Recently a biosafety level-3(BL-3) mobile laboratory has been set up for the virus scanning and vaccine development because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study on air flow inlet and outlet location and its flow direction with ventilation in the mobile laboratory needs to prevent spread of COVID-19 virus because the COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted to people through respiratory droplets and aerosol coming out as their coughing. This study is conducted on the air flow pattern optimization in BL-3 mobile laboratory with various design specifications of position of air supply & exhaust port and particle source. Air flow patterns of ceiling supply-exhaust and ceiling supply-bottom side exhaust with particle source were determined to compare the impact of the infection prevention. CFD simulation was used to analyze for two air flow patterns and particle source position. Numerical results showed that air flow pattern of air conditioning system with ceiling supply-exhaust in a row is more effective than that of ceiling supply-bottom side exhaust air flow pattern in terms of infection prevention in biosafety mobile laboratory.
This study aimed to verify the validity of the evaluation items and weight determination of the indoor environmental safety area, which has the most frequent accidents, among the safety certification evaluations of educational facilities by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea, which has been conducted since May 2021. As a preceding study, the evaluation items of the school safety evaluation checklist being implemented in the US state of Vermont were compared, and the causes of accidents judged by teachers in the accident experiences written by 200 Korean teachers were compared with the safety certification evaluation items belonged to the Ministry of Education. In addition, research literature using the AHP analysis technique on safety risks of elementary and secondary schools in China and safety evaluation index study cases of 539 elementary school children in Indonesia were analyzed. Through these preceding studies, measures to add and adjust evaluation items were derived and the validity and importance rankings of evaluation items were calculated through AHP questionnaires to teachers and safety experts. In addition, a survey was conducted on 104 ordinary people to verify the results of expert analysis. As a result of expert AHP analysis, 'safety education and disaster response training (.396)' was the highest priority for the relative importance of the first layer, followed by 'safety measures (.387)' and 'building materials'. Safety (.216)' was found to be the highest priority. In the overall importance ranking of the 13 second-tier screening items, safety accident prevention education had the highest priority and disaster preparedness training ranked second, proving that the Ministry of Education's review weight was underestimated. In addition, slip and collision accident countermeasures, which were not in the existing Ministry of Education review items, ranked 4th, laboratory practice room safety measures ranked 6th, and sanitation, cleanliness, hazardous substance management, and cafeteria/cooking room safety measures ranked 9th, indicating a significant level of importance. Referring to the importance ranking, which is the result of this study, it is suggested that it is necessary to review the weight of each review item again.
PURPOSES : The "Super-Bus Rapid Transit" (S-BRT) standard guidelines recommend installing physical facilities to separate bus lanes, so as to remove possible conflicts with other traffic when using an existing road as an S-BRT route. Based on a collision simulation, we reviewed the protective performance and installation method of a low-profile barrier, i.e., one that does not occupy much of the width of the road as a physical facility and does not obstruct the driver's vision.
METHODS : The LS-DYNA collision analysis software was used to model the low-profile barrier, and a small car collision simulation was performed with two different installation methods and by changing the collision speeds of the vehicle. The installation methods were divided into a fixed installation method based on on-site construction and a precast method, and collision speeds of 80 and 100 km/h were applied. The weight of the crash vehicle was 1.3 tons, and the segment lengths of the low-profile barriers were 2.5 and 4.0 m, respectively. The lowprofile barriers were modeled as precast concrete blocks, and the collision simulation for a fixed concrete barrier was performed by fixing the nodes at the bottom of the low-profile barrier. The low-profile barrier comprised a square cross-section reinforced concrete structure, and the segments were connected by connecting steel pipes with varying diameters to wire ropes.
RESULTS : From comparing and analyzing the small car collision simulations for the changes in collision speeds and installation methods of the low-profile barrier, a significant difference was found in the theoretical head impact velocity (THIV) and acceleration severity index(ASI) for the 2.5-m barrier at a collision speed of 80 km/h. However, the differences in the installation method were not significant for the 4.0-m barrier. The occupant safety index with a collision speed of 80 km/h was calculated to be below the limit regardless of the installation method, and the length of the segment satisfied the occupant protection performance. At a collision speed of 100 km/h, when the segment length of the 2.5-m barrier was fixed, the THIV value exceeded the limit value; thus, the occupant protection performance was not satisfied, and the occupant safety index differed depending on the installation method. The maximum rotation angle of the vehicle, which reflects the behavior of the vehicle after the collision, also varied depending on the installation method, and was generally small in the case of precast concrete.
CONCLUSIONS : Low-profile barriers can be installed using a fixed or precast method, but as a result of the simulation, the precast movable barrier shows better results in terms of passenger safety. Therefore, it would be advantageous to secure protection performance by installing a low-profile barrier with the precast method for increased safety in high-speed vehicle collisions.
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effect of a simulation-based patient safety performance improvement education program on caregivers’ knowledge, attitude, and performance toward safety. Methods: This study adopted a quasi-experimental design that applied before-and-after designs for the test and control groups. It was configured focusing on “infectious disease,” “fires,” “falls,” and “drug abuse.” Results: There was a significant difference in knowledge and patient safety performance between the experimental group and the control group. However, there was no significant difference in attitudes toward safety. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the simulation-based patient safety performance improvement education program is effective in improving patient safety performance. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously apply and evaluate the simulation-based patient safety performance training program to enable caregivers to develop professional prevention and management capabilities within elderly care facilities
The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbiological contamination of knives and cutting boards in child-care centers. Materials used in this study were swabbed of cutting boards and knives (blade, handle of knife, and joint of handle and blade) in 129 child-care centers. Mean values of total aerobic bacteria of swabs of knives and cutting boards were 1.7±0.7 log cfu/100 cm2 and 1.7±0.9 log cfu/100 cm2, respectively. Contamination levels of coliform bacteria from knives and cutting boards were 1.5±0.6 log cfu/100 cm2 and 1.7±0.8 log cfu/100 cm2, respectively. Comparing microbiological contamination levels of knives and cutting boards according to type and size of child-care centers, there was no significant difference. Bacillus cereus was detected in knife handles and cutting boards. Diarrhea-type toxin gene (entFM) was detected in B. cereus isolates. Antibiotic resistance tests showed that B. cereus was resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. To reduce microbiological contamination levels of knives and cutting boards in child-care centers and prevent food poisoning from bacteria contamination, continuous education by children's food-service management center is needed for sterilization and disinfection of knives and cutting boards.