To address infra-specific relationships of Lilium cernuum Kom., and to provide the fundamental information for developing new horticultural variations, we analyzed the morphology of individuals in natural populations. It observed the external form of L. cernuum Kom., and described through dividing by each type according to a form, number and length in each organ, to distribution aspect of prop roots, and to appearance of spot in perianth lobe. Also, it described after observing the internal form and structure in each organ. As for analysis of main ingredient (PCA) by character in L. cernuum Kom., as a result of carrying out analysis of main ingredient in order to examine the appearance of being available for habitat-based distinction in L. cernuum Kom. by selecting 3 traits (length in upper leaf, length in lower leaf, length in scape), which show difference by region out of the quantitative joint characters in the selected individual, 3 wide-area groups were mutually overlapped. Thus, the group-based difference was difficult to be found. However, the following tendency could be found. In other words, as the group of L. cernuum Kom. in the northern area moves south along the Taebaek mountain range, the tendency was indicated that the lower to the Nakdong-jeongmaek leads to getting shorter in scape, to getting longer in the upper leaf, and to get shorter and then longer in the lower leaf. As another group goes down by diverging from the Taebaek mountain range to the Sobaek Mountains, the tendency was indicated that the scape gets longer and that length in the upper and lower leaves gets shorter.
This experiments were carried out to find out the effects of different explant materials, kinds and concentration of plant growth regulators on the in vitro regeneration of Iris pseudoacorus L. The effects of growth regulators on regeneration from three explant sources (root, rhizome and leaf) were more or less same. Explants produced only callus with 2,4-D treatment and other regulators had no effects. The highest frequency of callus induction (rhizome: 84%) was on MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D. For plant regeneration, when calli were transferred to the first media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BA and 1.0 mg/L 2,4- D. Regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized in soil containing a mixture of vermiculite : perlite : leafmold (1 : 1 : 1), and their survival was high.
To determine the status of Korean wild reptiles and amphibians infection and relation with climate change of Korean peninsula, references were reviewed. Wild animals serve as intermediate, reservoirs and paratenic hosts to zoonotic parasites of human beings. The parasites and disease can be a serious problem for all herptiles. The infectious diseases, in particular, become parasitized through contact with other reptiles or contaminated objects and environments, or by eating infected food items. Worms are one of the most common intestinal parasites. Among reptiles, the most common infections are flatworms (trematodes), roundworms (nematodes), tapeworms (cestodes), and spiny-headed worms (acanthocephalans). A total of 20 species for infectious diseases from Korean wild reptiles and amphibians has been reviewed. Among them, 11 species was amphibians and 9 species for reptiles. The Korean wild herptiles had total 41 kinds of parasite pathogenic organisms. Meximum infections belonged to Rana nigromaculata as amphibians had 22 kinds of parasite organisms, including Gorgodera aponica, Gorgodera bombinae, Diplodiscus japonicus, Haematoloechus sibiricus japonicus, Pleurogenoides japonicus, Haematoloechus nanchangensis, Haematoloechus variegatus, Haematoloechus lobatus koreanus, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Halipergus japonicus, Haematolechus japonicus, Loxogenes liberum, Baerttia japonica, Ophiotaenia manae, Oswardcruzia lualata, Icosiella kobayashi, Pharyngodon pobypedates, Gyrinicola japonica, Catadiseus sp., Ophisthodiseus sp., Diplorchis sp., and Sparganum. Also, Dinodon rufozonatum as reptiles had 5 kinds of parasite, including Cotylaspis coreensis, Cotylaspis sinensis, Cephalogonimus japonicus, Astiotrema reniferum, Astiotrema odheri, Kaurma orientalis, and Astiotrema sp.. In the future, under the climatic extremes on Korean peninsula such as floods, drought and temperature variability, in particular, the susceptibility of amphibian and reptiles to infection will be increased and they have implications for the emergence of disease and the potential for climate change to exacerbate amphibian decline.
Songji lagoon, one of the major lagoons located along the East coast, is considered to be worth preserving because of its good water quality. To consider ways to manage the water quality of Songji lagoon, this study was conducted by employing the analysis technique for system analysis of the water quality model. This study used WASP model which is a model with hydraulic part and water quality part combined. The model for Songji lagoon used the same value as the coefficients of water quality reaction used for Hwajinpo model. And it was revised and verified with the water quality measured in Songji lagoon. The spatial concentration of water quality of Songji lagoon and Hwajin po exhibited different distribution respectively, yet showing a similar characteristic in physical and water side structure. The major water quality items used in system analysis are BOD, limiting nutrients (N, P). The principal conditions reflected the system analysis are an increase or decrease of Allochthonous pollution load and removal of sediment. The study results show that the water quality of Songji lagoon is considerably changed more in sediment than Allochthonous pollution load. Especially, the management of Nonpoint pollution due to a temporary rainfall is more important among allochthonous pollution load.
This study concerns the geomorphological and geological aspects of Sip-i-dong-pa-do which is consist of 10 separated islands located 38km west of Kunsan, Jeonbuk, Korea. Since these islands are mostly composed of various volcanic rocks, displaying in a circular structure, Sip-i-dong-pa-do may be formed by a cauldron subsidence. They exhibit a beautiful scenery including columnar joint, sea cliff and the other coastal features. Sip-i-dong-pa-do is, therefore, designated as quasi-preservation areas, considering their natural environment.
As for the Jinhae bay in 2010, hypoxia under DO concentration 3 mg/L began to form from the station where thermocline formed in the early June, and hypoxia disappeared in the late October as thermocline did. DIP and DIN was much higher in the bottom water of the sea where hypoxia occurred, and pH showed its low distribution. IL, COD and AVS of the surface sediment were shown relatively high at the station which is affected by the inflow of land water from the bay Masan bay and at the station where hypoxia remains for a long time. As for benthos distribution, macrobenthos never appeared at the survey station 8 and 23 which are near the bay Hangam bay and Gohyeonseong bay and macrobenthos appeared most diversely at the survey station 11 where hypoxia did not occur. Density was also minimum at the survey station 19, 21, and 23 where hypoxia occurred, whereas density was relatively high at the survey station 11, 13 and 14 where oxygendeficient phenomenon did not occurred. Meanwhile, biomass was lowest at the survey station 23 which is affected by sewage coming from the bay Wonmun bay and shipbuilding industry, whereas biomass was highest at the survey station 14 and 11. As for benthos of the Jinhae bay, species richness and diversity was relatively high at the survey station 11, 12, 13 and 14 where hypoxia did not occur, and thus it showed relatively good benthic community structure. Like this, hypoxia appears in the bay Jinhae bay for about 5 to 6 months annually, and during that period, most of the marine environmental factors appear to be abnormal. Therefore, we need the fundamental measures to reduce hypoxia for the purpose of producing marine products continuously.
The trends of sea surface temperature (SST) variations derived from NOAA satellite data in the Northeast Asian Waters (NAW) were quantified using NOAA satellite data for 19 years (1990~2008). The annual mean SSTs were generally increased in the NAW. However, the SST was decreased in some areas of the East Sea in the NAW. The areas in the East Sea were coincided with the same places which SST was decreased in winter season. The annual amplitudes of SST were increased in the northern parts of the East China Sea, the Korean Straits and the southwestern parts of the East Sea. However, the annual amplitudes of SST were decreased in the other waters. The SST was increased in the southwestern parts of the Yellow Sea in winter but it was decreased in summer season for 19 years (1990~2008). The SST variations in the northwestern parts of the East Sea (NWES) in summer and winter seasons were increased at the same period of time for 19 years (1990~2008). The rates of SST rise in the NWES in winter were higher than those of summer season. Therefore, the annual amplitude in the NWES was decreased.