analyzed. The correlation between diagnostic evaluation and other items showed a significantly positive correlation. When the diagnostic evaluation score was good, the pre-test and post-test scores of Korean language proficiency, and the TOPIC level was also high. This result proves that the basic academic ability diagnostic test tool is very suitable as a diagnostic evaluation tool for foreign undergraduate students. Also, the analysis result of the pre- and post-tests and the TOPIK test showed a very significant and strong positive correlation with the post-test, and the higher the TOPIK grade, the higher the score of the pre‐test.
우리나라는 산업통상자원부를 통해 ‘LNG 벙커링(연료공급) 전용선 건조지원사업’을 한국가스공사를 중심으로 추진하고 있고, 동시 해양수산부는 부산신항내 LNG 벙커링 터미널 구축을 추진하고 있다. LNG 벙커링 전용선박은 LNG 연료를 터미널에서 대상 선박으로 공급하기 위한 필수 대상이고, 이에 따라 안정 운항에 대한 절차서의 필요성이 대두되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 연안선박용 LNG벙커 링 전용선박의 운항 절차서를 제안하기 위하여 부산 신항에서 부산항 정박지로 운항하는 연안선박용 LNG 벙커링 전용선박의 안정성을 평가하였다. 이를 위해 포텐셜 유동해석 기반의 운동해석을 수행하여 취득한 선체운동 응답진폭함수를 운항 해역의 5년간 관측된 실해역 자료와 부산 연안에 적합한 TMA스펙트럼과 합성하여 유의파고별 연안선박용 LNG 벙커링 전용 선박의 내항성능 평가를 수행하였다. 그 결과는 유의파고 2 m 이상에서 횡동요와 수평가속도가 내항성능에 주요 위험 요소가 됨을 알 수 있었다. LNG 벙커링 전용선박의 운항 가능 기간은 총 관측기간의 83.3 ~ 99.9 % 수준임을 알 수 있었다.
도로 교량 시설물은 그동안 인적, 물적 자원의 이동을 원활하게 하여 지역 균형 발전을 도모할 뿐만 아니라, 생산성 증대에 기여함으로써 국가 발전의 토대가 되어왔다. 최근 시간이 지남에 따라, 사회기반 시설물의 노후화가 진행되고 있으며, 지속적 유지·관리를 통해 사회적 자산인 시설물 유지에 대한 필요성이 더욱 증대되었다.
도로교량 시설물의 점검 및 평가체계는 시설물의 현재의 상태를 정확히 진단하고, 시설물을 이용에 있어서 필요한 성능들의 만족 여부를 면밀히 평가할 수 있도록 해야한다. 이로써, 교통 인프라 시설을 유지관리하는데 필요한 합리적인 의사결정이 가능하다. 본 연구에서는 중소 도로 교량의 성능평가 도입을 위한 기초 연구를 위하여, 국내외 도로 교량 시설물의 점검 및 평가체계 비 교·분석 연구를 수행하였다. 기존 국내 도로 교량 시설물의 정기점검 및 정밀안전진단에서의 점검 항목 및 평가방식, 국내 제1 종 및 제2종 시설물 종합성능평가에서의 평가항목 및 체계 분석과, 제3종 시설물 안전등급 평가 매뉴얼의 평가항목 및 체계에 대한 대응 분석을 수행하였다. 또한, 국외 교량 점검 및 평가 매뉴얼을 분석을 통해, 국내 도로 교량 시설물의 점검 및 평가체 계와의 비교·분석 검토 연구를 수행하였다.
본 연구에서는 1988년 이전에 설계된 RC라멘+코어월 구조형식의 비내진 건축물을 선정하여 내진성능평가를 통해 현재 건축물들의 내진성능수준을 파악하고, 목표 내진성능수준에 적합하도록 보강 방안을 제시하였고, 보강방법별 성능을 비교하 였다. 보강 전 중앙코어 건축물과 측면코어 건축물의 내진성능수준은 모두 붕괴방지수준이었지만 보강 후에는 두 건축물 모두 목표 내진성능수준인 거주가능수준으로 성능이 향상되는 것으로 나타났다. 보강방법별 성능을 비교한 결과 중앙코어 건축물의 경우 벽체보강방법이 가장 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났으며, 측면코어 건축물의 경우 가새보강방법이 가장 성능이 우수한 것으로 나타났다.
The strategy for the management of earthquakes is shifting from post recovery to prevention; therefore, seismic performance management requires quantitative predictions of damage and the establishment of strategies for initial responses to earthquakes. Currently, seismic performance evaluation for seismic management in Korea consists of two stages: preliminary evaluation and detailed evaluation. Also, the priority of seismic performance management is determined in accordance with the preliminary evaluation. As a deterministic method, preliminary evaluation quantifies the physical condition and socio-economic importance of a facility by various predetermined indices, and the priority is decided by the relative value of the indices; however, with the deterministic method it is difficult to consider any uncertainty related to the return-year, epicenter, and propagation of seismic energy. Also this method cannot support tasks such as quantitative socio-economic damage and the provision of data for initial responses to earthquakes. Moreover, indirect damage is often greater than direct damage; therefore, a method to quantify damage is needed to enhance accuracy. In this paper, a Seismic Risk Assessment is used to quantify the cost of damage of road facilities in Pohang city and to support decision making.
We used three gas sensors to monitor hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which were frequently emitted from environmental facilities, such as municipal wastewater treatment, livestock manure treatment, and food waste composting facilities. Two electrochemical (EC) sensors for detecting hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, and a photoionization detector (PID) sensor for detecting VOCs were characterized in this study. The performance of their linearity by concentration levels, lower detection limit (LDL), repeatability, reproducibility, precision, and response time were tested under the laboratory condition. The linearity according to concentration levels were favorable for all three sensors with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.98). The ammonia sensor showed the highest LDL (18.6 ppb) and the hydrogen sulfide and VOC sensors showed 22.3 ppb and 26.7 ppb of LDL, respectively. The reproducibility and precision were favorable for all three sensors, indicating a lower relative standard deviation (RSD) than 0.9% in the reproducibility test and 7.2% in the precision test. The response times to reach target concentration were varied from 1 to 12 minutes. The ammonia sensor needed 12 minutes of response time at 1 ppm target the NH3 concentration and the hydrogen sulfide and VOC sensors needed less than 2 minutes of response time.
국내 고준위 방사성폐기물 심층처분시스템에 대한 프로세스 기반의 종합성능평가체계(APro) 개발을 위하여 사용자 편의성이 향상된 모델링 인터페이스를 구축하였다. APro의 모델링 인터페이스는 프로그래밍 언어인 MATLAB을 이용하여 구축되었고, 다중물리현상 모사가 가능한 COMSOL과 지화학반응 계산이 가능한 PHREEQC를 계산 엔진으로 활용하여 연산 자분리 방식을 적용하였다. APro는 모델링 영역을 기존의 정형화된 처분시스템으로 제한함으로써 모델의 자유도는 낮지만, 사용자 편의성을 향상시켰다. 처분시스템에서 고려되는 주요 현상들을 모듈화하였고, 이를“Default process”와 다수의“Alternative process”로 구분하여 사용자가 선택할 수 있도록 함으로써 모델의 유연성을 높였다. APro는 크게 입력자료 부분과 계산실행 부분으로 구성된다. 기본 입력자료는 하나의 EXCEL 파일에 일정한 포맷으로 정리되고, 계산실행 부분은 MATLAB을 이용하여 코딩되었다. 최종적인 전체 계산 결과는 독립적인 COMSOL 파일 형태로 생성되도록 하여 COMSOL을 이용한 계산 결과의 후처리가 가능하도록 하였다.
Le but de cette étude est de suggérer un échantillon d’ensembles d’outils de test pour évaluer l’évaluation basée sur les performances des tâches dans l’enseignement intégratif de la langue et de la culture françaises. À cette fin, cette étude a analysé les caractéristiques de l’évaluation basée sur la performance des tâches, la compétence communicative de Hymes, Canale, Swain et, Bachman et la compétence culturelle. En outre, cette étude a examiné les compétences de l’apprenant/utilisateur fournies par le Cadre européen commun de référence. Les résultats montrent: 1) les critères d’évaluation: compétence linguistique(connaissance du système linguistique, compétence du discours, compétence sociolinguistique), compétence culturelle(connaissance culturelle, attitude, compétence), compétence d’exécution de la tâche(connaissance procédurale, compétence d’exécution, compétence stratégique), 2) sous-catégorie et construction, et 3) auto-évaluation et évaluation par les pairs.
Recent earthquakes in Korea caused some damages to stone pagodas and thereby awakened the importance of earthquake preparedness. Korean stone pagodas which have been built with very creative style of material use and construction method are worthy of world heritage. Each stone pagoda consists of three parts: top; body; and base. However each tower is uniquely defined by its own features, which makes it more difficult to generalize the seismic assessment method for stone pagodas. This study has focused on qualitative preliminary evaluation of stone pagodas that enables us to compare the relative seismic performance across major aspects among many various Korean pagodas. Specifically an analytical model for multi-block stone pagodas is to be proposed upon the investigation of structural characteristics of stone pagoda and their dynamic behavior. A strategy for seismic evaluation of heritage stone pagodas is to be established and major evaluation factors appropriate for the qualitative evaluation are identified. The evaluation factors for overall seismic resisting behavior of stone pagodas are selected based on the dynamic motions of a rigid block and its limit state. Numerical simulation analysis using discrete element method is performed to analyze the sensitivity of each factor to earthquake and discuss some effects on seismic performance.
Recently, blockchain technology has been recognized as one of the most important issues for the 4th Industrial Revolution which can be represented by Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things. Cryptocurrency, named Bitcoin, was the first successful implementation of blockchain, and it triggered the emergence of various cryptocurrencies. In addition, blockchain technology has been applied to various applications such as finance, healthcare, manufacturing, logistics as well as public services. Distributed consensus algorithm is an essential component in blockchain, and it enables all nodes belonging to blockchain network to make an agreement, which means all nodes have the same information. For example, Bitcoin uses a consensus algorithm called Proof-of-Work (PoW) that gives possession of block generation based on the computational volume committed by nodes. However, energy consumption for block generation in PoW has drastically increased due to the growth of computational performance to prove the possession of block. Although many other distributed consensus algorithms including Proof-of-Stake are suggested, they have their own advantages and limitations, and new research works should be proposed to overcome these limitations. For doing this, above all things, we need to establish an evaluation method existing distributed consensus algorithms. Based on this motivation, in this work, we suggest and analyze assessment items by classifying them as efficiency and safety perspectives for investigating existing distributed consensus algorithms. Furthermore, we suggest new assessment criteria and their implementation methods, which can be used for a baseline for improving performance of existing distributed consensus algorithms and designing new consensus algorithm in future.
본 연구는 간편화된 소성 접선 곡선을 적용하여 노측용 가드레일 시스템의 충격 성능을 평가하기 위한 유한요소 충돌해석을 수행하였다. 충돌해석은 Cowper-Symond 모델을 적용하여 변형률 속도 영향에 대한 결과의 정확성을 향상시켰다. 수치 해석 결과는 소성 접선 곡선을 고려한 향상된 모델의 중요성을 보여준다. 다양한 매개변수에 대한 해석 결과는 서로 다른 모델에 대하여 동적 응답 및 탑승자 안전지수를 중심으로 비교 검증하여 도출하였다.