간행물

한국육종학회 심포지엄

권호리스트/논문검색
이 간행물 논문 검색

권호

2014 한국육종학회 차세대BG21사업단 골든씨드프로젝트사업단 공동심포지엄 (2014년 7월) 389

1.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
For a long time, public awareness of plant breeding activities was low. Since the late 1970s, the situation has changed when activists started a campaign against large multinationals because they began to buy seed companies all over the world. They were concerned about their power to control the world seed market and distribute seeds only to the rich. A few years later, with the advent of the gene technology age and the first genetically modified plants reaching the market scale a new debate came up fueled by the green movement. Since that time, any activities with genetically modified plants are strictly regulated in all industrial countries. In Europe, a number of directives have been implemented by the European Commission which have been transferred into national legislation by the member countries. Market approval for GMO varieties needs a qualified majority by the board of minsters but unfortunately there has been no agreement since more than 15 years. This was one reason why all industry activities in this field (and most academic as well) came to an end or were relocated outside the EU. Today, only a very small area (<100,000 ha) is planted with GMO seeds in Europe while acreages have been up to >150 million ha worldwide. In Europe, plant variety release and market approval is regulated by a Community Plant Variety Protection directive which gives a breeder the exclusive right to market its variety all over Europe. To get an approval, a new variety must fulfill a number of requirements. It must be novel, distinguishable and consistent and it must have an added value to the farmer/grower. Plant Breeding in worldwide and in Europe is dominated by some multinationals, however in Germany a number of small and medium sized companies are still very successful in the seed market. Those companies have a focus on a small range of crops and their activities are mostly limited to Europe with Eastern Europe gaining more importance in the past years. Interestingly, their R&D rate is among the highest of all industry (~16%) which demonstrates a great interest to adopt new technologies. The EC has supported plant breeding research by its framework programs where researchers from academia and industry work together in a multinational project. Moreover, the German government has been increasing the budget for research and technology over the past 8 years. Breeding research has been supported by numerous initiatives such as GABI, the German nation al plant genome project launched in 1998. Recently, a large project to improve yield and yield stability of wheat has been started by the ministry of agriculture. The German research foundation (DFG) supports basic and applied breeding research in different ways. Every scientist working in Germany can submit a proposal to the DFG at any time. Coordinated projects such as priority programs (PP) enable the collaboration of a limited number of research groups. We have initiated a PP on flowering time research 3 years ago. Twenty groups work on different aspects of flowering time regulation in model and crop plant species (http://www.flowercrop.uni-kiel.de/en). At the end of my talk, I will present a selection of recent results from our PP with a direct impact on plant breeding.
2.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
We are currently developing a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping service at IRRI to accelerate progress in rice breeding by providing rapid and cost-effective marker services. SNP marker development and validation is being performed based on cloned genes and QTLs, GWAS hits, and whole genome sequence data to identify predictive SNP markers at important genes for key traits for the breeding programs. Trait-based and targeted SNPs are being deployed in sets of 24 and 96 SNPs on a Fluidigm EP1 system. At the same time, 384 SNP sets and a 6K SNP chip developed by Susan McCouch at Cornell University are being used for higher density genome scans on an Illumina system. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approaches with 96 and 384 barcoded samples per sequence lane are also being evaluated in comparison to SNP array technology based on the number of loci, call rates, turnaround times, and cost per sample. An efficient sample processing workflow with an integrated LIMS is also being optimized to enable high throughput genotyping with sample tracking to minimize errors. Moreover, web-based SNP data analysis tools have been deployed through the IRRI Galaxy workbench to speed up SNP data analysis. Future efforts will focus on large-scale deployment of GBS across breeding materials to enable QC genotyping, tracking of donor introgressions, and integration of genome-wide prediction into the variety development pipelines. The large-scale application of high-density markers will help transform IRRI’s rice breeding programs and increase the rate of genetic gain towards developing high-yielding, stress-tolerant varieties for target environments and market segments
3.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Transcriptional control plays an important role in regulating submergence responses in plants. Although numerous genes are highly induced during hypoxia, their individual roles in hypoxic responses are still poorly understood. Through microarray studies, we identified a number of transcription factors (TF) that are induced in different stages of hypoxia. We have chosen two TFs, AtHRE1, which was specifically induced during hypoxia but not by cold, drought or dehydration, and WRKY22, which was rapidly and strongly induced upon submergence in Arabidopsis, for further studies. Our results suggest that in addition to ethylene an ethylene-independent signal is also required to mediate hypoxia induction of HRE1. Through a series of genetic and molecular analyses, we found that hypoxia-inducible genes could be affected by AtHRE1-RNAi lines in two different ways: hypoxic induction of glycolytic and fermentative genes was reduced, whereas induction of a number of peroxidase and cytochrome P450 genes was increased. Taken together, our results show that AtERF73/HRE1 is involved in modulating ethylene responses under both normoxia and hypoxia. We found that many genes in the WRKY transcription factor (TF) family were rapidly and strongly induced upon submergence in Arabidopsis. Notably, a large proportion of innate immunity marker genes were co-induced with WRKYs under submergence and other stresses. Compared to wild-type, WRKY22 T-DNA insertion mutants, wrky22-ko1 and wrky22-ko2, have lower submergence-acclimatized disease resistance. Submergence induction of innate immunity markers, such as FRK1 and WRKY53, were lower in these WRKY22 mutants. These results provide evidence that submergence triggers Arabidopsis immunity through WRKY22, allowing plants to defend simultaneous or sequential infection upon floods.
4.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
The global population increase causes various problems as food and energy shortage and environmental change. As for food problem, innovative agricultural system is required to double food production for 10 billion people in the mid of this century. We introduced the genome or chromosomes of related wild species to the common wheat by interspecific crosses and evaluated their characters. Some alien chromosome addition wheat lines showed better bread-making quality, kernel mineral contents, or phosphorus-use efficiency. The lines with a chromosome of Leymus were found to secrete a substance to inhibit nitrification, which may increase nitrogen-use efficiency. In addition, we produced multiple synthetic derivative (MSD) populations in the genetic background of several practical cultivars. The morphology of each plant in the population was similar to that of the common wheat variety and relatively regular with each other, which enabled to find QTLs to elucidate tolerance of abiotic stresses. We are cultivating these lines in the North African countries and evaluating.
5.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Most eukaryotic organisms, including plants, display specialized cellular and behavioral rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. The circadian clock generates this rhythm to convey daily or seasonal basis of temporal information, coordinating the proper phasing of many important cellular processes. Temperature compensation (TC) is one of the defining features of the clock mechanism. Under this function, the speed of the clock or period remains relatively constant over physiologically relevant temperatures, unlike the biochemical reactions. Thus, TC allows organisms to sustain their life ordinarily in various thermal environments by providing an accurate measure of the passage of time regardless of surrounding temperatures. Previously, Edward and his colleagues performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) study to find TC related natural variations in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from two Arabidopsis ecotypes, which are adapted to different thermal environments; one parent is Cvi accession (Cvi) which originates from the warm climate, Cape Verde Island, and the other is Ler accession (Ler) from Northern Europe. For the two most significant QTLs, the core clock components in Arabidopsis clock, GIGANTEA (GI) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) are proposed as strong candidates. Moreover, the amino acid substitution leading to GICvi and ZTLCvi (Ler to Cvi) are suggested to be the causal factors for the TC QTLs respectively. However, precise molecular mechanisms of these natural variations on TC are still not understood well. Here, we elucidate the molecular impact of the natural variation shaping GICvi and ZTLCvi on TC function. GICvi and ZTLCvi post-translationally regulate ZTL stability in antagonistic way, resulting in the opposite period/clock effects mediated by ZTL protein abundance. However, if both GICvi and ZTLCvi are present, they mutually balance their own effect on ZTL, which in turn supports TC capacity of Cvi especially at high temperatures. Considering the amino acid residues in GI and ZTL, where the natural variations arise, are highly conserved across many important crop species including rice, corn, cabbage and etc., this research will give valuable insights into the TC related thermal adaptive processes in Arabidopsis as well as those important crop plants.
6.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for screening target loci with agricultural traits and for developing designed cultivars. We propose the molecular breeding platform based on the variation block (VB) method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybeans and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color. In addition, we identified recombination hot spots of soybean genome in 614 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) using VB-specific indel markers. We expect that this platform facilitate the development of designed cultivars by introducing precise target loci into plant genomes.
7.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Trees are extraordinary long living, sessile organisms that are faced quite variable environmental conditions and biotic stress factors during their life. They have a high level of genetic diversity to ensure adaptation and adaptability. With the massive advance in next generation DNA-sequencing, our abilities to screen this genetic variation have increased drastically. I will give an overview on the different genomic approaches, main target tree species and examples for application in the area of population genetics. Examples will show how high throughput SNP genotyping clarifies our views on taxonomy, phylogeography and provide us with useful data for different diagnostic applications such as species identification, tracking geographic origin and screening the level of pre-disposition to abiotic and biotic stress factors. Since a few years next generation sequencing and advanced molecular marker development have also been used in genetic association studies and transcriptome sequencing (RNASeq) in order to discover genes that are coding economical and ecological important phenotypic traits of trees. I will present examples on target phenotypic traits and the use in tree breeding programs
8.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Genetic resources play a great role in crop breeding because of containing a broad array of useful genes. Currently, the harder are rice breeders trying to develop new rice cultivars with the improved traits, they are more often handicapped by the limited availability of germplasm resources. Thus, a desirable core or heuristic (HS) set of germplasm with maximum genetic diversity can be usefully exploited to breakthrough the present and future challenges of the rice breeding. As such we previously developed the rice HS sets of 166 diverse accessions out of a total 24,368 rice germplasms. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the patterns of genome-wide genetic variations accumulated in the HS as well as Korean rice over the time. We characterized a total of about 11.8 millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the rice genome from resequencing a total of 295 rice genomes including 137 HS and 158 KB rice sets, with an average of approximately 10x depth and > 90% coverage. Using about 460,000 high-quality SNPs (HQSNPs), we specified the population structure, confirming our HS set covers all the rice sub-populations. We further traced the relative nucleotide variabilities of HQSNPs and found the level of the diversity was dynamically changing across the KB genome, which reveals the selection history of KB lines in the past and present. In addition, the results of our genome wide association study (GWAS) suggests that our HS can be also a good reservoir of valuable alleles, pinpointing those alleles underlying the important rice agronomical traits. Overall, the resequencing of our HS set re-illuminates the past, present of the germplasm utilization, which will support the Korean rice breeding in the future.
9.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
수발아는 밀의 생육 단계 중에서 등숙 기간에 잦은 강우와 낮은 온도로 수확하기 전에 이삭이 발아되는 현상으로 수발아가 발생하면 품질이 저하되고 수량도 감소하게 된다. 최근 주요 밀 생산국에서 3∼4년 마다 발생하고 있으 며, 국내에서도 최근 이상기상으로 인해 밀 수확시기에 강우가 발생할 확률이 높아지고 있어 대비가 필요하다. 우 리나라에서 70% 이상 재배되고 있는 금강밀의 수발아율은 평균 35% 정도로 높다. 수발아가 진행되면 α-amylase에 의해 전분이 분해되기 때문에 제분하여 나오는 밀가루나 가공 제품이 고유의 특성을 잃어버리게 된다. Falling number의 기준 수치인 300sec 이상으로 측정되어야 온전한 품질을 나타내지만, 수발아된 원맥은 100sec 수치를 나 타내어 부적합한 특징을 알 수 있었고, 수분, 회분, 단백질, 침전가와 같은 품질 요인들을 측정하면 정상 원맥과 다 른 품질을 나타내었다. 국수 가공 적성에서 면대 밝기(L*)값은 71.99로 시중의 중력분 밀가루와 금강밀에 비하여 면대색이 어두웠으며, 면대두께는 1.67㎜로 중력분과는 큰 차이가 없었지만, 금강밀 1.88㎜에 비해서는 얇았다. 수 발아된 원맥의 면 견고성은 중력분에 비해서 높았고, 씹힙성은 중력분에 비해 낮아 식감이 좋지 않은 결과를 나타 냈다. 제빵 가공 적성에서 빵부피 688ml로 시중의 강력분 밀가루 850ml에 비하여 부피가 작았으며, 속질경도는 3.17N로 강력분 0.95N보다 높아 식미감에 좋지 않은 영향을 미칠 것으로 예상되었다. 수발아 검정 방법으로는 직 접 인위적으로 물을 주는 인공강우, 모래에 이삭을 꽂아두고 발아율을 측정하는 모래묻이법과, 종자 휴면 특성을 나타내는 지표인 GI(Germination index)가 있다. 인공강우, 모래묻이법은 년차간 차이가 나타났지만, GI 평가는 년 차간 차이가 나타나지 않았다. GI값은 모래묻이법이나 인공강우를 이용한 수발아율과 정의 상관을 나타내어 향후 수발아 저항성 및 계통 선발의 지표로 활용이 가능할 것이다. 염색체 4AL에 존재하며 외국 밀 품종에서 수발아 저 항성 관련 유전자 여부를 확인하는데에 효과적으로 활용되고 있는 SSR 마커인 ZXQ118와 Xhbe03를 이용하여 국 내 밀 품종을 평가한 결과, 국내 밀 품종의 변이 폭이 다양하지 않아 수발아 저항성 유전자원을 구별하기는 어려웠 다. 앞으로 국내 밀에서 수발아 저항성 계통 선발에 활용이 가능한 마커 개발에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 종합적으로, 수발아에 의해 품질이 저하되고, 수량이 감소하는 것을 예방하기 위해서는 수발아 검정 방법을 활용하여 정확한 검정을 통한 수발아에 강한 계통 육성과 함께 궁극적으로는 수발아 저항성 품종 개발이 필요하다.
10.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Tongil (IR667-98-1-2) rice, developed in 1972, is a high-yielding rice variety derived from a three-way cross between indica and japonica. Tongil contributed to staple food self-sufficiency of Korea, an achievement that was termed the ‘Korean Green Revolution’. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide-level genome structure of Tongil rice and compared it to those of the parental varieties. A total of 17.3 billion Illumina Hiseq reads, 47× genome coverage, were generated from Tongil rice. Three parental accessions, two indica and one japonica types, of Tongil rice were also sequenced for approximately 30x genome coverage. A total of 2,149,991 SNPs were detected between Tongil and Nipponbare; the average SNP frequency of Tongil was 5.77 per kb. Genome composition based on the SNP data by comparing with the three parental genome sequences on sliding window of Nipponbare genome sequence revealed that 91.8% of the Tongil genome originated from the indica parents and 7.9% from the japonica parent, different from the theoretical expectation in a three-way cross, i.e., 75% indica and 25% japonica parental origins on average. Copy number of SSR motifs, ORF gene distribution throughout the whole genome, gene ontology (GO) annotation, yield-related QTLs or gene locations, and polymorphic transposon insertions were also comparatively analyzed between Tongil and parents using sequence-based tools. The results indicated that each genetic factor was transferred from parents into Tongil in proportion to the whole-genome composition. The Tongil rice is the first successful superior cultivar derived from indica × japonica hybridization in Korea. Defining of genome structure demonstrates that the Tongil genome is composed mostly of the indica genome with a small proportion of japonica genome introgression. This work was supported by a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (Plant Molecular Breeding Center No. PJ008125), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
11.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
While a wealth of genetic diversity can be found from traditional rice varieties, wild rice species and wild relatives of rice, transfer of useful genes to modern varieties are often hampered by linkage drag. In this study, the previously identified blast resistance locus Pi45(t) from a cross between ‘Ilpumbyeo’ and ‘Moroberekan’ was showed to be linked with the spreading-type panicle caused by the SPR3 locus. Using InDel4 and RM17579 linked to the Pi45(t) and the SPR3, respectively, the distance between the two loci was estimated to be 6.9cM. This suggests a tight, yet incomplete linkage and provides the opportunity to utilize Pi45(t) in breeding programs without including SPR3. Two groups based on the genotype at the SPR3 locus were assembled; the CLosed Panicle (CLP) and SPReading panicle (SPR) groups with lines, which were homozygous for the Ilpumbyeo and Moroberekan alleles, respectively. A comparison between the traits of CLP and SPR groups revealed a decrease in 1000-grain weight and length and an increase in spikelets per panicle and secondary branches in the SPR group. This complicates selection against SPR3 as it is not clear whether these quantitative trait loci are linked to either SPR3 or Pi45(t). Re-evaluation of these traits using lines recombinant at the two loci would be necessary to clarify this issue.
12.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Using a series of BC8F4 nearly isogenic lines(IL-20) derived from a cross between Hwaseongbyeo, as the recurrent parent, and wild rice Oryza minuta (IRGC Acc. No. 101144) as the donor parent we constructed a high-resolution physical map for the days to heading (dth9)-QTL. dth9 QTL was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9 across a 34.74-kb region containing 8 predicted genes. Heading date of Japonica rice variety Hwaseongbyeo was one week earlier than a near-isogenic line (NILs) IL-20 under natural field (NF) conditions and 3-4 days under short-day (SD) conditions implying that the dth9-QTL is involved in photoperiod sensitivity in rice. Of the 8 predicted genes three were protein-coding genes in dth9-QTL region. According to RiceXpro published data, micro-array analysis of different leaf developmental stages of Nipponbare showed a higher level of LOC_Os09g36700 mRNA expression during panicle initiation stage. This data further supported our prediction that dth9 locus is responsible for delayed heading in IL-20. Previous studies showed that RNase T2 family proteins are involved in photoperiod sensitivity. Based on these findings we sequenced two candidate genes, which encoded for RNase T2 family proteins. Interestingly, we found the existence of a missense mutation in LOC_Os09g36700 gene suggesting that dth9-QTL might control difference in days to heading between Hwaseongbyeo and IL-20. The QTL for days to heading had not been detected in previous QTL studies between Oryza cultivars, indicating the existence of potentially novel allele from O. mimuta.
13.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum is a major disease problem on wheat and barley around the world. The objectives of this study were to evaluate for FHB resistance under greenhouse and filed condition in 2012 and 2013. We screened for Type I resistance in the field using spray inoculation and for Type II resistance in the greenhouse using single floret inoculation. Sumai 3 and Ning7840 were used the FHB resistant check. Five hundred and twelve lines were evaluated for resistance to initial infection (type I) and to spread of symptoms within spike (type II). The inoculum was F. graminearum (GZ3639) prepared at a concentration of 1 X 105 macroconidai/ml with Tween 20. The field screening plots were inoculated twice and mist-irrigation was applied to facilitate FHB development. FHB severity was assessed visually 21 days and determined as the percentage of symptomatic spikelets from the total of all spikelets observed in 20 spikes. Both in the greenhouse and field test, we could observe five categories of FHB severity: resistant (R: 0-20%), moderately resistant (MR: 21-40%), moderate (M: 41-60%), moderately susceptible (MS: 61-80%), and susceptible (S: 81-100%). The results showed that seventy seven lines showed the R and MR category on FHB severity. In addition, nine lines showed similar FHB severity compared to Sumai 3 (13.3%).
14.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
기후변화에 따른 지구온난화로 작물을 가해하는 해충의 대발생 가능성이 증가됨에 따라 안정적인 식량 공급에 필수적인 내충성 품종 개발이 필요하다. 해충에 대한 저항성 자원 탐색과 관련 저항성 유전자 확보가 우선되어야 하며, 관련 유전자에 대한 분자육종시스템 적용을 위한 DNA marker 개발 등 관련기술 확보가 필수적이다. 본 연구 에서는 우리나라에서 콩을 가해하는 3대 진딧물 중 하나인 싸리수염진딧물에 대한 저항성 유전자 탐색을 실시하 였다. 싸리수염진딧물에 대한 저항성 검정에는 감수성 품종인 Williams 82와 저항성 품종인 PI366121의 인공 교배 를 통해 유래된 144개의 RIL 집단을 이용하였다. 완전임의배치법을 이용하여 Pot에 파종 후 3본엽이 전개되기 전 에 접종을 실시하였다. 접종된 RIL 집단을 Growth Chamber로 이동 후 2주간 관찰하였다. RIL 집단에 SNP marker를 이용하여 genotyping을 실시하고 이를 이용하여 QTL분석을 하였다. 분석결과 콩 Chromosom 7번에서 BARC- 0428150084와 BRAC-015945-020 marker 사이에 저항성 유전자가 위치하였고, 이때 LOD 값은 46.0으로 나타나 매 우 높은 QTL 효과를 보여 향후 본 유전자를 이용한 저항성 품종육성가능성을 보여주었다
15.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
최근 바이오 연료용 작물의 수요증가와 기상악화는 국제 밀 생산량 감소와 국제 밀 가격이 상승으로 이어져 식량 안보가 중요시 되고 있다. 국내 식용 밀 수입량은 연간 200만톤 가량이며, 그 중 49%는 제면용으로 이용되고 있다. 국내 밀 품종은 70년 이후 약 35 품종이 개발되었고, 전남북 지역에서 생산되는 금강밀이 전국 생산량의 70%를 차 지하고 다목적용으로 활용되고 있으나 소비자가 요구하는 수입밀에 비하여 식감이 다소 떨어지는 단점이 있어 식 미향상이 요구되고 있다. 국수용 밀가루는 단백질함량이 10.0~12.0% 사이의 것이 적합하며, 함유 성분 중 메성 전 분인 아밀로스의 함량이 낮을수록 면발이 부드럽고 점성과 탄성이 증가하여 쫄깃쫄깃한 식감을 지니게 된다. GBSS(Granule bound starch synthase)는 전분입자에 결합하는 주요 단백질로 아밀로스 합성에 관여하고, 7AS, 4AL, 7DS에 위치하고 있다. 최근 국수식미 향상을 위하여 GBSS 변이계통을 모본으로 하고, 국내 국수용 대표 품종인 금강밀을 부본으로 하여 ‘호중’과 ‘중모2012’를 개발하였다. ‘호중’은 GBSSI 유전자 중 Wx-B1이, ‘중모2012’는 Wx-A1과 Wx-D1이 mutant형을 지니고 있다. 메성인 ‘금강’의 아밀로스 함량은 22% 이상이었으나, ‘호중’과 ‘중모 2012’는 각각 20.5%와 18.9%로 ‘금강’보다 아밀로스 함량이 낮았다. 면대밝기(L*)에서 ‘호중’과 ‘중모2012’는 각각 80.63과 80.92로 ‘금강’(77.62~77.94)보다 밝았고, 국수의 식미검정 결과 ‘호중’과 ‘중모2012’의 경도는 각각 2.62N 과 3.19N으로 ‘금강’(4.34~4.21N)보다 낮아 부드러웠다. 또한, 점성과 탄성이 높아 ‘금강’보다 국수 식감이 우수한 것을 확인하였다. 아밀로스함량이 낮은 ‘호중’과 ‘중모2012’의 면을 삶는 시간은 3.79정도로 ‘금강’보다 2분 이상 짧아 산업현장에서는 연료비를 절감할 수 있어 생산비가 절감할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 금후 국내 국수용 밀 품 종 개발은 GBSS의 특성을 이용하여 저아밀로스 다수확 국수용 밀 품종을 목표로 추진할 계획이다.
16.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
A new strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) cultivar, ‘Damhyang’ was developed from a cross between ‘Akihime’ and ‘Maehyang’ by seletion of seedlings and lines at Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Damyang in 2012. In 2006, This cultivar was showed excellent characteristics including weak dormancy, vigorous growth, high yield and fruit quality. It was named Damyang No. 1’ as line name after examining the productivity in forcing culture from 2007 to 2009. Again, after regional adaptability test between 2010 and 2011, the cultivar name, ‘Damhyang’, was imposted on this cultivar.The general characteristics of ‘Damhyang’ include high vigor and erect type in growth. The flowering and harvesting date of ‘Damhyang’ are similar to that of ‘Akihime’, but earlier than ‘Seolhyang’. The fruit shape is conic, fruit color is red, and fruit quality was superior to that of ‘Akihime’. The average fruit weight of ‘Damhyang’ is about 18.8g and the marketable yield is relatively high because of low percentage of abnormal fruit bearing. It is resistant against powdery mildew but sensitive to anthracnose and aphids. ‘Damhyang’ is suitable for forcing culture because it shows weak dormancy, high yield and fruit quality.
17.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Heading date and photoperiod sensitivity are fundamental traits that determine rice adaptation to a wide range of geographic environments. By quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and candidate gene analysis using wholegenome re-sequencing, we found that Oryza sativa Pseudo-Response Regulator37 (OsPRR37; hereafter PRR37) is responsible for the Early heading7-2 (EH7-2)/Heading date2 (Hd2) QTL which was identified from a cross of late-heading rice ‘Milyang23 (M23)’ and early-heading rice ‘H143’. H143 contains a missense mutation of an invariantly conserved amino acid in the CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) domain of PRR37 protein. In the world rice collection, different types of nonfunctional PRR37 alleles were found in many European and Asian rice cultivars. Notably, the japonica varieties harboring nonfunctional alleles of both Ghd7/Hd4 and PRR37/Hd2 flower extremely early under natural long-day conditions, and are adapted to the northernmost regions of rice cultivation, up to 53° N latitude. Genetic analysis revealed that the effects of PRR37 and Ghd7 alleles on heading date are additive, and PRR37 down-regulates Hd3a expression to suppress flowering under long-day conditions. Our results demonstrate that natural variations in PRR37/Hd2 and Ghd7/Hd4 have contributed to the expansion of rice cultivation to temperate and cooler regions
18.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Soybeans have been the favored livestock forage for centuries. However, little studies have been succeed in estimating forage quality of soybean by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). To establish NIR equations for soybean forage quality, 353 forage soybean samples, including an 181 recombinant inbred line population derived from PI 483463 (G. soja) ´ Hutcheson (G. max), 104 cultivated soybeans (G. max) and 68 wild soybeans (G. soja) were used to develop NIR for four quality parameters: crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Two NIR spectroscopy equations developed for CP and CF (2,5,5,1; multiple scatter correction [MSC]) and for NDF and ADF (1,4,4,1; MSC) were the best prediction equations for estimating these parameters. The coefficients of determination in external validation set (r2) were 0.934 for CF, 0.909 for CP, 0.767 for NDF, and 0.748 for ADF. The relative predictive determinant (RPD) ratios for MSC (2,5,5,1) calibration indicate that the CP (3.34) and CF (3.45) equations were acceptable for quantitative prediction of soybean forage quality, whereas the NDF (2.34) and ADF (1.97) equations were useful for screening purposes. The NIR calibration equations developed in this study will be useful in predicting the contents of forage qualities and in breeding soybean for forage
19.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
Bakanae disease incidence threat is an increasing trend in the top rice growing countries. Despite it is essential to identify the resistant genes and underlying mechanisms of bakanae disease to develop resistant varieties, there are very limited genetic studies on bakanae disease in rice. The indica rice variety Shingwang was selected as resistant donor to bakanae disease. One hundred sixty nine NILs, YR28297 (BC6F4) generated by five backcrosses of Shingwang with the genetic background of susceptible japonica variety, Ilpum were used for QTL analysis. Rice bakanae disease pathogen, CF283, was mainly used in this study and inoculation and evaluation of bakanae disease was performed with the method of the large-scale screening method developed by Kim et al. (2014). The proportion of healthy plants of Shingwang and Ilpum after inoculation was confirmed using bakanae disease pathogen, CF283. While inoculated Ilpum showed thin and yellowish-green phenotype which is typical symptom of Bakanae disease, Shingwang showed similar healthy phenotype with control plants. A major QTL for resistance against bakanae disease on chromosome 1 was identified using SSR marker, RM9, which explaining 65 % of the total phenotype variation. The major QTL designated as qBK1 and mapped to a 4.4 Mbp region between RM24 (19.30 Mb) and RM11295 (23.72 Mb). The information of qBK1 could be useful for improving rice bakanae disease resistance in marker-assisted breeding.
20.
2014.07 서비스 종료(열람 제한)
본 연구에서는 도열병저항성유전자(Pi40), 흰잎마름병저항성유전자(Xa4, xa5, Xa21), 벼멸구저항성유전자(Bph18) 와 연관된 분자마커를 이용하여 진부벼 유전적배경에 이들 저항성 유전자를 모두 집적한 14계통을 육성하였으며, 이들 계통들은 도열병, 흰잎마름병 및 벼멸구 생물검정에서도 모두 강한 저항성 반응을 보였다. 이들 14계통 중에 서 초형이 양호한 3계통(GPL1, GPL2, GPL3)을 선발하여 수량 등 농업적 특성을 평가하였다. 출수기는 3계통 모두 진부벼보다 4∼5일정도 늦었으며, 간장은 비슷하거나, 다소 작았고, 수장은 길어졌고, 수수는 1∼4개정도 적어졌 다. 수당립수는 진부벼보다 29∼34개 많아졌으나, 등숙율이 66∼73%로 상당히 낮아졌다. GPL1계통은 진부벼보 다 수량성이 7.5%증가하였고, GPL2계통은 6%감소하였으며, GPL3계통은 진부벼와 수량성이 비슷하였다. GPL1 계통은 진부벼보다 등숙율이 낮은데 수량성이 증가한 이유는 주당수수가 많아졌고, 수당립수가 많아졌으며, 천립 중이 증가한데 기인한 것으로 생각된다. 미질특성에서 내병충성복합계통들은 단백질함량, 아밀로스함량 및 알카 리붕괴도는 진부벼와 유사하였으나, 심복백이 다소 많이 보이는 경향이었다. GPL2와 GPL3계통은 이삭선단이 퇴 화된 표현형을 보였고, 수발아율이 16%이상으로 높았고, 내냉성도 진부벼에 비해 다소 약하였다. GPL1계통은 진 부벼와 비교하여 수량성도 다소 높고, 표현형도 우수하며, 내냉성과 수발아율도 양호하여 내병충성육종에 유용한 중간모본으로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.
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