Recently, some fashion retailers have initiated sustainable actions in the form of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities to address consumers’ social concerns. This study intends to combine the concept of CSR motivation attributions with brand extension literature in order to examine how consumers’ trust of a parent brand affects their CSR motivation attributions and ultimately their attitudes towards parent-brand CSR activities and sustainable extension lines. A self-administered online survey was conducted using scenarios describing a fast fashion retailer introducing a sustainable line. Data from 303 female U.S. consumers, aged between 18 and 34 years, were used for the statistical analysis. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 21.0 for descriptive analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis. The results revealed that all hypotheses were supported. The findings show that consumers’ trust of a parent brand has an indirect impact on positive attitudes towards the parent brand’s CSR activities as well as the sustainable extension product line, mediating positive evaluations of the brand’s social CSR motivations. In addition, this study suggests consumers’ prior trust of the parent brand is a variable that affects consumers’ evaluation of CSR motivation sincerity. Marketing suggestions and thoughts based on the findings of this study were provided.
Technological change leads to a value shift in human society. Various cultural experiences through the digital paradigm influence the expression of fashion. This article considers fashion film as a new form for presenting fashion and explores the distinctiveness of expression in digital fashion film. For the methodology, a literature review was conducted to examine the concepts and features of digital fashion film and metareality. Empirical research was also performed by drawing from Nick Knight’s digital films, “Sans Couture”, “#asif”, and “The Elegant Universe” and by specifically analyzing the classification of the themes, visuals, and auditory expression. The results are as follows. The proliferation of fashion film has accelerated in the internet environment. New media in the digital era allows images to become more realistic and variable through immaterial conversion. Metareality is the notion of a reality beyond existence. A metarealistic image maintains the metaphysical nature of an object and transcends empirical appearance. It possesses immaterial, transboundary, and multidimensional features, and the image is realized by digital technology. The expression analysis identifies the metareality expressed in contemporary fashion film appearing as atypical forms, irrational combinations, and the playfulness of motion. It shows a positive attitude, transcending the immaterial limit of reality toward fashion. This study indicates how fashion as products challenges the metaphysical transformation in the digital era. The exploration of metareality in digital fashion film promotes a wider perspective and understanding of the concept of fashion.
The recent fashion market failed to satisfy the needs of female customers in their 30s who are demanding a slim jacket that makes the wearer look young and slim. Accordingly, the slim-fit jackets of domestic brands targeting the women in their 30s were collected to conduct look and movement fitting evaluations based on the standard somatotype, and a slim-fit tailored jacket prototype was developed based on the present findings. This research aims to increase the satisfaction level of the slim-fit jacket customers reflecting a variety of somatotypes of women in their 30s. The research process was developing jacket patterns fully reflecting the properties in terms of extra space and design lines for different somatotypes of women in their 30s based on the jacket pattern formulated through the advanced research, and then suggesting pattern design methods for the different somatotypes. In this sense, this research attempted to identify the problems concerning the slim-fit tailored jacket fitting for different somatotypes of women in their 30s. The main aim was to suggest ways to improve the customers’ satisfaction level regarding the fit, and enable the manufacturers to produce a well-fitting jacket reflecting the peculiarities of each somatotype.
The emergence of pop art in the 1960s exerted a profound impact on integrating art into the real lives of the general public, which continues in the current area of culture of post-industrial society. Thus, this study aims to attempt the popularization and modernization of Korean images by applying the concept of pop art to the development of a national symbolic image. This study utilized Mugunghwa, Taegeukgi, and the Great Seal, which are national symbolic images that establish the identity of Korea through differentiation, universality, and visual formativeness. It then proceeded with the development of neo-pop art motives and patterns using national symbolic images from the standpoint of symbolism, mix-match, and repetitiveness from among the characteristics of neo-pop art. This study carried out pattern design by departmentalizing each characteristic according to the standpoint of neo-pop art through scribbles composed of the following: Signs, pictograms, and childlike characters; drawing simplification for symbolism; a mix of the East and the West; a mix of subfashion and subculture for mix-match; the repetition of lines, characters, and icons; and the exaggeration and grotesqueness of characters and icons for repetitiveness. This study is expected to serve as momentum for raising the cultural value of Korea and for the development of a pattern design capable of achieving worldwide competitiveness through the combination of the permanence and continuity of national symbols with the popular universality of pop art.
The influence of Japonism, which is the post-mid-19th century phenomenon of appreciating and preferring the Japanese style that manifested all across Western art, started to grow as a result of the active open-door policy of Japan at this time. As all areas of Japanese arts and culture, such as paintings, sculptures and theater plays, influenced Europe and America, this influence developed into a cultural phenomenon that was reflected even in fashion. The characteristic elements of the kimono first expanded from Paris and showed a similar silhouette to that of the traditional kimono in the early 20th century, but towards the middle and the end of the century, kimono sleeves that were connected as one piece without a connecting seam line between the sleeve and bodice started to appear. The foundation of this research focuses on the design characteristics of kimono sleeves that can be seen in 20th-century fashion, and five varying kimono sleeve jackets and coats based on these formative characteristics were designed. Each design had a gusset design added, which improved the external and mobility problems inherent in kimono sleeve patterns, while at the same time serving as a proposal for new design element applications. Additionally, through various changes to and attempts at designs using the kimono sleeve as a limiting factor, new design possibilities were explored.
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether heel height changes in the U.S. market occur in a cyclical pattern and heel heights show greater within-year variability over time. Heel height data from U.S. Vogue’s spring and fall editions were analyzed over the time period 1950~2014. A total of 1581 pieces of data were measured in millimeter units using Adobe Illustrator and standardized by dividing the height of the heel by the shoe length through the curved sole line. To analyze the cycle pattern of heel heights, the yearly averages were standardized by using three-year moving average technique to average out the irregular components of time series data and give a better indication of the long-term fluctuation of heel height. To identify the degree of within-year variability of heel height, the standard deviation of the average measurements for a year was calculated, and then decade averages were drawn from the yearly averaged standard deviation. One-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the within-year variability of data in heel height over the time period studied by decade. The results showed: First, there was a trend toward higher heels from the early 1950s to 2011. Second, four cyclical movements of heel height were observed from 1950 to 2007, and heel heights gradually decreased after 2008. Third, the within-year variability significantly increased over time, especially after the 1980s.
The purpose of this study was to develop slacks patterns for obese-schoolgirls aged 10~12 by using a 3D virtual garment simulation system. The criteria for subjects in this study were girls who had a BMI of over 25kg/m2. A total of 155 schoolgirls who met these criteria were enrolled. The results were as follows: First, by using 3D virtual garment simulation, a new slacks pattern considerate of obese-schoolgirls was developed. The basic numerical formulae were as follows: Front and back hip girth of H/4－0.5+1 and H/4+0.5+1.5, front waist girth of W/4+1+0.5, back waist girth of W/4+2+0.5, front crotch extension of H/16－0.5, back crotch extension of H/8－0.5, front dart amount of 1, and back dart amount of 2. Second, according to the new slacks pattern appearance evaluation, the new slacks pattern scored more highly than the existing pattern for silhouette and ease amount, confirming that the new slacks pattern is appropriate for obese-schoolgirls. Additionally, the new slacks pattern was evaluated allowing for the proper space length of the waist, abdomen and hips. This study is expected to serve as important basic data for ensuing studies that may utilize a 3D virtual garment simulation system with 2D patterns and for future 3D pattern production program development.
This study is to assist in developing creative designs based on the humor available in the fashion world of Moschino. For the research method, this writing examined literature on humor and Moschino's fashion world and analyzed Moschino's fashion collection, show window, Maison Moschino, and collaborative products to conduct an empirical analysis of humor shown to the fashion media. The research results are as follows. The humor in Moschino's fashion appeared in the form of surrealistic humor with the depaysement technique, deconstructive wit in clothing, such as distortion, change, or exaggeration, and textual humor, including brand symbols, logos, and graffiti. Collection pieces indicated the brand's confirmative identity based on humor with the surrealistic depaysement technique and deconstructive wit through irregular phenomena, such as change, distortion, exaggeration, and illusion in clothing form. Additionally, such attributes added to Moschino's wit and humor in decorative costume components as graphic images, graffiti, and brand symbols, including smile, love, and reversal. The show window display delivered surprises and smiles through the production of surrealistic space borrowed from various objects. In particular, performance with surrealistic images helped to show the characteristics of parodic humor. Maison Moschino was a surrealistic space for the concept of the fairy tale and for practical experience, thus working as a communication channel for humor and emotion. Collaborative products also clearly reflected the identity of the designer's own humor, which showed scarcity value as well as differentiation.
The social responsibility of fashion companies has become a crucial factor considering company image and awareness. Businesses have thus increased their CSR activities. However, few studies have shown clear and consistent results regarding the effectiveness of CSR activities. Therefore, this study focuses on the evaluation of the direct effect of CSR on trust and corporate reputation including its moderation by consumer's perceived fit and motivation. A total of 284 completed questionnaires were obtained from adult consumers in the fashion market with promotional leaflets for CSR activities as stimuli. The results were as follows. First, the dimensions for CSR activities were categorized as follows: Social welfare responsibility, environment protection, economic responsibility, social regulation compliance, customer protection, and culture and arts support. Further social regulation compliance, and economic and social welfare responsibilities positively affected corporate trust and reputation. Second, the main effect of perceived CSR activities and fit on corporate trust and reputation was significant, and the interaction effects of the social welfare, environment protection, and culture and arts support of CSR activities and fit were significant. Finally, the interaction effect of perceived CSR activities and motivation on corporate trust and reputation was not significant, but the main effect was significant. Implications of how to manage and enhance the effectiveness of CSR activities are offered.
In this study, nine scarf designs expected to be effective for accent design for the fashion style of new senior women were suggested by reflecting purchase behavior and scarf preference after conducting surveys and an analysis by targeting 136 new senior women in order to propose scarf design-matching with the preferences of new seniors. As a result of the study on the scarf purchase features of new seniors, it was revealed that the purchase time for scarves was mainly autumn and winter, even though it is regardless of season, and in spring and summer, they seldom purchased scarves. The purchase frequency was four times a year, and what they first thought of at the time of purchase was represented in the order of color, design, and the material of the scarf. They most preferred department stores, mixed and achromatic colors, cotton and silk fabrics, natural and geometric patterns, and long scarves of a rectangular shape. In the case of the consumer attributes of scarves, it was revealed that 50th desired more individuality-oriented, unique scarf designs than 60th, and 60th desired scarf designs with convenient management considering others’ attention compared with 50th. As concepts for scarf designs, the aspects of individuality, co-existence, and maturity were extracted by reflecting the features of new senior women, and a total of nine scarf designs were suggested by developing three sub-designs for each concept.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between sports commitment, sportswear brand satisfaction, and brand loyalty of female university students in their 20s. Two hundred surveys were distributed to female university students, and 185 responses were used for the final analysis. The SPSS program was used with a reliability test and factor, frequency, path analysis. Based on the literature review, the following five hypotheses were suggested. H1: Cognitive commitment will have a positive effect on the behavioral commitment of sports commitment factors. H2: The behavioral commitment of female university students will have a positive effect on brand satisfaction. H3: Sportswear brand satisfaction will have a positive effect on continuous brand loyalty. H4: Cognitive commitment will have a positive effect on habitual brand loyalty. H5: Continuous brand loyalty will have a positive effect on habitual brand loyalty. The results of this study showed that first, after the factor analysis, there were two factors of sports commitment (behavioral commitment and cognitive commitment). Second, the path analysis results revealed that there were significant relationships between sports commitment factors (cognitive commitment and behavioral commitment), sportswear brand satisfaction, and brand loyalty factors (continuous brand loyalty and habitual brand loyalty). The results revealed that cognitive commitment had a positive relationship with behavioral commitment, which had a positive relationship with sportswear brand satisfaction. Sportswear brand satisfaction had a positive relationship with continuous brand loyalty, which had a positive relationship with habitual brand loyalty. Cognitive commitment also had a positive relationship with habitual brand loyalty.
As mass media has come to intervene with politics in a more proactive way during modern times, the image of a politician has evolved into a more relevant factor compared with political content. This phenomenon is known as "image politics", and such externalized images as non-verbal cues have grown in importance, along with the numbers of female politicians. Thus image strategy has been instituted as a major research theme in the field of political marketing, especially for female politicians. In accordance with this theme, this study aims to approach fashion as part of image strategy of female politicians, in order to reemphasize political fashion as a valuable resource. The methodologies employed in this study are based on both the literature and positive research. Female politicians have long utilized fashion styles that are, or are assumed to be, the most appealing to their target base of support in a predominantly male-centered sector. In this sense, appropriate choices in the usage of apparel items, colors, hair styles, accessories, and others according to each situation and respective hierarchies are of the utmost importance. When attending official ceremonies and other related meetings, the strategic superiority afforded to a scientific approach based on thorough fashion research, compared with personal taste is imperative. The significance of this study lies within the recognition of the importance of fashion image, and how to utilize fashion for image strategy in practice, through the investigative synthesis and review of major preceding research.
A Beoseonbongip is a pouch that holds patterns for making Beoseons. This study aimed to identify the aesthetic and symbolic contents of the embroidery patterns by analyzing the kind, combination types, expression and arrangement types of patterns. In total, 140 Beoseonbongip artifacts, which were mostly made in the Joseon Dynasty, were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The results indicated that about 83% of the total had flower patterns. Various kinds of embroidery patterns used for Beoseonbongips were newly identified. About 73% of the total had different kinds of patterns. Pattern combination types were identified by the kinds of patterns, the number of paired patterns, and the traditional painting styles used. The patterns of Beoseonbongips were expressed schematically more than realistically or abstractly. Beoseonbongips with different patterns on the four triangle tips of the front face and Beoseonbongips with the same/similar patterns on two opposite tips of the front face were observed more than the other types. On the back face, the embroidery patterns were symmetrically arranged, showing various division structures. It was inferred that wishes (e.g., marital harmony, fertility, good health and longevity, happiness, and wealth and fame) were expressed through the symbolic patterns embroidered on the Beoseonbongips. In terms of Korean traditional beauty, the union with nature, the harmony of yin and yang, symmetric balance, and neatness were also emphasized as a esthetic characteristics of Beoseonbongips.
The apparel industry has recently been recognizing the important target market of middle-aged women. The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics of US women of 46 to 65 years of age and identify distinctive body shape characteristics of US middle-aged women. A total of 1915 middle-aged women whose ages ranged from 46 to 65 were selected from the SizeUSA database. The age range was divided into two groups: 46-55 and 56-65. Twenty-four body measurements important for apparel development were chosen. Four factors—Girth Factor, Height Factor, Hip Drop Factor, and Bust Drop Factor—accounted for the US middle-aged women’s body measurements. The body shapes were classified into four body shapes, which were Y-Shape in the overweight range, S-Shape in the overweight range, H-Shape in the overweight range, and the A-Shape in obese range. H-Shape, which was the least-defined waist in relation to the bust and hips with a short height, existed more in older middle-aged women than in younger middle-aged women. Y-Shape, S-Shape, and A-Shape existed more in the group of younger middle-aged women than in the group of older middle-aged women. In addition, compared with the younger middle-aged women, older middle-aged women had narrower shoulders, a larger waist, thinner legs, and a longer distance between side neck to bust point. The findings from the current study may be applied in the apparel industry for developing clothing sizing systems for US middle-aged women.