The purpose of this study was to examine the current satisfaction levels with nurse uniforms at Taizhou General Hospital in China and to find areas for improvement in order to develop nurse uniforms with improved comfort, fit and convenience. To investigate satisfaction with nurse uniforms, a survey was conducted of 150 nurses. The general characteristics of the nurses, uniform conditions, feelings of satisfaction, fit, preferred designs, inconvenient aspects of the uniforms, and areas for improvement were analyzed. Eight materials of cotton/polyester blended fabrics were selected according to Chinese nurse uniform regulations, and the physical properties of the materials were tested along with the materials used in current nurse uniforms. Four new nurse uniforms with increased aesthetics, functionality, and comfort were developed based on the survey results. Materials with excellent absorption, moisture permeability, and ventilation were used as main fabrics. According to the preferred designs of nurses at Taizhou City General Hospital, China, 4 types of nurse uniforms designed, consisting of design 1 (shirt and pants), design 2 (shirt and pants), design 3 (dress), and design 4 (shirt and skirt). The new nurse uniforms offered better functionality with an improved fit at the armpits, waist, hips, and knees based on product measurements.
The study aims to analyze the mixed characteristics of knit fashion design as demonstrated in Sacai's collection, which promotes hybrid and mesh-up fusion and proposes various knit design ideas. Standards for categorizing mixed phenomena of Sacai’s knit design were established through a review of literature and data analysis. The study’s data collection period was from 2012 to 2021, and a total of 174 items were analyzed. The following are the results. First is the fusion of traditional knit and contemporary styles expressed through de-constructive design; traditional knit styles are combined with contemporary styles through color, material, and knitting structure mixtures, such as mixing Northern European Aran, Fair Isle, Nordic, and Ropy knit. Second, the Sakai knit design combines male and female styles by mixing materials and details. A deconstructed knit cardigan was matched with androcentric pin-striped shirts worn over layered shirring skirts embellished with chiffon and lace. Third, everyday street fashion style is blended with a formal, elegant fashion style. For example, the front view has a typical everyday appearance, whereas the back view contains florid and decorated details. The style is expressed as a 360-degrees appellation, with one thing in the front and another in the back. Sacai’s distinctive expressional characteristics include a mixed and de-constructive style characterized by unexpected design.
In this study, the sales status of female ball-jointed dolls and their parts were investigated and analyzed. Baseline data from 194 products and 54 brands on domestic and international Internet sites was gathered for the manufacture of ball-jointed dolls and the development of prototype costumes for them. The results are as follows. First, the sizes used for ball-jointed dolls are SD, USD, MSD, 13SD, and 70SD together with height. This study analyzed 39 sizes (15~70cm) by classifying them into numbered groups: 1 (15~22cm), 2 (23~33cm), 3 (35~51cm), 4 (53~62cm), and 5 (63~70cm). The price varied depending on the size; for example, 50cm dolls were approximately 45,000 won, while limited editions were sold at high prices, regardless of their size. They were classified into designs according to their body proportions and facial features as follows: 7- or 8-head-figure, 5-head figure, and 3-head figure, and were presented proportionally as images of women, adolescents, and infants. Second, the head was incised so that the top could be removed horizontally or the facial region vertically, allowing attachment of the eyeballs (which were either glass, resin, or acrylic) to the inside. More than 30 different colors were sold. Various wig styles were provided, including cut, short hair, and perm. These were made from human hair, heat-resistant fiber, and artificial hair. For the hands, there was a design expressing human hand gestures. For the feet, heels were in the form of wearing either high-heels or flat soles.
The purpose of this study was first, to clarify the clothing benefits that Uzbek female college students seek through clothing products; and second, to determine whether there is a difference in clothing involvement and clothing purchasing behavior according to the type of clothing benefits. Data were collected from 290 female university students from Tashkent, Uzbekistan, and analyzed using factor analysis, K-means group classification analysis, ANOVA, Duncan test, χ2-test, and frequency analysis. Respondents were classified into four types according to their clothing benefits: individuality/economy-pursuit, comfort-pursuit, fashion/brand-pursuit, and indifference. Significant differences were identified in terms of clothing involvement, information sources, clothing evaluation criteria, clothing store attributes, clothing wearing conditions (including monthly clothing expenses), number of purchases per year, clothing purchase location, clothing preference style, and clothing dissatisfaction. The fashion/brand-pursuit and personality/economy-pursuit types were influenced more by fashion and symbolism of clothing involvement, information sources, clothing evaluation criteria, and clothing store attributes. The individuality/economy-pursuit type purchased more frequently, spent more monthly clothing expenses, and used the internet. Clothing store attributes were considered more important by female students than the other attributes. In these results, clothing benefits were identified as consumer characteristics of female Uzbek college students and market segmentation was determined. In addition, it is meaningful in providing basic data for efficient marketing activities and minimizing trials and errors in establishing local-friendly strategies for target customers in different cultures.
Indonesian women have emerged as global consumers, and various studies are needed to expand the global fashion market targeting their needs. In this study, a survey was conducted to determine the fashion design preferences of Indonesian Muslim women according to demographic characteristics and religious variables. In this study, Indonesian women aged from their teens to their 40s were surveyed by questionnaire during June 2020. This yielded 301 survey responses, which were analyzed using χ2-test, t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple range test using SPSS23. The results of the study are as follows: Analysis of the demographic characteristics of Indonesian Muslim women and the degree of acceptance of fashion trends according to religious variables showed significant differences according to age, monthly income, and the extent to which they wore a hijab. Analysis of the demographic characteristics of the women and the degree of acceptance of the fitted garment according to religious variables showed significant differences depending on their age, whether they were married, their monthly income, religious faithfulness, the extent to which they wore a hijab, and the degree of acceptance of Islamic discipline. After examining the difference in Muslim women’s preferred fashion images (according to demographic characteristics and religious variables), significant differences were identified according to their age, income, extent to which they wore a hijab, and the degree of Islamic discipline with regard to clothing.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how modern fashion brands practice cultural sustainability by investigating the ways they use and reinterpret traditional culture and clothing. The transmission and reinterpretation of traditional cultural elements connect the past, present, and future. These forces also lead to the development of new creativity in the fashion industry. Three brands have been selected for case studies: Danha (Korea), Mittan (Japan), and Jan Jan Van Essche (Belgium). These brands possess in-depth understanding of traditional cultural elements, including clothing, dyeing techniques, and patterns unique to various regions and minority groups. The brands all make use of traditional cultural identities whose clothing contains the historical and sentimental values of various regions and ethnic groups. The use and mixing of various cultures can be seen as the respectful preservation of global culture. Also, in contemporary fashion, the use of traditional culture plays an important role in the presentation and development of creative designs. The use of traditional handicraft techniques and the use of traditional clothing in the past convey cultural diversity to future generations; they will have a lasting influence on future fashion trends. The results of the study show that cultural sustainability in contemporary fashion has been implemented through safeguarding and respecting indigenous cultures and developing cultural elements into creative design.
This study analyzed product conditions in terms of “size system,” “clothing construction depending on fit,” “details,” “colors,” and “prices,” with an emphasis on young contemporary brands for spring/summer 2021, in order to provide basic data for the development of small-sized women’s jackets. Out of 96 domestic and foreign brands, the study analyzed 254 small-sized jacket products from 23 brands that produce size-XS jackets. First, when examining the sizes for women’s jackets, we found that 8 out of the 23 brands offer a size-XXS option. After conducting tree analysis to analyze the factors affecting the production of size-XXS, the study found significant results in the areas of “distinction between domestic and foreign brands” and “product price.” Second, after categorizing small-sized women’s jackets into 3 categories— fit-slim, basic, and straight—the study analyzed clothing construction elements depending on fit. This seasons mainly feature straight-fit’s hip-line length jacket, a 4-panel pattern, and a panel without a waist dart. Third, the study, through the analysis of the colors of small-sized women’s jackets, found a higher frequency of colors in the order of black (23.0%), white (13.3%), and beige tones (10.1%), with additional colors such as sky blue, rose pink, and aquamarine in production, which exhibit the senses of the seasons. Price analysis revealed that small-sized jackets constituted a price range at the mid-to-low end, as in ₩50,000-100,000 (30.3%), ₩100,000- 150,000 (19.3%), and ₩150,000-200,000 (11.8%).
The purpose of this study was to examine job competencies for sales training program development to maximize profits in fashion retailing. An empirical online survey was conducted from September to December 2019, and data was collected from 200 salespeople and store managers working in fashion stores. Results were analyzed using frequency analysis, factor analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis with SPSS 25.0. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the most important job competencies identified by fashion store managers were: sales sense know-how, customer service skills, and sales person’s fashion style sense, product knowledge, fashion marketing and customer management. The job competency factors for sales training programs included empathy with the customer, product knowledge, communications and networking, basic job requirement, and sales skills. These five factors positively influenced the employment intentions and expectations of work performance of graduates. These factors also had a positive influence on the need of sales training program and intention to participate in retraining. Store managers in fashion retail thought the most appropriate period for on-the-job training was either 2-4 days or more than 1 week. The results of this study can be used as a base to develop training programs for job efficiency for salespeople in fashion retailing.
This study aimed to analyze adult men’s body sizes and shapes and suggest size specifications to provide preliminary data to academia and industries. A total of 814 adult men aged 30-44 were selected from the 7th Size Korea data, and 55 direct upper body measurement and calculation items were analyzed using SPSS 25.0. In individual Individual differences, thickness, circumference, and width were high, and height and length were low. Height above the waist base line and shoulder dimension decreased in early 40s age group, while height below the waist base line declined as age increased. In addition, buttocks shape changes were found in early 40s age group. According to factor analysis, ‘upper body and upper-extremity horizontal size’, ‘torso height and upper extremity length’, ‘shoulder dimension’, ‘upper body length’ and ‘shoulder angle’ were derived. Using clustering analysis, four different body types were classified: i) big abdomen with flat chest, ii) slender with big, raised shoulders, iii) dwarfish with small, droopy shoulders, and iv) obese with large shoulders. ‘Slender with big, raised shoulders’ was a typical body shape among men aged 30-44. In older participants, the ‘big abdomen with flat chest’ ratio was low, while ‘obese with large shoulders’ was more common. This study proposed size specifications by body type considering the above characteristics.
The aim of this study was to develop a body type suitable for adult men aged from their 20s to their 40s and to present a method of drafting related patterns. To this end, the somatic surface pattern data from previous studies were used. The research method involved drafting torso patterns for each type by setting and distributing the ease to the somatic surface pattern. Appearance evaluation was performed with virtual clothing. Then, the torso pattern for each body type was completed and presented as a draft method. SPSS was used for data analysis in this study. The research results are as follows. Types 1, 2, and 3 were set to 7%, 6%, 5%; 7%, 6%, 4%; and 6.5%, 7%, and 6% for chest, waist, and hip circumference measurements, respectively. The ratio of front to back was 50%:50%, 50%:50%, and 50%:50% of the spare for each body part for Type 1; 70%:30%, 50%:50%, and 60%:40% for Type 2, and 60%:40%, 70%:30%, and 60%:40% for Type 3. A tight-fit torso pattern for each body type suitable for adult males in their 20s to 40s was drafted, which was modified and supplemented through the evaluation of the first and second virtual wear. Considering the practicality of this approach, for generalization of the patterns, the items of the pattern were converted into a drafting method and presented as a draft method.
Recent developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) can be applied in stores, and the number of fashion stores that have introduced and utilized ICT are increasing. By applying a literature review and empirical research, the types of ICT service factors of fashion stores were identified and categorized. The effect of their importance on consumer behavioral intentions was analyzed. Next, using factor analysis on the ICT service factors, five factors were identified and named as follows: smart space services, smart payment services, virtual image services, product information services, and smart access services. The importance of these factors was then analyzed. The importance of each factor and detailed questions was rated above average. After examining the effect of ICT service on behavior intention, issues such as purchase intention, revisit intention, and word of mouth intention were found to have significant influence. This study is meaningful in that it derives the importance factors of ICT services that can be used in fashion stores in a situation where retail techniques become important and expand, and provides marketing strategies related to consumer behavior according to detailed factors. With retail tech becoming more important and expanding, it is necessary to provide various services that consumers value by utilizing ICT in fashion stores. Considering the results of this study, ICT technology and services of various fashion stores can be effectively utilized and retail tech utilization performance can be improved.
Tartan, the woven, checked, and wool textile considered by many to be originally from Scotland, has in fact been in use in a range of forms across numerous cultures and during various historical periods. The characteristic checked feature is due to the assembly of different coloured threads in both warp and weft directions which intersect at 90 degrees in a combination known as a sett. For well over one hundred years, different setts and thus different colour combinations have been associated closely with different geographical regions within Scotland, as well as different clans or families. Tartan-type textiles have reached popularity at various times and those have often been a predicted fashion trend suggested, for example, by contributors to fashion gatherings such as Premier Vision in Paris. Often proposed designs are best considered based on tartan combinations rather than simple reproductions. Promotional terms such as “patched checks” or “textured checks” have been common, and often these have been derived from tartan-type constructions. This paper explores novel pattern design methods by identifying the underlying grid structures and proportions exhibited by various well-known tartan setts. The possibility of pattern development from tartan grids and their manipulations is thus the focus of attention. An insight into the methodology associated with the production of original pattern designs is thus provided.