The purpose of this study is to develop a multi-dimensional scale measuring consumers’ perceived challenge in shopping fashion products online, and to verify its validity and reliability. Relevant literature is first reviewed to identify possible dimensions of perceived challenge. Next, Study 1 is conducted in order to explore the dimensions empirically and to see whether the dimensions that emerged were consistent with prior findings. A total of 190 responses to an open-ended question was qualitatively analyzed by using content analysis. The findings of Study 1 generate 26 items reflecting four dimensions (i.e., product knowledge, previous experience, website functionality, and product availability), which correspond to the dimensions suggested in literature review. Study 2 is subsequently conducted to refine the items so that the perceived challenge scale establishes cross-validation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, reliability, and predictive validity. A total of 238 responses is quantitatively analyzed by using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. In the results of Study 2, the perceived challenge scale is found to consist of a total of 16 items reflecting three dimensions: E-commerce Challenge (corresponding to Previous Experience reported in Study 1), Retailer Challenge (corresponding to Website Functionality), and Product Challenge (corresponding to Product Knowledge); all Product Availability items have been eliminated through the item refinement process. Specifically, E-commerce Challenge and Retailer Challenge are found to predict flow, supporting flow theory, while Product Challenge fails to lead to flow significantly. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future studies are also discussed.
In the Korean fashion industry, 3D printing systems are considered as new technology and a new opportunity. With 3D printers, consumers can be manufacturers and individuals can develop businesses with little upfront capital. In this study, a dress form for the typical Korean women’s body shape was developed using 3D technology (3D scanning, 3D modeling, and 3D printing). Ten women with apparel sizes 85-91-160 were selected from 3D body-scan data collected by SizeKorea of 201 women aged 25 to 34 (2010). First, 15 horizontal cross-sections were collected from the 3D scan data of the 10 subjects. Then, inside lines of those cross-sections were drawn at 15-degree intervals, and the lengths were measured. The average of the inside lines was connected to the internal spline curve, and the curves were used as the average cross-sections. The average torso body and the dress form of Korean women were developed into a 3D solid model using a 3D CAD program (Solidworks 2012). An output mockup was printed by the FDM type’s 3D printing system (Bonbot 1200, Bonbot 3-H4) using PLA material. The dimensions comparing the 3D solid modeling to the 3D printed mockup of the dress form were measured, and minor differences were between 0.00cm and 0.40cm. In the future, 3D printing systems are expected to be in use for various personalized dress forms.
This study aimed to reveal the designer’s creative process in the development of clothing designs. The researcher has taken roles both as a design practitioner and an observer. The full process of design development was concurrently documented while working to solve a specific problem. This included noting down the concept, keywords, and detailed scratch ideas, as well as refining the design by collecting sketches and taking photos. Integrated data from the captured design process were analyzed based on Lamb and Kallal’s apparel design framework, which included problem identification, construction of preliminary ideas, design refinement, prototype development, and evaluation. The functional, expressive, and aesthetic (FEA) criteria of the entire process were thus assessed. Additionally, five professional apparel reviewers evaluated the design project based on FEA criteria. The results showed the processes for identifying targets and intentions, extracting the main elements from sources, developing the major visual concepts, and making final adjustments. Ultimately, this study revealed how a designer manages each stage of the creative design process. Sharing such detailed observations of the design process can help refine the knowledge involved in each stage of the creative process, and provide guidance for instructors in design education.
The concern over beauty is increasing as the importance of appearance is becoming more prominent. Accordingly, the importance of studying beauty is now apparent. The purpose of this study is to analyze existing beauty-related research in order to assess current trends in beauty-related studies. Materials were collected from the master’s theses and academic journals from 1997 through 2016. In addition, 81 beauty-related papers were selected and classified into 3 categories according to their subjects and content. There were 19 hair attitude papers, 52 papers about make-up and skincare, and 10 papers on cosmetic surgery. Each type was divided into detailed themes according to the study theme and its number was grasped. Consequently it was classified into 9 themes about the attitude toward hair and the relevant variable study, 10 themes about the attitude toward hair style and relevant variable study, 24 themes about the make-up attitude and relevant variable study, 28 themes about the skin care attitude and relevant variable study, and 10 themes about the cosmetic surgery attitude and relevant variable study. The results revealed that academic concern about beauty sharply increased starting in 2005. Moreover, we determined that the methodologies used in hair and make-up studies were sound and detailed, while cosmetic surgery studies were more inconsistent and poorly analyzed. Thus cosmetic surgery should be further researched in a more standardized and thorough manner. This review of attitudes toward beauty will serve as a basis for follow-up studies that employ meta-analyses to draw more quantitative conclusions by aggregating many more study results.
This study was carried out in order to provide useful data for planning fabrics of summer eco-friendly fashion products. The fabrics used in this study were four cellulose fibers: cotton, cotton/mulberry blended, flax, and flax/lyocell blended. Dyeing with natural indigo was carried out under three different reducing conditions (i.e., general, eclectic, and eco-friendly) that have different reducing agent and pH levels, and hydrosulfite and glucose were used as a reducing agent. The dye uptake (K/S value) of fabrics dyed with natural indigo by a reducing condition was the highest at 660nm. Regardless of the fabrics, dye uptake was the highest under the general reducing condition and the lowest under the eco-friendly reducing condition. Under different reducing conditions, the dye uptake of natural indigo fabrics with the maximum absorption wavelength indicated a difference. The colorfastness of cellulose fabrics that were dyed with natural indigo had a rate of 4 to 5 except for rubbing fastness, which indicated good colorfastness. Additionally, natural indigo-dyed cotton and flax fabrics had good antibiosis. When the color characteristics of fabrics dyed with natural indigo were measured, all of the three reducing conditions created purple blue (PB) colors, and the color characteristics of dyed fabrics by reducing condition and fabric showed significant differences.
Sportswear transforms itself into a new fashion item to satisfy desires for beauty in addition to having functionality and movability for sports activities. Sportswear is not in fashion just temporarily but comes in various forms along with sociocultural phenomenon that put emphasis on well-being and leisure. This research aims to study the needs of the bikers who ride bicycles or cycles has become a popular outdoor activity, and give suggestions for high functional sports design that can satisfy the needs of the highly demanding taste of athletes. To understand the design development direction and design preference, practical consumer needs were derived through a survey analysis on bike wear purchasing satisfaction and actual wearing state by bike riders. For consumer needs analysis, focus group interview, in-depth interview and questionnaire method were used. Based on analysis of those researches, athleisure bike wears appropriate for urban sports activities were categorized into sports, life, fitness and leisure 4 styles for athleisure bike wear design development. It is believed that this study will contribute to in the category expansion of sports wear market and satisfy the consumer demands for functional and specialized casual bike wears as well as fashion factors optimized to life style of modern people.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the influences of channel assessments on the usage of multi-channels by product types, and the differences in the usage of multi-channels among product types in buying decision making process for fashion products. Data were collected from 510 consumers in their 20s to 50s with purchasing experiences through multi-channel distribution system and living in Seoul and Kyunggi province; 491 were analyzed after deleting incomplete questionnaires. Factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis by using SPSS 18.0. The results were as follows: 5 factors were extracted for channel assessment: utility, accuracy, risk, price benefit and sharing information. Price benefits, utility and sharing information for online channel tended to influence positively on the usage of online channel and online+offline channels. Accuracy and low perceived risk of offline influenced positively on offline and on+offline channel usages. The usage levels of on-line and off-line channels for cosmetics were significantly lower than the usage levels for clothes and accessories on information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase stages. Significant differences were also found in the usage levels of multi-channels (on+off-line) on information search and evaluation of alternatives stages. The usage levels of the multi-channels for clothes were the highest followed by those of accessories and cosmetics in order.
The introduction of natural dyes into modern dye houses is very promising green chemistry concept that should be popularized more to reduce the dependency of leather dyeing on some toxic and non-biodegradable synthetic dyes. In this study, the properties of dyeing of cochineal on cow leather were evaluated. The proper dyeing conditions were identified with dye uptake (K/S values) depending on the colorant concentration, dyeing duration, dyeing temperature, and dye bath pH. For the proper mordanting conditions, color changes for different mordants were observed as La*b* and H V/C values. Color fastness (light, rubbing, and dry cleaning) was also examined. Additionally, antibacterial properties and UV protection were examined. The results were as follows: The optimized dyeing conditions were 300% o.w.f., 40°C, 40 min., and pH 5. The cow leather color was red in the absence of mordanting, while it was red purple after being mordanted with Al and Cu, and purple mordanted with Fe. The K/S value of cow leathers increased in the order of the dyeing using AlK(SO4)2>CuSO4>FeSO4. The colorfastness to light and rubbing were reduced compared to original (untreated) cow leather. However dry cleaning fastness was very satisfactory, with a 4~5 rating. The dyed and pre-mordanting dyed cow leather showed excellent antibacterial properties.
The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the effects of salespeople's self-determination, shared value; and communication satisfaction on their job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in a fashion company. Questionnaires were administered to 475 salespeople who worked in fashion shop at the time of the study. The data was analyzed via factor analysis, correlation analysis, and a structural equation model. The results indicated that self-determination was extracted as autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Only the relatedness of self-determination factors was positively correlated with formal and informal communication satisfaction. In addition, recognizing hared value was positively correlated with formal and informal communication satisfaction; whereas, the practice of shared value was positively correlated with formal, but not informal communication satisfaction. Formal communication satisfaction was significantly correlated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conversely, informal communication satisfaction was significantly correlated with job satisfaction, but was not related to organizational commitment. Finally, job satisfaction was significantly correlated with organizational commitment and negatively correlated with turnover intention. Moreover, organizational commitment was negatively correlated with turnover intention. The implications of this research for human resources management within fashion companies are discussed in the concluding section of this paper.
This study proposes that Malevich's 1913 performance “Victory Over the Sun” was not just Cubo Futurism, but that it produced Suprematism in the early 20th century. “Victory Over the Sun” did away with traditional set and costume design and a call to the Russian avant garde. Therefore, this study analyzes the characteristics of set and the costume design in “Victory Over the Sun”, and considers how it impacted twenty-first century fashion designers like Margiela. The results of the study are as follows: first, Margiela reinterpreted the characteristics of the costumes featured on “Victory Over the Sun” from a cubist perspective and represented geometric spatial structures and mechanical human images through changes in methods and materials. second, he designed costumes by applying to the set and costumes expressed black & white images on “Victory Over the Sun”. and third, Margiela reinterpreted the warrior image using geometric forms and colors in a creative way. Contemporary fashion designers, including Margiela, express their artistic creativity through various representational and materials choices. They want to convey their subjective personality and emotional sensibility to the public by mixing and deforming existing arts like painting, sculpture, and crafts to create new images. Thus, the creative intentions of the latest fashion designers have expanded art of costume design, exemplifying the process by which art is evolves and is made new.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect that Chinese tourists’ perceptions of beauty products and their friendliness toward Korean culture have on beauty tourism, particularly on Chinese tourists’ intent to purchase, re-purchase, and recommend beauty products. Between the 10th and 21st of June, 2016, a total of 277 questionnaires were distributed in Seoul, Busan, and Daegu using SPSS 21.0. Cronbach’s α was undertaken to test the reliability of the questions and an analysis of the frequency, factors, t-test, and Sobel test used in the study. Korean beauty was derived from two factors: “product favorability” and “product excellence and credibility.” Product favorability had a significant effect on the intent to purchase, as did participants’ friendliness toward Korean culture. Re-purchases and the intent to recommend beauty products were also significantly affected. In the relationship between the perception of beauty products and the intent to purchase, the study revealed partial mediation effects of the participants’ friendliness toward Korean culture on product favorability and complete mediation effects on product excellence and credibility. Friendliness toward Korean culture had partially mediated the effect that product favorability had on the intent to re-purchase and recommend. Tourists’ friendliness toward Korean culture had complete mediation on the effect that product excellence and credibility had on the intent to re-purchase and recommend. According to the Gender Equality and Family Act, the difference between buying and selling beauty depends on the difference between purchase and intentions. Friendliness toward Korean culture has become an important variable thanks to product superiority and reliability.
It is common knowledge that a conventionally woven textile consists of two assemblies of parallel threads (warp and weft), one interlaced with the other at ninety degrees. Where each of the two assemblies is arranged in a particular colour sequence, a check design, known as a ‘tartan’, may be created. Although similar check-type cloths have been produced worldwide, it is the tartans of Scotland which have received most attention and it is here that a complex set of rules evolved and tartans of different types became associated traditionally with different regions, family groups or 'clans'. There is an impressive array of publications focused on the identification of tartans and their clan associations. This paper explains the nature of tartans, analyses typical surface structures, ratios and proportions, and suggests possible avenues of use for modern designers. The principal sources of data were a collection of tartans held at ULITA - An Archive of International Textiles (University of Leeds, UK) and Stewart's 1974 publication The Setts of Scottish Tartans. Based on the observation that divisions into halfs and thirds were dominant, a series of templates is presented with the intention of developing an awareness among designers that ratios and proportions used in familiar or traditional frameworks can be employed in a modern context.
This study investigated multidimensional body image, self-esteem, clothing benefits sought, and Body Image After Breast Cancer (BIABC) within surgical subgroups among breast cancer survivors. The study applied the questionnaire survey method and the main research was conducted through an online survey. The respondents included 207 breast cancer survivors between the ages of 30 and 59, each of whom received the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Self-esteem, clothing benefits sought, examination, and demographic variables were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. The main results of this study are outlined below. For clothing benefit sought, six factors were formulated—pursuit of self-expression/social approval, function/health, compensation, femininity, fashion, and camouflage—and BIABC was defined by the four factors of body stigma/vulnerability, transparency, limitation and cancer concern. While MBSRQ and self-esteem did not show a statistically significant difference between groups differentiated by the surgical methods experienced, those who underwent mastectomies scored slightly lower than members of the other groups. Moreover, the reconstruction after mastectomy group showed the highest mean on self-expression/social approval, compensation, femininity and entire clothing benefits sought, followed by the lumpectomy group and mastectomy group. The lumpectomy group was found to have more positive BIABC than the mastectomy group. In particular, the mastectomy group showed a lower body stigma/vulnerability mean than the other groups. This study is meaningful in that it improves our understanding of the body image of breast cancer survivors and provides basic knowledge for developing products and marketing strategies for breast cancer survivors as consumers.
This study aimed to contribute to the development of various female fashion designs by reviewing the genderless styles in androgynous trends that have loomed large in women's fashion, as well as through analyzing and organizing the changes in women's fashion that were required in a society in which various values coexist. A literature review was conducted to identify the genderless concepts, through which a total of 1,273 materials were selected from 10 brands of the S/S collections, during the period of 2006~2016. The results were as follows: first, without the juxtaposition of incongruous objects or images and a fixed type of color arrangements, the compromise shown in women's fashion were mostly expressed through various tones and diverse colors, and with the mixed use of heterogeneous patterns and materials. Second, the enjoyment of genderless styles was expressed with the unexpectedness that occur through symmetry/asymmetry and harmony/disharmony, as well as through the deviation from conventional notions regarding clothing structures. Third, the exaggeration expressed in women’s clothing collections perfectly covered up a woman’s body shape with the silhouette of exorbitantly expanded bulk and dimensions. These were done with extended lengths, expanded adornments, and modified clothing design types or structures. Fourth, the sensuality of genderless styles analyzed in women’s fashion was expressed with mannish clothing that accentuates the beauty of the female body. Lastly, the historicity shown in genderless styles was expressed through clothing that represented traditional styles of the past, the symbolic meanings expressed in the clothes’ colors and patterns, and the methods in which the decorative factors were utilized.