The aim of this paper is to find which types of pop-up store positively influence consumers and to analyze the factors that affect brand attitude and behavioral intention across different fashion pop-up store formats. The data was collected from 217 respondents in their 20s and 30s and then subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, oneway ANOVA and regression analysis using SPSS Statistics. The results of the oneway ANOVA test indicated that the 'Pop-up store of alliance with different kinds of industries' is the most effective type for increasing brand preference and brand recognition amongst consumers. Some further insights can be made from the regression analysis results. There are differences between pop-up store formats in terms of the cognitive factors influencing brand attitude and behavioral intention. Moreover, there are differences between pop-up store formats in terms of brand attitude factors influencing behavioral intention. Through the results of this study, fashion companies can determine the best type of pop-up store to open depending on their aims. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights to fashion marketers, helping them to determine the appropriate factors to consider when planning fashion pop-up stores. Academically, this paper contributes to expanding the range of research on fashion pop-up retail by studying consumer experiences of different pop-up store types.
The purpose of this study was to classify the upper torso body types of obese Korean adult women using the 7th Korea National Anthropometric Study data and compare the body type differences according to three age groups: 20s～30s, 40s～50s, and 60s. A total of 548 adult women whose BMI was in the obese range of 25 or higher and whose age ranged from 20s to 60s were selected from the anthropometric database. Twenty-nine body measurements related to torso and arm areas important for torso and sleeve pattern development were chosen. Five drop values by differences between bust, waist, and hip circumferences were also chosen for analysis. The number of obese women increased with age. The results revealed seven factors according to the factor analysis and three obese body types based on the cluster analysis. Body type 1 (47.3% of obese women) was characterized by narrow shoulders, a small or medium torso, and a straight waist. Body type 2 (42.4% of obese women) was characterized by a defined waist and a larger lower torso than upper torso. Body type 3 (10.3% of obese women), the largest obese body type among the three types, was characterized by a large bust, large abdomen area, and long upper torso. Women in their 20s to 30s were most likely to have body type 2, women in their 40s to 50s were evenly distributed between body types 2 and 3, and women in their 60s were most likely to have body type 1.
The purpose of this study was to propose various directions for effectively proposing window displays that satisfy changing consumer needs by investigating and analyzing the characteristics of unexpected expressions used in recent Christmas windows. Research was conducted by investigating unexpectedness in window displays through literature reviews and previous studies. To observe unexpectedness in Christmas windows, website-based case images of window displays from the six years between 2010 and 2015 were collected from the department stores of Bergdorf Goodman, Printemps, Selfridges, and Isetan. Unexpected expressions in department-store Christmas window displays could be categorized into four expressive methods of hybrid expressions, figurative expressions, amusing expressions, and exaggerative expressions. The results were as follows: First, hybrid expressions are interpreted by consumers as having new or diverse meanings that change the original external forms of subjects or objects. Second, Christmas colors are used in the window backgrounds’ figurative expressions, but these windows do not use excessive expressions; furthermore, these windows personify people as animals and anthropomorphize animals as people, using subjects to depict other subjects to show unfamiliar images. Third, amusing expressions are used to decorate windows with unique and novel ideas that provide stimulation and amusement for customers and capture their attention through the composition of windows that entail childish props and elements that create funny. Fourth, exaggerative expressions deliberately stretch and expand subjects or objects in windows to elicit customers’ curiosity and interest through emphasis.
In order to identify the antecedents of internet purchasing intention toward fashion items, this study examines shopping-related variables as both direct antecedents of internet purchasing intention, and as indirect antecedents of internet purchasing intention through online-related variables. Impulse buying and market mavenism were considered as shopping-related variables, whilst online interaction readiness and online consumer procrastination were considered as online-related variables. It was hypothesized that impulse buying and market mavenism not only directly influence purchasing intention toward fashion items, but also indirectly influence it through online interaction readiness and online consumer procrastination. Data were gathered by surveying university students in Seoul using convenience sampling. A total of 286 questionnaires were used in the statistical analysis. SPSS was used for exploratory factor analysis, and AMOS was used for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. The factor analysis of market mavenism, impulse buying, and online consumer procrastination revealed one dimension, whilst the factor analysis of online interaction readiness revealed two dimensions: ‘online relationship’ and ‘internet role.’ Tests of the hypothesized path proved that impulse buying indirectly influences internet shopping intention only through online consumer procrastination, whereas market mavenism influences internet shopping intention indirectly through both online interaction readiness and online consumer procrastination. The results will be useful for Internet shopping mall marketers and for future study.
As a plan for establishing Korea's cultural identity and its competitive edge in the world market and for enhancing Korea’s cultural status, creative and unique high value-added cultural products need to be developed utilizing our inherent cultural assets. Accordingly, this study focused on the development of the design of fashion cultural products that utilize the convergence of Hangeul our peculiar font style and Korea's cultural heritage, which is registered as part of UNESCO’s World Heritage. A design method was devised that converges archetypal images of cultural property with the unique Hangeul font in a way that targets Korea's symbolic architectures. The symbolic architecture includes Korea’s world-heritage pagoda architecture, such as Seokgatap pagoda and Dabotap pagoda at Bulguksa temple. It also included the architecture of royal palace, such as Injeongjeon hall at Changdeokgung palace. Finally, it also included the architecture of the fortress wall, such as Paldalmun gate in Hwaseong fortress. Thus, by developing cultural assets made from a convergence between architecture and the Hangeul font as a consumer-product image that has universality, the possibility of cultural products was pursued by applying color planning after an analysis that involved extracting the compositional colors of the flags of the world. This research and approach will lead to opportunities for further progress for Korea's cultural products in the global market as a results of additional recognition for their value, excellence, and universal appeal.
As fashion has concentrated increasingly on inner values, it has become more directly connected with human life and society. This study analyzed anti-fashion, a movement that resists mainstream society and culture, which it views as causing inner conflicts such as competition, mammonism, consumerism, and egoism by fixating solely on the pursuit of growth and improvement. The study examined Kinfolk, an independent lifestyle magazine, to determine the essential values and principles that comprise this movement’s refusal of mainstream modern society. The analysis of Kinfolk identified the following characteristics of, the Kinfolk lifestyle: essentialism, nature-friendliness, retro sensibilities, socio-ethical awareness, and diversity. Essentialism refers to the pursuit of essence, brevity, innovation based on tradition and slow life. Nature-friendliness involves communion with nature and humanity, animal-friendliness, de-industrialization, de-urbanization, and nomadic behavior. The components of the retro sensibility include nostalgia, and interests in vintage culture, and handcrafts. Diversity encompasses commonplaceness, various subcultures, agelessness, genderlessness, acceptance of other cultures, and new understanding. The analysis identified the tendencies of anti-fashion in Kinfolk magazine as simplicity, naturalism, resistance to novelty, ethics, and inclusiveness. Anti-fashion pursues the essential values of human life that have been lost or forgotten in modern society. It is important to pay constant attention to the values of minority, non-mainstream and indie cultures that represent anti-fashion. It exerts considerable influence and has great potential as an area for the development of various style-based paradigms rather than as a single fashion direction.
This study measured dyeing properties under different dyeing conditions and levels of antimicrobial activity when man-made fibers are dyed with gallnut, including rayon, tencel, tencel blended fabric, soybean fiber, and nylon non-mordanted. The dye up-take (K/S), color (L*a*b*), and color differences (△E) were measured with a colorimeter, and the number of bacteria present in the dyed fabrics were determined using Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia as strains. The results are as follows: First, the optimal dyeing conditions for man-made fibers dyed with gallnut are 60 minutes of dyeing time and a 80℃ dyeing temperature. Second, gallnut dye is most effective on soybean fiber and then, in descending order of effectiveness, on nylon, rayon, tencel, and tencel blended fabric. This means that dyeing properties of nitrogen containing fibers are excellent when using gallnut. Third, all man-made fibers are dyed brown with gallnut. This implies dyeing possibility of man-made fibers about gallnut dye, so development and supply of natural dyed goods of man-made fibers can be increased. Fourth, in all man-made fibers dyed with gallnut extract, both Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia show 99.9% reduction ratios of fungistasis, which indicate antimicrobial activity. Therefore, safe, functional, man-made materials can be developed to relieve symptoms from and treat patients with skin ailments.
Fair trade implies honest wages and eco-friendly products in keeping with the demands of ethical consumerism. Although consumers are presently more interested in fair trade products, it is hard to find aggressive marketing strategies for fair trade fashion products. Therefore, the purpose of this study investigates the effect of consumption propensity on fast and slow fashion goods consumption attitudes and purchase intention on fair trade fashion products. For method of this study, 229 questionnaires were distributed to consumers residing in Seoul, South Korea. The data from the 219 returned usable questionnaires was analyzed by Cronbach’s alpha, factor analysis, regression analysis using SPSS 22.0. The results of this study were as follows: First, consumption propensities of spontaneity, histrionics, and imitative nature in descending order positively affect consumption attitude for fast fashion products. And green consumerism negatively affects consumption attitude for fast fashion products. Second, consumption propensity such as donation & sharing consumerism, ethical consumerism, green consumerism, histrionics, and imitative nature in descending order positively affect consumption attitude for slow fashion products. Third, slow and fast fashion products consumption attitude in descending order positively affect purchase intention on fair trade fashion products. Fourth, consumption propensities such as ethical consumerism, green consumerism, and donation & sharing consumerism in descending order positively affect purchase intention on fair trade fashion products. Therefore fair trade fashion products with various usages and sustainable high quality are promoted by differentiated marketing strategies.
Firefighting hoods protect the head, face, and neck areas of officials while they perform firefighting services. The purpose of this study is to investigate the head size of Korean firefighting officials in order to establish the dimensions necessary to construct firefighting hoods. A total of 98 male firefighting officials participated in this study and 11 body dimensions, necessary for the construction of firefighting hoods, were measured. The data collected from the firefighting officials were compared to the general adult male data from the Size Korea national anthropometric study. The heights, weights, head circumferences, head heights, and bitragion arcs of the firefighters were significantly larger than those of general adult males, which shows that firefighting officials generally have larger body and head sizes than general adult males. Based on the results of Pearson's correlation coefficients, head circumference and head height were judged to be the important measurements for the construction of the firefighting hoods. Thus, these two measurements were chosen as the basic dimensions of the cross tabulation analysis. As a result, head circumferences of 57.00~60.99cm and head heights of 23.00~25.99 cm were found to be important measurement ranges among the firefighters. This study is expected to be used as the basis for the creation of firefighting hoods that help to ensure the safe rescue activities for firefighting officials.
The purpose of the study was to compare two different MBTI personality types by evaluating the influence of perceived risk on brand and store loyalty and purchase intention. 340 questionnaires were used for the analysis. For statistical analysis, SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 were performed, and frequency tests, reliability analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were used. The results of SEM analysis, confirmed that one question of brand loyalty and one question of store loyalty were inappropriate for this study. Thus, these two questions were removed and the research model was modified. To determine the goodness of fit of the research model, convergent validity was tested. Most items fell into the goodness of fit, and the average coefficient was fulfilled. According to the results of a path coefficient analysis for the Judging type, perceived risk has a significant influence on brand loyalty and brand loyalty also affected store loyalty. Furthermore, brand loyalty and store loyalty have a significant effect on purchase intentions, but perceived risk did not affect brand loyalty for the Perceiving type. Brand loyalty influences store loyalty and purchase intentions, but store loyalty did not influence purchase intentions. As a result of this study, it is concluded that considering consumers' personality types is critical to developing strategies that enhance brand loyalty.
This study analyzes the characteristics of clothes worn by the Zhuang in order to produce new fashion designs, and to propose diverse new directions in fashion design. Research was conducted using a bibliographic survey on the cultural background, characteristics, and relevant techniques of the Zhuang costume and that of minority races in China. This study deploys four styles of design for women’s wear. With the inspiration of the traditional Zhuang costume, black and blue were the colors mainly used for the Zhuang people and the material was mostly denim. Denim blends in well for the contemporary facilitation of the Zhuang costume, which is known for knitting technique, fur and hemp fabric as patchwork, and embroidery works. It is appropriate to express the joyful and happy mind of Zhuang people with extraordinary colors, exaggerated silhouettes, and various decorations. Images of nature, such as the sun, mountains, rivers, water, fish etc., expressed the nature worship of the Zhuang in contemporary design, representing the simple life and peaceful mind. This research develops a new fashion design and displays the possibility for diverse design development through new insight in contemporary fashion design.
Industrial innovation in Britain, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, stimulated the introduction of the factory system and the migration of people from rural agricultural communities to urban industrial societies. The factory system brought elevated levels of economic growth to the purveyors of capitalism, but forced people to migrate into cities where working conditions in factories were, in general, harsh and brutal, and living conditions were cramped, overcrowded and unsanitary. Industrial developments, known collectively as the ‘Industrial Revolution’, were driven initially by the harnessing of water and steam power, and the widespread construction of rail, shipping and road networks. Parallel with these changes, came the development of purchasing ‘middle class’, consumers. Various technological ripples (or waves of innovative activity) continued (worldwide) up to the early-twenty-first century. Of recent note are innovations in digital technology, with associated developments, for example, in artificial intelligence, robotics, 3-D printing, materials technology, computing, energy storage, nano-technology, data storage, biotechnology, ‘smart textiles’ and the introduction of what has become known as ‘e-commerce’. This paper identifies the more important early technological innovations, their influence on textile manufacture, distribution and consumption, and the changed role of the designer and craftsperson over the course of these technological ripples. The implications of non-ethical production, globalisation and so-called ‘fast fashion’ and non-sustainability of manufacture are examined, and the potential benefits and opportunities offered by new and developing forms of social media are considered. The message is that hand-crafted products are ethical, sustainable and durable.