Entering the twentieth century, corsets began to disappear with the tendency of concentrating on slim bodies and youth. As corsets proceeded to be discarded, they began to be internalized as a means of controlling the body; 'muscular corset' takes hold. However, the internalized corset increasingly appears to be externalized again in contemporary fashion. This study investigates how natural body is reconstructed as socio-cultural image drawing on the relationship between the signifier and signified of corset. As for the research methodology this study conducts literature survey to investigate the internalization of corset. This study proceeds to examine the subjects of fashion collections from 1980 to 2010 and samples the outfits which represent the externalization of corset through case analysis. Through the discussion of the study, the relationship of signifier and signified in the externalization of corset is argued as follows: first, by maintaining signifier and signified of the traditional corset as underwear, aggressive eroticism of corset has been observed, second, by perceiving corset as the agency of the body, fetishism of corset dissociates the function of sexual object from corset while distorting the relationship of signifier and signified, third, through embodying the notion of muscular corset literally, the ironical representation of corset as a torturing device of female body deconstructs the traditional relation of signifier and signified of corset.
This study investigated the characteristics of and changes in hemp textile production practices at Gurye in Jeollanam-do in modern times. To do this, in this study, both a literature review and fieldwork research were utilized as research methods. The literature review focused on Gurye's hemp data, and the fieldwork research involved two separate trials. Male and Female residents of Gurye who had experience in the area of hemp production from the 1920s to the 1980s participated in this study. The results were as follows. First, regarding hemp fiber cultivation in Gurye, hemp cultivation continued to the 1970s and there were no changes in hemp cultivation practices during the Japanese colonial-era. Second, there have been very important changes in hemp kilns over time. In the 1950s, there were both single-body kilns and separate-body kilns in Gurye. Later, specifically in the 1950s, a new type of kiln using an iron pot appeared, and the most modern kilns were concrete structures. Third, in Gurye, women cooperatively removed hemp husks immediately after stemming, subsequently bleaching the hemp by soaking it in lye or caustic soda. Over time, there have been changes in ash types and in soaking periods. Fourth, loom types changed from the traditional Korean back-strap loom to the treadle loom in the 1930s- to 1940s. Fifth, since the 1970s, the hemp textile output levels of Gurye have been reduced due to the westernization of clothing styles, the inflow of Chinese hemp fiber and government regulations pertaining to hemp cultivation.
The study focuses on verifying the effects of service education and empowerment on job satisfaction, job performance, and customer orientation. 290 salespeople working for fashion companies participated by completing a survey. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS 16.0 and AMOS 7.0. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the goodness of fit. Looking at the results of this study, the service education of salespersons in fashion companies was shown to affect their level of satisfaction with their compensation, whereas empowerment affected their psychological satisfaction. These findings indicate that the service training and empowerment as experienced by salespersons working for fashion companies affect their customer orientation and job performance. Specifically, psychological satisfaction as part of the overall level of job satisfaction was found directly to affect their customer orientation, whereas their satisfaction with their compensation did not affect their customer orientation. Customer-orientation as influenced by service education and empowerment was revealed to have direct effect on job performance. The results of this study indicate that the service education of salesperson working for fashion companies and their level of empowerment create job satisfaction and customer orientation in these individuals. This study will be a valuable source of information for those who create salesperson empowerment programs and salesperson management strategies for fashion companies. Such programs and management strategies can facilitate efficient job performance by salespersons working for fashion companies and increase their level of job satisfaction.
This research used an experimental design in an effort to assess the influence of brand gender and salespeople on the attitudes toward brands according to the males' gender identity traits. The study used a three-way split-plot experimental design, and data were analyzed by t-tests, and ANOVA. The subject of this research was men in their 20s and 30s, and a total of 178 people were selected through convenience- sampling. The findings are as follows: first, masculine male consumers preferred masculinity fashion brands; however, androgynous consumers preferred brands that reflect androgyny. Second, there were no differences in brand attitude according to the gender of the salesperson for the masculinity group, but the androgynous group estimated the brands as better when the salesperson was female. Third, there were no differences in the brand attitudes among consumers according to gender of the salesperson for the Galaxy; however, for Solid Homme, brand preference was stronger when the salesperson was a woman. Fourth, the influence of brand gender and salesperson gender on brand attitudes differed according to the gender of the consumer. Therefore, apparel companies must clearly understand the characteristics of consumer gender identity and execute proper marketing strategies in order to induce stronger positive attitudes toward their brands. Moreover, apparel companies should perceive that brand gender and the gender of the salesperson can consequently encourage brand preferences.
The purpose of this study is to identify the key decision-making variables that lead fashion company employees to participate in the fashion education programs offered by university lifelong education centers. This study also examined the education satisfaction level and preferred education method and evaluated a university lifelong education program by surveying a fashion company employees who completed a fashion education program. As decision making variables, this study included participation purposes, obstacles, and evaluation criteria. While questionnaires were used to identify the decision making variables, education satisfaction level, and preferred education method, focus group interviews were used to evaluate the university lifelong education program. The findings showed that the respondents enrolled in the program mostly because of personal motivations and considered the workload and time limitation as participating obstacles. They considered educational content as the most important evaluation criteria for participating in the program and were highly satisfied with the program they completed. This study suggests how university lifelong education centers may structure their fashion education programs to better appeal to the employees of fashion companies.
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether customer perception on internet fashion shopping mall characteristics influences positive emotion on internet shopping and relationship formation. For data collection, a questionnaire was administrated from February 20th to March 3th in 2012 to 362 adults who have purchased the products from internet fashion shopping mall. The analysis explores the effect of internet shopping mall characteristics on positive shopping emotion and relationship quality. It also tests the mediation effect of positive shopping emotion for the influence of internet fashion shopping mall characteristics on relationship quality. The results are as follows. First, the perceived internet fashion shopping mall characteristics had positive effects on relationship quality. Second, the perceived internet fashion shopping mall characteristics had positively effects on positive shopping emotion. Third, the effect of positive shopping emotion had positive effects on relationship quality. Fourth, the effect of perceived internet fashion shopping mall characteristics on relationship quality, mediated by positive shopping emotion, was shown to be none.
This study analyzed fashion businesses based on the 6P's, products, prices, place, promotion, people, and patron for business owners in the Myeongdong commercial fashion district. Furthermore, this study proposed plans that would activate the Myeongdong fashion district and continuously develop it as a global fashion city. A survey was conducted from August to September, 2012 for 249 fashion business owners in Myeongdong. Eventually, only 208 questionnaires were used for the analysis. The research results were as follows. First, domestic brands have the largest share in the market and sales of fashion accessories were higher than the sales of clothes. Second, the prices for those fashion items ranged from low to mid-price. Third, the opening of new shops keeps increasing, and the size of the shops falls between ten and twenty pyeong generally. 'Self-production' was the highest form of production compared to any other form, and regarding importation sites, importation from overseas was the highest. Fourth, regarding promotion types, the sales in shops was the most commonly used promotion method compared to television and magazine advertising, and personal selling. Fifth, the proportion of male proprietors was larger than that of female proprietors. Most employees had less than five years of sales experience. Sixth, the main customers were females in their 20s and the proportions of Korean and foreign customers was similar.
This study looked into the scarcity effect based on the consumers' self-regulatory modes and determined the effect that such a regulatory mode and that quantity-scarcity messages would have on evaluations of fashion products. To that end, the study used a 2 (regulatory mode: assessment mode/locomotion mode)×2 (message type: quantity-scarcity message/non-scarcity message) between-subjects factorial design in which buying impulsiveness was presented as a mediator variable that showed differences in product evaluations depending on the message type and on the presence of a self-regulatory mode. The results of this study showed that locomotion-oriented consumers evaluated products more positively compared to assessment-oriented consumers when the quantity-scarcity message was presented. When a non-scarcity message was presented, no significant difference was observed in product evaluations based on the consumers' self-regulatory modes. In addition, buying impulsiveness in consumers served a mediator role in the evaluations of fashion products. The results of this study imply that a clear understanding of consumers is a prerequisite for maximizing the scarcity effect and that companies need to differentiate in terms of the way they use scarcity messages based on consumers' self-regulatory modes.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of internet fashion advertisement (Ad) formats according to university students' online lifestyle. Static banner, rich media, floating, shopping, and target advertisement were selected as stimuli and a self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. SPSS PC (Ver. 16.0) was used for factor analysis, ANOVA, and Chi-square test. Factors of online lifestyle were economy, early adaption, cyberspace activity, sociability, innovation, and entertainment, and subjects were segmented into online activity (OA) retard group, OA mania group, hedonic early adapter group, and OA intermediate group. OA retard group was positive to a static banner Ad with intimacy, and OA mania group and OA intermediate group were positive to a static banner Ad with confidence, attention, and intimacy and rich media Ad and floating Ad with confidence and attention. Hedonic early adapter group was positive to a target Ad with attention and intimacy. Internet shopping mall managers should select internet Ad format after segmenting their customers according to OA lifestyle.
This research aims to analyze jeans possession and perceptions of jeans' fit among women in their 20s to help improve the accuracy of purchase decisions in online shopping and to provide basic data necessary to overcome limits in the fit conveyance method of online shopping malls. A sample of 149 females in their 20s was divided into two groups according to height, waist size, and interest in fashion, and several factors were analyzed: jeans possession status, the fit of purchased jeans, the reason for purchase, and the perception of jeans' fit. The results are as follows. The group with a high interest in fashion owned more skinny jeans, and there was a higher frequency of purchasing skinny jeans during the last year among those with a height of 160 cm or more, a waist size of less than 27 inches, and a high interest in fashion. Of the respondents, 92.6% accurately understood skinny fit, 51.7% understood straight fit, and 56.4% understood regular fit. There was no significant difference in the perception of skinny fit or regular fit, but straight fit was better understood by the group with a waist size of 27 inches or more. Thus, by providing accurate size information and analyzing the body shapes of consumers, online shopping malls will be able to increase customer satisfaction with pants of various fits to reduce the rate of returns.
The aims of this study were to identify the dimensions of both store and PB apparel product attributes at large discount stores, and to empirically examine the effects of each dimension of store and PB apparel product attributes on satisfaction with PB apparel products and on repurchase intension. Questionnaires were given to 264 large discount store customers, who have experienced buying PB apparel products at large discount stores. The results were as follows. First, purchased PB items and image, improvement of PB apparel products showed differences by gender. Second, the dimensions for store attributes were categorized as convenient of shopping environment, product quality, customer service, advertising reach, convenient location, and reasonable prices. The PB apparel product attributes were categorized as material handling management, quality, fashion ability, and brand power. Third, generally, both store and PB apparel product attributes at large discount stores are significantly related to PB apparel satisfaction and repurchase intention. PB satisfaction and repurchase intention of males were partly affected by store attributes and PB apparel product attributes. PB satisfaction and repurchasing intention of females, however, were partly affected by only PB apparel product attributes, not store attributes.
Apparel design is an economic activity to create values for users over the value chain of a product. In this paper, the contribution of apparel design is defined as the enhancement of users' perceived values by improving users' experience of products. In this context, the value of a product corresponds to compensation for experience or a promise for experience of a product. Experience can be sensory or psychological benefits to users. To evaluate the value of apparel design, the researcher identified and analyzed the apparel design parameters affecting users' experience and benefits of products such as macro-, micro-environmental factors, value chain factors, apparel designer factors, and user factors. For an analytical modeling of the values of apparel design, this paper introduces the concept of a utility function from economics. In economics, utility is a measure of desirability or satisfaction that can be correlative to need or desire. The measure of value can be found in the price which a user is willing to pay for the fulfillment or satisfaction of need or desire via the experience of a product.
This study researched the symbolic meaning of the costume colors in the independent film <Bittersweet Life>. The purpose of the study is to shed light on the relation between a film and the clothing color by exploring the symbolic meaning of costume colors as based on place images and as reflected in characters’ internal psychological states and situations. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, the colors primarily presented were neutral shades of black and white or dark, almost-black tones, representing the negative narrative structure and depicting the image of a human being. Second, a series of bright blue shades were presented to reflect the positive narrative structure of a human being returning successfully to reality. Third, the application of color, involving both the psychological aspect as well as the symbolism of color, was effectively delivered to the audience. Fourth, the emphasis on color in the smallest details of costumes was analyzed, and it was found that symbolic color effectively communicated the whole image of transformation as the story progressed, clearly delivered delicate emotional messages, and contained symbolism relating to particular places and situations.