The purpose of the present study was to generate a list of business ethics components according to business area for small and medium-sized fashion companies. Based on the literature review, 21 components of business ethics components were identified within five business areas. Ten CEOs(Chief Executive Officers) each participated in an in-depth interview, sharing ethical and unethical cases from their own businesses. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate important business ethics components from those cases. In results, important business ethics components for each business area are: 1) using human-friendly materials, strengthening sustainable technologies, using vegan materials, concerning safe process, and reducing waste in the material production and sourcing area, 2) enhancing an efficiency in design, developing recycle/reuse designs, avoiding to copy designs, and using messages for public interest in the product design area, 3) concerning fair-trade, reducing harmful substance, saving energy, and using ethical supply channels in the distribution and logistics area, 4) acquiring certifications, promoting consumer protection, avoiding exaggerative/false advertisements, and promoting social contributions in the management and marketing area, and 5) promoting workers’ rights, complying with the law, and investing on employee educations in the labor management area. All of the ethical and unethical cases of the ten companies have involved aspects of the 21 components, thereby enhancing understandings on how each issue is being seriously considered and/or handled in the small and medium-sized fashion companies. Study findings may provide a basis for development of a research model for quantitative studies and/or educational programs related to business ethics in the fashion industry.
Oversized fashion is again in the spotlight due to the influence of retro fashion. This has created new fashion trends with methods different from those of the past. This analysis examines recent trends by sorting these looks according to new and different methods of judging their appearance. A new categorization of the oversized look and its configurations has been created, one which separates “big” looks, partial changes, and layered looks. This research was based on historical review and previous studies. Three thousand one hundred thirty-six photos of oversized looks that have appeared in collections over the past five years were gathered, and their appearance was categorized according to type. The categorization results showed that big looks (55.1%) were most prevalent, followed by partial alterations (36.35%), and layered looks (8.45%). In comparison to prior oversized clothing production, new permutations of the “Big” look expanded the silhouettes of torso, shoulders, neckline and collar. Partial changes have expanded from the broadened shoulders of the 1980s. Today these styles expand the shoulders and armholes vertically or horizontally, which dramatically exaggerates the sleeves and collar. The layered look no longer simply features overlapping layers but takes the form of over-layering through cuts and insertions. Through such analysis it is clear that modern oversized looks break away from the simple expanded forms and production methods of the past. They now attempt to realize an exaggerated beauty of form regarding each clothing component and also maximize decorative effects through innovative drafting or sewing methods.
Today, the fashion business environment of the 4.0 generation is changing based on fashion technology combined with advanced digital technologies such as AI (Artificial Intelligence), big data and IoT (Internet of Things). “Digital Transformation” means a fundamental change and innovation in a digital paradigm including corporate strategy, organization, communication, and business model, based on the utilization of digital technology. Thus, this study examines digital transformation strategies through the fashion brand Burberry. The study contents are as follows. First, it examines the theoretical concept of digital transformation and its utilization status. Second, it analyzes the characteristics of Burberry’s digital transformation based on its strategies. For the research methodology, a literature review was performed on books and papers, aligning with case studies through websites, social media, and news articles. The result showed that first, Burberry has reset their main target to Millennials who actively use mobile and social media, and continues to communicate with them by utilizing digital strategy in the entire management. Second, Burberry is quickly delivering consistent brand identity to consumers by internally creating and providing social media-friendly content. Third, they have started real-time product sales and services by using IT to enhance access to brands and to lead consumers towards more active participation. In this study, Burberry’s case shows that digital transformation can contribute to increased brand value and sales, keeping up with the changes in the digital paradigm. Therefore, the study suggests that digital transformation will serve as an important business strategy for fashion brands in the future.
As the concept of “marriage age” gradually disappears, the consumption class of the wedding market includes not only X and Y generations but also Z generations, and each generation has its own characteristics as it is already known, and there are differences in the consumption. So this research analyzed age-related behavior differences in both awareness of and preparation for marriage. Three hundred sixteen unmarried Korean males and females comprised the study population and data was collected from March 5, 2019, to April 3, 2019. The SPSS Statistics 23.0 Package was used for analysis, specifically the functions of frequency, cross tabulation, factor analysis, chi-squared test, Cronbach’s alpha, Duncans’s new multiple range test (MRT), and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Marriage motivation was analyzed by three factors, and there were significant differences in two types. Marital involvement was analyzed by two factors, and both factors showed significant age-related differences. Concerns relating to marriage preparation were analyzed by four factors, and two varied according to respondent age. Regarding marriage preparation behaviors, the analysis revealed that the marriage preparation method appreciably differed between age groups. Our analysis also found significant age-related differences in “the main media usually used to acquire information” and “the paths preferred for acquiring information in preparing for marriage”. We expect that study results will be useful for identifying new research directions, understanding the dimensions of the wedding industry, and developing related marketing strategies.
This study defines Korean wave stars as Korean wave human brands and examines the influence of the characteristics, attachment, and self-congruity of the Korean wave human brand on brand equity. For this, this study surveyed Chinese female consumers in their 20s and 30s who consume many Korean wave products from May 2018 to June 2018. First, human brand characteristics, attachment, self-congruity, Korean wave aspiration level, and brand equity according to demographic characteristics were identified. Second, characteristics, attachment, self-congruity, and the aspiration level of the Korean wave human brand showed correlations with brand equity. However, brand awareness, a sub-factor of brand equity, does not show correlations with self-congruity. Third, characteristics, attachment, self-congruity, and Korean wave aspiration level had a positively influenced brand equity. Fourth, when looking into the mediated effect of attachment on brand equity, both human brand characteristics and self-congruity showed a partially mediated effect. Fifth, when analyzing the adjustment effect in the Korean wave aspiration level, a group with higher Korean wave aspiration level showed more correlations with attachment and brand equity. This study found that attachment and self congruity are important elements in forming human brand and brand equity. This study is significant in that it verified the influence of Korean wave brand power that has been on the rise recently on brand equity and provided a theoretical basis that has allowed researchers to determine that the characteristics, attachment, and self-congruity of Korean wave human brand significantly influence brand equity.
The purpose of this study was to create a theoretical structure for the concept of purchasing risks by identifying the structure of purchasing risks that lead to obstacles in the purchasing decisions of consumers in fashion consumption via online channels. This was a secondary research using books, articles, prior researches, and academic journals on the five topics of “characteristics of fashion consumption,” “the concept of purchasing risks,” “purchasing risks by product types,” “purchasing risks by channel types,” and “purchasing risks of fashion consumption on online shopping channels.” According to the arguments of prior researches, the study divided the purchasing risks of fashion consumption through online shopping into four categories : (1) fundamental purchasing risks including financial risk and time loss risk pertaining to any product or channel, (2) online channel purchase risks, which include risks in payment, Information leaks, and delivery and return/exchange risk, (3) fashion product risk related to product quality or experience of other people, which includes social risks and risks associated with quality, and (4) the online channel×fashion product risks, which include the aesthetic and psychological hazards especially amplified in online channels. The four risk factors were then described with a concept map to systemize the multidimensional and stereoscopic psychological structure of purchasing risks. Of the four risk factors, consumers placed the most emphasis on the online channel×fashion product risks, hence, reducing this risk factor is of utmost priority for marketing of online shopping channels.
Contemporary University students are considered the Z generation who were born after 1995. They are more tech savvy than millennials. To target the generation, traditional class management platforms have evolved to smart LMS that is more customized and accessible for smart devices. Global level information search and collaboration can also be implemented using such smart LMS. However, switching from one LMS to another LMS requires great effort from teachers and support from staffs. This study measured the learners’ perception of the system when they were exposed to a new smart-LMS. Blackboard Learn Ultra was used for 15 weeks and at the end of the semester, a questionnaire was administered to the students of these classes. Results indicated that experience with previous LMS discouraged students from adopting Blackboard Learn. Result of TAM modeling indicated that perceived usefulness, compared to perceived ease of use and attitude, was an effective aspect to bring positive acceptance of the system. A qualitative approach and network analysis were also conducted based on students’ responses. Both positive and negative responses were detected. Inconvenience due to mechanical aspects was mentioned. Dissatisfaction compared to previous local LMS use was also mentioned. Mobile application and communication effectiveness were positive aspects. Revised course development and promoting how useful the system may help enhance the acceptance of the new system.
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of combinations of diverse methods notifying price discounts (i.e., reference price, odd price, and discount rate signs) and the relationships among product attribute perception, discount perception, attitude toward product, and purchase intention of product. Experiments were conducted where 12 stimuli of different price discount information notifications regarding T-shirt advertisements were presented to 352 informants. The results showed that notification of each type of discount information increased discount perception, whereas no effect due to the size of letters used in the discount rate notification was found. As more price discount information notifications were used, discount perception tended to become stronger. The results of ANOVA analysis show that both product attribute perception and discount perception affected attitude toward the product. In addition, product purchase intention was determined by attitude toward the product as well as price discount perception. Based on these findings, marketers may want to use a combination of methods of price discount notifications in advertisements to deliver price discount information clearly to consumers. Confirmation of discount information using multiple cues would help consumers to notice and perceive price discount information provided by retailers more effectively. Discount information is crucial for increasing both purchase intention and favorable attitude, therefore, diverse strategies regarding discount information presentations should be developed, tested and applied in the real world of retailing.