This study presented a making method of jeans pattern with high fitness after deriving the appropriate shrinkage rate by material and washing process. For this purpose of this study, 6 jeans have been tested after washing finishing and we turned out appropriate shrinkage rate by evaluating the exterior of jeans and usage satisfaction. Then, a making method of jeans pattern was presented after applying the optimized shrinkage rate. According to the result of the exterior evaluation of test jeans, all 6 jeans were rated high with scores close to 3.5. Following the evaluation of satisfaction of usage by physical movement, the highest ranking was in the order of walking with normal steps, back bending 90°, chair sitting, climbing stairs, and squatting. The shrinkage rate by physical area showed the highest score in the order of pants length, waist circumference, thigh circumference, knee circumference, hem circumference, hips circumference. In addition, the shrinkage rate was higher in warp direction than weft direction after washing finishing. As for the result of addition and reduction of pattern measurements by parts of jeans, waist circumference was 2.6～5.2cm, hips circumference was 1.3～4.2cm, thigh circumference was 0.8～ 3.1cm and knee circumference was 0.7～2.5cm. Also, hem circumference was 0.5～1.8cm and pants length was 4.0～6.2cm. That is, this results showed a wide range of addition and reduction according to material and washing finishing.
This study was conducted to investigate purchasing behavior of jeans consumers and to find differences in jeans evaluative criteria according to consumers' characteristics. Male and female university students participated in the study. Quota sampling method was used to collect the data. Data from 492 questionnaires were used for the statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, ANOVA, Duncan test, and t-test were conducted. Three factors of jeans evaluative criteria classified (i.e., external criteria, internal/aesthetic criteria, internal/quality criteria). Results indicated that most of respondents put on jeans wear more than three times per a week and 38.1% of respondents reported that they owned three to four jeans products on average. Department store was the most used place to buy jeans product with 44.2%. 27.5% of respondents spent from 50,000 won to 100,000 won on purchasing jeans. Style was the highest important jeans evaluative criterion with 36.2%, followed by fitness, price, color, condition of washing treatment. Women respondents considered aesthetic criteria and quality criteria more importantly than men did. Respondents who were on a high income and spent more than 200,000 won per a month on apparel more concerned aesthetic criteria and external criteria than the other respondents did. Results of this study provide a basis for understanding jeans consumers' purchase behavior and evaluative criteria.
Black has been the most important color of all since the ancient times when the recognition of black roused, as well as during most of the eras; and can especially be said as the main color which controlled the chronicles of fashion. The purpose of the study was to broaden the application of black color image make-up by inquiring into make-up design elemental characteristics of lines and textures, after classifying magazine illustrations and advertisement make-up images using black. The photos which made effective use of black among fashion illustrations, magazine advertisements after 2001 were classified in to each type, and make-up expression method and characteristics according to design element of each image type was analyzed. The conclusion of such study was the following. 'Erotic image' showed contrast effect between eye make-up and lip color by using pale tone or red color. 'Mannish image' emphasized form and texture of eyebrow by restraining the colors of eyelids with natural brown tone eye make-up; 'Modern image' expressed vague eyebrow to bring the sensation of the direction of eye shadow on eyelids and eye line as well as slant line to relief. 'Kitsch image' showed free and light imagery by creating unique hair style with various colors; expressing lips mostly with colors similar to skin tone or by restraining colors on lips. 'Decadence image' showed messy and foul sensation with unstandardized eye make-up and matt skin of shimmer, glossy and pale tone, also with black colored lips; 'Retro image' expressed reinterpretation of images from 1920～1960 to contemporary styles.
The coffee has been used as drink in the world and it has been using not only food but also dyeing. It can be used for four seasons in our normal living and it can be taken friendly everywhere. The coffee consists of about 8～10% phenol(chlorogenic acid) that related to antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. However, its exact components and the dyeing property effects has not been well known yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the dyeing property and ultraviolet-cut ability of silk and nylon fabrics that was dyed variously with coffee extracts. Coffee extracts were done by boiling coffee with distilled water at 100℃ for 2 hours. As mordanting agent, we used AlK(SO4)2․12H2O, CuSO4․5H2O, FeCl2․4H2O. As the result of the dyeing properties and ultraviolet-cut ability of fabrics dyed with coffee bean extracts, we can find that the optimum dyeing temperature and dyeing time of the silk and nylon fabrics dyed with coffee bean extracts was 90℃, 60 min. and the colorfastness of washing and dry-cleaning was improved by using mordanting agent(4～5 grade). Ultraviolet-cut ability was showed more 90% in dyed nylon fabrics.
The purpose of this study is to analyze movie costume of main character and find design characteristic and historical spirit focusing on the movie, in which Ishioka Eiko, Japanese movie costume designer constructing unique design world, participated. The study captured images of three movies such as〈Dracula〉,〈The Cell〉 and〈The Fall〉 with Digital Multimedia Converting System and analyzed them by focusing on the pictures showing designer's intention and design characteristic well among acquired 319 pictures. The costumes addressing movie costume designer's sense of values are recreated as future-oriented new works and are expressed as creative costumes by acquiring inspiration from past factors, dissolving them and applying up-to-date technology. Movie costume shall reflect historical spirit of our age as movie shows social․cultural trend including fashion trend of manufactured age. Ishioka Eiko has searched for the design, which is proper for three principles such as ‘be unique’, ‘be eternal’ and ‘be innovative’ and from the result of analyzing movie costume, it is found that she showed characteristics of symbolism(transmission of the sensitivity), ornamentalism(effective representation as a decorative effect attention) and multiculturalism(harmony of time and culture) as well as uniqueness. The movie costume are different mutually and create new hybrid culture, in which different costume cultures are mixed with current costumes without the restriction to other culture. It is proper for the age of globalization and localization so it is expected that the multiculturalism will be enlarged more.
21st century post digital society orients co-existence, fusion, and blurring boundary than conflict, differentiation, and boundary, and makes a try liberal combination of various different objects. Furthermore, radical development of science and digital equipments offer technical possibility that could combine various fields. Hence, many different departments demolish their boundary, and combine for development of multi-functional and complex shape’s products. For job-nomads, fashion attempts to combine with architecture, furniture, daily necessities, and digital equipments spontaneously. This paper aims at consideration about the blurring phenomena expressed in complex fashion space of 21st century throughout empirical fashion photographs analysis, which show combination among fashion and various different fields. Blurring boundary phenomena of complex fashion space are classified with 4 parts as follows as: 1) furniturizing, 2) wearable dwelling, 3) lumiduct, 4) becoming fashion. Each parts are examined 8 aesthetical characteristics such as movement and lightness, hyper-link and openness, immateriality and inter-activeness, and diversity and ambiguity. 21st century fashion has changed more simple and light, and creates new form throughout combination with many other fields, and enlarges its function and sphere. I think this paper would help certificating practical use of fashion space as multiple and complex space, and makes contribution to forecast about fashion development of the future and offer inspiration about creative and innovative fashion design.
Withsuffering financial crisis in 1997, Korea's fashion market has grown in the direction that satisfies the reasonable price and diverse consumer's sensitivity and needs. The aim of this study is to examine whether the cutting portion in the waist line is surely necessary for designing the jacket pattern in men's wear, by closely examining the effects of the cutting portion in the waist line on the external appearance and functionality given designing the jacket pattern in men's wear for the standard body type in 20s. The results of the study are as follows.
As a result of evaluating the external appearance, when having evaluated by dividing into 14 items such as the whole surface, the side, and the back side, the experimental clothing, which wasn't cut the waist line, obtained the highest mark in 13 items and, the significant difference was indicated in 10 items except 4 items. As a result of evaluating performance, the experimental clothing, which wasn't cut the waist line, obtained the highest mark in 13 items among 25 items in the total. Next, the cutting portion in the waist line obtained the highest mark in 10 items for the experimental clothing with opening in 1.0cm. The next was indicated to be in order of the experimental clothing with 1.5cm and the experimental clothing with 0.5cm. Given seeing the above result, the cutting portion in the waist line given designing the jacket pattern for the standard body type in 20s could be known that the experimental clothing with the most excellent mark in the evaluation of performance was all the experimental clothing with 0.0cm whose waist line wasn't cut.
As the global trend of Retro combined with the tendency of individualism which respects dramatic change and diversity in the 21st century, Goth subculture of Korea developed into various popular styles. This study, noticing the influences of Goth to the Korean youth culture and fashion trends, intends to examine the current fashion trends to analyze the various aspects of the influences of Goth to the Korean youth culture. To do this, various documents and numerous Internet materials on the Korean Goth culture are comprehensively reviewed, and the Goth look images of popular stars, photographs from fashion magazines and fashion collections are gathered, analysed, and classified into types, and the specific characteristics of these types are comprehensively analysed. According to the result of this research, Punk Goth look, departing from the sensational and aggressive style of Punk look, expresses sexy and luxurious images, while Romantic Goth look shows the brilliant and cheerful style by mixing the cute girlish image and the elegant feminine image of exaggerated details and voluminous silhouette. Avant garde Goth look parodies Goth image by using the dramatic effects of Goth images or is expressed in performances. Sexy Goth look, which reveals the sexual attractiveness of men and women much more assertively, tries to do suggestive representation and excessive exposure of human body. Dandy Goth look, which has the simple and modern line, expresses the calm and chic feeling by employing basic items with minimized details and coordinating unique accessories for accent.
The purposes of this study were to provide information on customers for cosmetic companies to develop goods and promotion strategy by examining facial images of university women and their recognition level about cosmetics brand personality. The results were as follows; First, satisfaction level of university women with their lips and eyes was very high, while lowest in skins. Second, factors of brand personality of three kinds of foreign cosmetics brands and three kinds of domestic brands were sincerity, beauty, renovation, reliability and ruggedness. In beauty, reliability and ruggedness, they preferred foreign brands to domestic ones, while they preferred domestic ones in sincerity and renovation. Third, the satisfaction level with face had a statistically significant relationship to the importance of face and cosmetic brands, while the importance of face had to the beauty of the brand. In the interrelationship among facial images and the factors of brand personality, they had significant interrelationships, provided beauty and ruggedness, and reliability and ruggedness had no significant interrelationship.
The past Romanticism, which emphasized loveful, womanish property, has changed into new-concept Romanticism as it was harmonized with various emotional cultures and trends in the 21st century. New-concept romanticism is found in various fields ranging from personality, diversity and discrimination to emotion. It is appearing as a new style searching for taste as it is mixed and matched with other fields. In fashion, Romanticism and mix-and-match trend provide womanish feeling through the match with romantic chiffon, high-waisted pants and cashmere cardigan and show modern emotion through vest and short blazer. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider the method to analyze and express fashion emotion style on the basis of mix-and-match trend of Romanticism. The purpose of this study is to analyze how Romanticism is expressed in the mix and match with other emotional style, predict direction of Romanticism style and establish the ground to find changing fashion trend accurately. The researcher expects that design development will be focused on the fashion, which is more various and characteristic and search for convenient, healthy life, on the basis of the analysis on mix and match shown in Romanticism fashion of the study. The researcher tried to provide the base of design development and assist design activation by using mix and match, which can create various new styles, accurately and understanding and predicting the fashion trend of the 21st century.
The growth of the middle school girls show big difference among the individuals and the development of each area of the body is not uniformed but diverse which could be understood as the period that the problems on the fit of the clothes occur extensively. Therefore, in this study, the somatotype of the middle school girls are intended to be categorized for the highly applicable clothes design. For this, the 3 middle schools in Jeonju were selected for anthropometric measurement of 324 middle schools. The items of measurement are related to the somatotype of middle school girls, clothes design which is consisted of total of 50 items. For the basic data of clothes was judged that the classification of somatotype related to the tops and bottoms would be rational; hence, it is classified into the upper part and lower part of the body to extract the body shape consistent factor. As a result of analyzing the factors, the upper body consistent was extracted as the 4 items: upper body circumference, upper body length, breast growth and arm length. It was displayed as 75.26% explicability. The lower body consistent factors are extracted as lower body height, lower body circumference, hip length, and rear shape with 78.62% explicability. To classify the somatotype of upper body and lower body, each factor score is made into the independent viable for group analysis. As a result, the upper body was classified into the 'upper body with small breast and long' and 'upper body with big breast'. The lower body was categorized as 'lower body with long hip length' and 'standard lower body'.
The purpose of this study is to comprehend western style in fashion and to contemplate the hybrid tendency reflected on western style, thereby to analyze the aesthetic characteristics of the hybrid tendency of western style. For such purposes, this study first examines western style historically, in order to analyze hybrid tendency reflected on western style, and conduct a case study by analyzing photographic materials of prêt-à-porter collection since 1980s. The result of this study is as follows: the hybrid tendency reflected on western style are modification and fusion of regional culture, adaptation and composition of subcultures, and appropriation of sexual minority culture. (1) Modification and fusion of regional culture is expressed in ethnic items and patterns of embroidery, mixing Mexican and Spanish, American Indian and American cultural references. (2) Adaptation and composition of subcultures emphasize traditional or vintage western style by mixing characteristics of western and other subcultures. (3) Appropriation of sexual minority culture is expressed in rhinestone chaps and fetish corset, glitter rodeo suit, reminiscent of drag or queer cultural references. The result of this study will provide basis which can be utilized in the development and educational background of fashion design.
At the end of April, 2009, the number of mobile phone users reached about 46 million in Korea. Consequently, the mobile shopping market is growing rapidly, and fashion products are one of the most concerned categories in mobile shopping market. In the meantime, the growth rates of domestic fashion industry and fashion retail market are forecasted very slow. In this situation, however, the growth rate of on-line shopping market including internet shopping, TV home shopping, and mobile shopping is estimated more than 12% per year until 2010. Particularly, mobile shopping area is forecasted the most rapid growing field. The objective of this study were to confirm the factors which had influences on mobile fashion shopping and to examine the effects of these factors affect the attitude toward mobile fashion shopping and the using intention of mobile fashion shopping. With the results, marketing strategies for mobile fashion shopping companies would be proposed. Date were gathered from 125 respondents of 20's and 30's females and were analyzed by AMOS 7.0. The key points of the results are; 1) The 5 factors of instant access, individualization, amusement, usefulness and ease of use which extracted from preceding researches were confirmed as the characteristics of mobile fashion shopping, 2) among these factors, amusement and usefulness had positive influences on the attitude toward mobile fashion shopping, 3) reliability on mobile fashion shopping didn't had an influence on the attitude toward mobile fashion shopping significantly, but had a positive influence on the using intention of mobile fashion shopping directly, and 4) the attitude toward mobile fashion shopping affects using intention of mobile fashion shopping positively. With these results, mobile fashion shopping companies can establish marketing strategies from various angles.
The quick response(QR) system is very popular in Korean apparel companies. However, the usage of QR system was not known well. The purpose of this study is to identify the usage of the quick response decision support system(QR DSS) and postponement manufacturing in the Korean apparel company. The researched company was the only one which used the QR DSS. The researchers carried out the depth interview with the QR decision makers of the company. This company had 14 brands, and had used the QR DSS since January, 2008. The results are as follows: The QR DSS was supportive computer software program, and it helped the staffs to make agile decision about QR repeat production of clothing. The QR DSS automatically calculated the related data, and suggested the expected sales volume and the proper supply amounts of the styles. There were four functions in QR DSS : 'QR Alert', 'Proper Supply Amount Simulation', 'Sensible QR', and 'Supply/Sales Simulation by Item'. The men's clothing brands effectively used 'Supply/Sales Simulation by Item' function. And the women's clothing brands effectively used 'QR Alert' function. This company also used the postponement production system for QR repeat production. The postponement production was conducted with four methods : the yarn stocking, the grey fabric stocking, the dyed fabric stocking, and the fabric sourcing. The men's clothing brands usually used of the yarn stocking methods and the dyed fabric stocking methods. The women's clothing brands usually used the grey fabric stocking methods. By using QR DSS and postponement production system the company was able to shorten the lead time for QR decision making.