While the use of metadiscourse in L2 writing has received considerable attention in the past, little effort has been made to examine how L2 writers’ use of metadiscourse in academic writing has evolved over time. In addressing this, the present study explored a diachronic evolution of interactional metadiscourse in research articles (RAs) published across a span of 40 years (1980-2021) in English Teaching. Based on 931 articles consisting of 6.4 million words, we examined whether the use of interactional metadiscourse has changed over the past 40 years. Our findings revealed that there was a global decrease in interactional metadiscourse over the past 40 years. While the frequency and diversity of interactional metadiscourse have slightly decreased over time, the proportion of each metadiscourse category remained consistent. The study further suggests that Korean L2 scholars who publish in English Teaching tend to hedge more than they boost or use attitude markers compared to those who publish in global journals.
The study investigated if teaching summarizing skills could improve the summary skills of Korean EFL university students. This study involved 38 university freshmen in a required English course and were randomly chosen as the control and experimental groups. The experimental group was taught through summarizing rules, while the control group was engaged in other lessons during the intervention period. The students’ summaries were analyzed as to how effectively the participants paraphrased and integrated the main ideas, the major supporting details, and accurate information from source text into their summaries. The results show that a significant instruction effect was observed in the summary writing performance of the experimental group, in identifying main ideas and major details and paraphrasing and integrating ideas, compared to the control group, which showed a significant change between the first and second summaries only on the accuracy measure. The results are also supported by the questionnaire on students’ perceptions of the instruction.
This qualitative study applies the frameworks of language socialization and social network theory to investigate how international students’ construction and negotiation of their identities influence their L2 writing development. Two students (One Korean and one Motswana) at a US university, one from South Korea and one from Botswana, participated in a year-long study, which included semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. For purposes of triangulation, the data for this study were collected for a year from multiple sources. The findings indicate that instructors can play a crucial role in enabling international students to expand their social networks, for example, by helping them locate and utilize available resources to develop their L2 writing, and by providing additional scaffolding to help them understand group dynamics and become active learners in their new communities. The results offer pedagogical implications on the role of instructors and universities in providing explicit guidance to empower international students to better socialize into the new community.
This study investigates beginning EFL teachers’ emotional labor from the perspective of the Activity Theory. Emotional labor is defined as the process of controlling one's emotions and emotional expressions in accordance with the occupational standards for proper emotional expression. Two beginning EFL teachers at Korean junior high schools were recruited by means of a qualitative research method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed based on Activity Theory. The findings indicate that participants’ emotional labor in relation to their students was represented as conflicts in their activity system. Additionally, the resolution of the conflicts could be possible if a teacher can join a new teacher learning community and use new instruments. The results suggest that beginning EFL teachers should be encouraged to be empowered with new instruments such as classroom management skills and teaching practices for handling mixed-level students. These new instruments are expected to prevent students’ problem behavior and ease the burden of teachers experiencing emotional labor.
The present study examines Korean high school English teachers’ and university students’ perceptions about the criterion-referenced assessment of English in CSAT. A total of 400 participants (149 teachers and 251 students) answered an online questionnaire. Teachers showed more positive attitudes than students in their perceptions about the reduction of excessive competition among students, more communicative English classes, and the use of Korean and mathematics scores of the CSAT for the admission materials. Students, on the other hand, were more positive than teachers in their perceptions about the effects of the criterion-referenced assessment of English in CSAT on the reduction of private education and more high scorers in the CSAT. Regarding the alternatives to current criterion-referenced assessments of English in CSAT, teachers seem to emphasize the development of new question types for a valid criterion-referenced assessment system while students seem to focus on improving the communication skills through the English test in CSAT, not on the validity of the criterion-referenced assessment.
This study investigated the extent to which explicit and implicit instruction improve L1-Arabic speakers’ articulation of English words whose cognates were acquired earlier in their L2 French. Sixty-eight secondary school students, explicit (n=35) and implicit (n=33), participated in a programme incorporating focus-on-pronunciation activities, comprising three 45-minute sessions. Their learning motivation was first rated using an adapted version of Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB). Their pronunciation improvement was assessed through an oral-reading task. Ten new words were included in the post-test to see if they would generalize the instructed knowledge analogically. Results indicated that both explicit and implicit instruction had a positive impact on the students’ pronunciation advancement. However, the explicit group outperformed the implicit group with both the targeted and untaught words. There was insignificant interaction effect between instructional method and students’ motivation level, with higher motivation uniformly enhancing the effect of instruction. Nevertheless, motivation played a more crucial role in the learnt knowledge transferability when instruction was of implicit.
This paper discusses the limitations of the current practices of English reading assessment in the Korean educational context based on the concept of 'cognitive validity.' It then introduces the Evidence-centered Design (ECD) model as a framework that can guide English teachers and test developers in developing a reading assessment. The paper illustrates how the framework can be applied to the assessment formats and practices widely used in Korean middle and high schools. The ECD framework can help English teachers reconsider reading assessment practices commonly implemented in Korea. The framework contributes to enabling them to focus on the three critical, interrelated questions: what ability to measure with what task(s), how to score students' responses, and how to interpret the test results. Teachers' conscious application of the ECD framework would lead to a more valid and theoretically more sound reading assessment. Such an assessment is expected to align better with teaching and eventually bring a positive washback in English language learning.