The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) measures the extent to which individuals feel, accept, and respond to their own bodies in a positive manner. Given the research need to explore positive body image and its associations with various sociocultural factors and related consequences among individuals with various cultural backgrounds, several studies have established the psychometric properties and factor structures of the BAS-2 in different languages and samples with different characteristics. The current study investigated the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of a Korean version of the BAS-2 in an older Korean adult population (599 older Korean adults with the average age of 70 years). Data were collected using both online and offline (paper-based) survey questionnaires. The results of exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analysis evidenced the unidimensional factor structure and measurement invariance of the Korean BAS-2 among older Korean men and women, after dropping item 1. Scalar invariance was supported across gender, and men and women did not significantly differ in observed mean scores of the Korean BAS-2. The results also supported good convergent validity and criterion validity. Incremental validity was demonstrated by predicting self-esteem over and above measures of age, BMI, subjective financial and health status, body esteem, and ageism. High internal reliability and test-retest reliability over a 2-week period were confirmed. Overall, the results of this study support the reliable use of a Korean BAS-2 to measure positive body image among older Koreans after excluding item 1.
This study gathered basic information on the development of Jiu-Jitsu uniforms suitable for players in Korea. Detailed data were collected between December 20th and December 30th, 2022 on 21 selected brands sold in online shopping malls. For each, information was recorded on the production country, product type, price, colors, material, and sizing system. A total of 612 datasets were analyzed using frequency analysis, cross-tabulation, and Chi-square tests. Jiu-Jitsu uniforms were classified as either standard or limited edition. Limited edition uniforms were more expensive than regular uniforms. International brands had a higher price range than domestic brands. The most commonly used colors for Jiu-Jitsu uniforms were the regulation colors associated with the sport: white, black, and blue. Domestic brands were more likely to use non-regulation colors than international brands. The material used for the top half of the uniform was predominantly pearl weave, while the bottom half was usually ripstop. International brands used a more diverse range of materials than domestic brands. The Jiu-Jitsu uniform sizing system incorporated a range of sizes between A00 and A6. While sizing designations differed according to the established sizing systems of different countries, the sizes remained the same, as did the range of sizes available. Where size guides were provided, height and weight were used to help the customer determine the appropriate size. The dimensions of each size varied between brands. Overall, we found that international brands offer a more diverse range of Jiu-Jitsu uniform designs than domestic brands.
To compete with the growth of fashion shopping platforms in the online fashion market, general shopping platforms have begun to expand their product categories to include fashion items. This research examines the characteristics that influence consumers’ trust in each of these platforms and their intention to reuse them. Applying the concept of platforms, this study also distinguishes between general shopping platforms and fashion shopping platforms and compares their characteristics. This study surveyed 788 consumers in their 20s and 30s with experience in using general shopping platforms or fashion shopping platforms (389 and 399 respondents, respectively). SPSS was used to conduct frequency analysis, factor analysis, and cross-tabulations, and AMOS was used to conduct confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation analyses. The results were as follows: platform reputation, shopping convenience, and interactivity all influenced consumer trust. For fashion shopping platforms, the product quality factor significantly improved consumer trust. However, for general shopping platforms, the product quality factor only influenced reuse intentions to reuse and did not contribute to improving trust. Platform reputation and information offering have influenced reuse intentions for both shopping platforms. Regardless of the type of shopping platform, platform reputation has influenced reuse intentions and consumer trust, and platform esthetics didn’t have affect consumer trust and consumers’ reuse intentions. Consumer trust influenced the intention to reuse on both platforms.
This study aimed to categorize consumers using super app functional characteristics to identify demographic differences, and analyze shopping orientations by consumer type. This data can be used by fashion and beauty companies for product planning and marketing strategies. To categorize super app consumers, data were analyzed with SPSS v.26.0 software using frequency, factor, reliability K-mean cluster, and distributed analyses, one-way-ANOVAs, and Scheffe verification. Cross-analysis was conducted to correlate super app consumer types with demographic characteristics. One-way-ANOVAs and Scheffe verification were used to analyze the differences in shopping preferences between super app consumer groups. As a result of our analyses, super app consumers were classified into four types: the ration type, the low-use type, the multifunction type, and the habit type. There were statistically significant differences between these types in age, occupation, marital status, average monthly household income, and shopping impact factors. Five super app user shopping orientations were identified: brand pursuit, pleasure pursuit, trend pursuit, risk perception, and economic orientation. The differences in the preferred orientation between super app consumer types were found to be statistically significant. The majority of respondents were multifunction type consumers. This group used the super app most frequently and effectively. They also demonstrated the highest scores for all five of the shopping orientations. The classification of consumer types in this study will allow the fashion and beauty industries to utilize super apps for more targeted product design and marketing.
The pataphysics implemented by digital technology differs from the form of objects in the real world and is used throughout the cultural industry. This study aims to analyze the expression method of pataphysics as applied to modern fashion and derive its impact on the fashion industry. The research analyzes fashion images, shows, films, displays, and e-commerce, since 2016, when pataphysics began to be used in the fashion domain. Pataphysics, created by Alfred Zaire, appeared as an overlapping phenomenon that reflects physical phenomena in the virtual world. The expression method of pataphysics applied to modern fashion was divided into an augmented reality method based on immersion and interaction, a virtual platform-oriented metaverse, and a virtual model expressing a processed self. The influence of pataphysics applied to modern fashion is as follows. In the field of design, pataphysics affects the development of contemplative designs for innovation and creativity. Second, digital technology can expand the role of fashion at the intersection of art and fashion that takes a novel perspective through pataphysics. Third, e-commerce positively affects efficient production and consumption through virtual and economic models. In conclusion, this study’s findings are expected to play a positive role in promoting creativity and innovation by introducing new perspectives and ideas into modern fashion through pataphysics.
This research not only determined the preference of fashion brand distribution channels of active Korean and Chinese seniors who became major consumers in the fashion industry, but also analyzed the effect on these preferences and choices of distribution channels depending on personal consumption characteristics and differences between the two groups. Data was collected by a professional survey firm. SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 24.0 were used for empirical analysis, and frequency analysis, multiple response analysis, EFA, reliability analysis, CFA, SEM, and multiple-group comparison analysis were performed. As a result of multiple response analysis, the offline channel was revealed as the preferred fashion distribution channel for active Korean and Chinese seniors; the second most popular was the online channel. The results of multiple-group comparison analysis reveal differences between two groups in seeking emotional consumption via the offline channel; the effect was only evident for active Korean seniors. A difference in seeking emotional consumption via preference for online channel also existed, but only for active Chinese seniors. For these reasons, marketers targeting active Korean seniors will be effective to not only offer brand information by fashion display to let seniors understand the fashion brand, but also to have brand events to form positive emotions toward the fashion brand. Moreover, targeting active Chinese seniors will be necessary to transmit brand sensibility by utilizing metaverse marketing comprising various factors, so that consumers can enjoy the fashion brand.
In this study, a survey focusing on the status of clothing interest, inconveniences resulting from clothing, preferred design items, etc. was conducted on 364 elderly women to suggest aesthetically and functionally appropriate indoor wear design for at home elderly women aged 60 years or older. The survey results showed that in general, the respondents’ interest in clothing was high, and more respondents in their 70s or older had difficulty in the action of opening and closing. With respect to considerations when purchasing clothes, color was considered more important than design as respondent’s age increased, and size was regarded as the most important factor especially among those in their 80s. The preferred top styles were T-shirts and blouses among those in their 60s and 70s, and T-shirts and shirts among those in their 80s. The preferred sleeve lengths were “below the elbow” and “above the wrist” in all age groups. The preferred sleeve hem type was “tightening” in all age groups. The most preferred bottom styles were “straight-leg pants” and “elastic waistband.” This study suggests the design items of indoor wear, including top, bottom, and overgarment for warmth, appropriate for elderly women at home based on the survey results. The study results are expected to serve as basic data necessary for the revitalization of the clothing industry for elderly women.
This study aims to understand the influence of authentic marketing on the formation of trust between brands and customers and consumers’ purchase intentions and to analyze the role that brand trust has in this process. In doing so, it examines the specific aspects of authentic marketing that increase brand trust and contribute to the formation of purchase intentions, which could then be leveraged as key elements of a company’s marketing strategy. Data in this study was used frequency analysis and factor analysis through SPSS 26.0, and reliability analysis using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis, path model analysis, and mediated effect analysis were performed using AMOS. Finding indicate that, identity and truth in authentic marketing had a positive effect on brand trust but heritage and reality did not affect brand trust. It was also found that the factors of identity, heritage, reality, and trust did not significantly affect purchase intention. Additionally, brand trust was found to have a positive effect on purchase intention. Finally, the analysis indicates that brand trust plays a mediating role in the process of forming purchase intention through the factors of identity and truth in authentic marketing. Therefore, the core of authentic marketing is the sincere relationship between companies and consumers obtained from the clarity and integrity of messages, and in this process, mutual trust is built, which leads to product purchases. It can be surmised that the purpose of authentic marketing is to build relationships with consumers based on brand trust.