The widely accepted recognition of global environmental problems has resulted in a paradigm shift for research in the hydrosciences. Hydrologic model has played important roles in hydroscience and engineering. However, there are some limitations to deal with real world problems. In this paper, comprehensive review on the current status and major issues on hydrologic models. The sources of model uncertainty were classified and discussed. Finally, model calibration and verification issues were discussed in view of Popperian perspective.
Marine macroalgal community structure of subtidal zones were examined at eight study sites, Jeju, Korea, from March to June 2010. A total of 182 species were identified, including 22 green, 37 brown and 123 red algae. Of them, 15 species were observed at all the study sites. Species richness of seaweeds was maximal at Seongsan with 112 species and minimal at Sinheung with 44 species. Average seaweed biomass was 735.24 g wet wt. m-2 and ranged from 165.82 g wet wt. m-2 at Sinheung to 1,160.43 g wet wt. m-2 at Bomok. Articulated coralline algae were dominant occupying 27.05% (198.92 g wet wt. m-2) of total biomass for the eight study sites in Jeju Island. Subdominant species were Ecklonia cava and Codium coactum, comprising 26.62% (195.72 g wet wt. m-2) and 8.42% (61.91 g wet wt. m-2), respectively. Vertical distribution of subtidal seaweeds in terms of biomass showed from E. cava Colpomenia sinuosa - Codium coactum Ecklonia kurome Undaria pinnatifida - Cladophora wrightiana - Peyssonnelia capensis in the subtital zone between 5~15 m depth level.
This study was carried out to establish the management plan by surveying and analyzing the environmental and ecological characteristics of Milletia japonica habitat, Mt. Moak, Jeonbuk, Korea. The habitats were located in the edges of trails and valleys. The flora were summarized as 123 taxa including 56 families, 95 genera, 110 species, 10 varieties and 3 forms. The rare plant was 1 taxa including Milletia japonica, and Philadelphus shcrenckii and Weigela subsessilis of Korean endemic plants. The specific plants by floristic region were 10 taxa including Morus cathayana, Orixa japonica, Asparagus cochinchinensis and so forth. The present conditions of communities were 6 types including Quercus serrata, Pinus densiflora, Celtis sinensis, P. rigida, Castanea crenata and Larix kaempferi. The vegetation change is considered a evergreen coniferous forest in the a deciduous forest. In the results of analyzing the diversity index, H′ was from 2.106 to 3.154, from 2.565 to 3.584 in H′max, from 0.821 to 0.895 in J′ and from 0.105 to 0.179 in D. In the results of analysing the soil environments, there showed that acidity was pH 4.69, 0.33 dS m-1 of electrical conductivity(EC), 15.44 mg kg-1 of available P2O5, 41.80% of organic matter content, 0.11 cmol+ kg-1 of exchangeable K+, 1.91 cmol+ kg-1 of exchangeable Ca2+, 0.40 cmol+ kg-1 of exchangeable Mg2+. According to the analysis of the surrounding environment and characteristics of the community in Mt. Moak, Jeonbuk, four disturbance types were discovered, such as the fragmentation of habitats due to trails, shrinking of habitats due to the expansion of Camellia sinensis cultivation, the destruction of habitats due to artificial plant planing, and removal of Milletia japonica due to the refinement of woodlands.
This study was conducted to analyze the distributional status of endangered birds inhabit in Seongmo, Gyodong, Boreum Islands in 2009 from spring to autumn. The endangered birds observed in this area were a total of 16 species. The areas preferred to endangered birds were largely divided into the forest type of low mountain areas, the coast type of foreshore and mudflat areas and the open type of agricultural land. The forest type was mainly observed birds of prey, the coast type was mostly identified water birds and the open type was shared with birds of prey and water birds. The information in these endangered birds is determined that can be used as a basis data for protecting certain birds and habitats.
The purpose of this study is to offer raw data on managing naturalized plants by researching the naturalized plants distributed in Gyeongju Campus, Dongguk University. The results are as follows. The numbers of naturalized plants were summarized as 47 taxa; 13 families, 37 genera, 45 species and 2 varieties. In an analysis of life forms, there were 1 taxa of megaphanerophytes, 5 taxa of chamaiphytes, 7 taxa of hemicryptophytes, 1 taxa of geophytes and 33 taxa of therophytes. The following summarizes the attributes of the naturalized plants. Most of the plants commonly originated from North America and Europe. The 5 naturalized degree that was widely distributed and had many individual was the most common. Until 1921, after the opening of 1 period was the most common in the introduced period. There were 4 taxa of invasive alien plants; Rumex acetocella, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Aster pilosus and Lactuca sativa. As regards the management of invasive alien plants, because Rumex acetocella, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Aster pilosus and Lactuca sativa have a negative impact on the ecosystem, they need to be efficiently controlled.
In Baekyang rice fields near the Junam reservoir, 87 of White-naped cranes Grus vipio and 1,010 individuals of White-fronted geese Anser albifrons were observed on average. The number of White-naped cranes and White-fronted geese observed in B site was higher than that in A site where the frequency of disturbances such as vehicles and visitor’s accesses were higher. After the vehicles’ and people’s access were controlled, the number of White-naped cranes used in A site increased significantly, but that of White-fronted geese didn’t increase significantly. We propose that the controls for the vehicles’ and visitor’s accesses to the Baekyang birdwatching facilities in A site from November to March will stably enhance the foraging opportunity of White-naped crane in the Baekyang rice fields. Among the four types of rice fields, Whitenaped cranes and White-fronted geese preferred mostly to forage at the rice fields which were not plowed and straws were removed. White-fronted geese also preferred to forage at the barley cultivated fields. Small number of White-naped cranes choose the rice fields which were not plowed and straws were left with highest density of seeds (308 m2) in rice fields and lowest proportion of Baekyang rice fields. And the two species didn’t forage at the plowed rice fields. We propose to recommend to farmers to leave straws and not to plow in rice fields.
Recently, satellite image data has been widely used in various fields. Extraction of forest information is the field which has great application possibility. Forest type information can be used in forecasting and simulating soil erosion, landslides and debris flow as an important influence factor. Application of satellite imagery has advantages to obtain latest forest type information. NDVI calculated from near infra red band of satellite imagery represents vegetation activity, with seasonal difference of it forest type can be classified. In this study, we analyzed MODIS imagery from 2011 years to 2013 years in Gangwon-do where forest area is large and classified forest type with coniferous and deciduous forests. As a result, there was high correlation between forest type of digital map and it classified from NDVI. The possibility for extraction of forest type information from satellite imagery was confirmed.
This research is on the halophilic bacteria inhibiting in solar salterns. It was conducted by measuring the composition of cultivating ground in each step of salt production and targeting solar salterns during 2012 and 2013 in Jeungdo, Shinangun, JeollaNam-do, Korea. In each step of salt production, the succession of the group has been studied using pyrosequencing method and the new halophile variety has been separately identified in solar salterns. The results are as follows; The decomposition ability of protein, lipid, cellulose, and starch, has been experimented with separately identifying 33 bacteria that appeared as dominants in solar salterns. Overall, the bacteria with decomposition capability of all 4 components were Micrococcus luteus, Nocardioides daejeonensis in Actinobacteria group, Halobacillus trueperi whb45 in Firmicutes group, and Aurantimonas coralicida, Lutibacterium anuloederans, Nesiotobacter exalbescens in Alphaproteobacteria group. Analysis in the diversity of bacteria community of diluted solution with concentration of 3%, 6%, 11%, 20%, and 30% has been made using pyrosequencing method. In the Order level, SAR 11 dominated in 3% salt solution, Rhodobacterales group (18.9%) in 6% solution, Micrococcales group showed the highest ratio in 11% and 20% solutions, and Rhodobacterales group was dominant in the solution of 30%. In Phylum level, Proteobacteria group showed dominancy in 3% and 6% salt solutions, Actinobacteria group was dominant in 11% and 20% solutions, and Proteobacteria group was dominant in 30% solution. Among the isolated strains, seven novel strains (Kmb21, Kmb26, Kmb27, Kmb32, Kmb42, Kmb64, and Kmb80) were donate registered to NCBI and KCTC, JCM, each as new variety candidate.
In this study, we confirmed that the pesticides flow out into streams during rainfall by the way of helicopter spraying. The maximum concentration was 23 pg·mL-1 and the distribution of concentrations showed similar to the normal distribution. The runoff characteristics of insecticides using helicopter spraying was affected by the elapsed time of the start from spraying until rainy days and rainfall intensity. The pesticide concentrations of sample ranged from 0.65 to 3.04 pg·mL-1. Fish kill did not occurred in the stream and the lake cause of the pesticides runoff. Aquatic animals, such as Orthrias toni, Rhinogobius brunneus, tadpole etc. were still alive in the stream. It indicates that this class of pesticide does not cause toxic to fish by runoff event. However, the honey bee kill event was reported in the spray region during the helicopter spraying period. The further study such as ecotoxicity test is needed to reveal the pesticides effect reach to the ecosystem.
The spatial resolution of 3-Dimensional numerical model has a very important influence on the model result. The land-use and orographic effect is also influenced by the spatial resolution of the model. A large errors in model performance are produced depending on the terrain complexity. In this study we performed Air Quality Forecast model (AQF) simulation and analyzed the change in the ozone concentration depending on spatial resolution at small and medium-sized mixed areas with urban and rural area types. As the result, improving the spatial resolution improved the simulation of the downward trend of ozone at night. This was mainly due to improvement of local concentration contaminants at fragmented grid. In the case of wind speed, the model with high-resolution shows better agreement with observation at night.