Corn silage is extensively utilized in ruminant feeding on a global scale, with substantial research efforts directed towards enhancing its nutritional worth and managing moisture content. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of normal cutting height and elevated cutting height on whole-crop corn silage. Corn was harvested at heights of 15 cm and 45 cm above the ground, respectively, 45 days after heading. The harvested corn was cut into 2-3 cm lengths and packed into 20-liter plastic silos in triplicate. The results showed that dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of C45 were significantly higher than those of the control, while the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was significantly lower in C45 (p<0.05). The C15 had higher yields than C45 (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield of whole-crop corn silage. The increase in cutting height resulted in a larger change in moisture content and NDF per centimeter. After 60 days-ensiling, C45 showed significantly lower NH3-N concentrations. Moreover, C45 had significantly higher lactic acid concentration, lactic acid/acetic acid ratio, and lactic acid bacteria count compared to the control. Mold was not detected and the yeast count was less than 2 log10 cfu/g fresh matter in both control and C45. In summary, C45 improved the feeding value and fermentation quality of whole-crop corn silage at the expense of forage productivity.
본 연구에서는 3차원 네트워크 폴리아크릴산나트륨 겔의 가교환경을 변화시켜 기계적 강도 및 팽윤거동을 제어하고 그 물성을 평가하는 연구를 진행하였다. 일반적으로 겔 용액의 가교도가 증가함에 따라 3차원 네트워크 겔의 팽윤비는 감소하고 겔의 기계적 강도는 증가한다. 본 연구에서는 3차원 네트워크 겔 상의 가교개수밀도를 산출하여, 겔화 과정에서 가교환경에 의존하는 중합효율 및 가교효율을 확인하였다. 그 결과, 겔 용액에서 단량체와 가교제의 중량비가 동일하더라도 가교환경이 달라지면 실제 제조된 겔 내부의 가교개수밀도가 3.6배 이상 달라질 수 있음을 확인하였다. 본 연구에서 시도한 가교개수밀도 기반 겔 평가 방법을 활용하면 효과적인 VOCs 흡수제로써 3차원 네트워크 겔을 최적화 할 수 있으리라 기대된다.
온도, pH, 빛 및 힘 등의 외부 자극에 반응하여 그 구조나 물리 화학적 특성이 변화 가능한 자극 감응형 하이드로젤에 대한 연구가 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 응력 감응형 분자인 스피로 피란을 사용하여 응력 및 pH 감응형 하이드로젤을 제조하였다. 먼저, 폴리에틸렌 다이아크릴레이트 (PEGDA)를 스피로피란 분자 양 끝에 접목시켜, 수용액에 쉽게 용해될 뿐만 아니라 하이드로젤 가교제 역할이 가능한 아령모양(PEG-spiropyran-PEG)의 SP-PEGDA 분자를 합성하였다. 이렇게 합성한 SP-PEGDA로 가교된 하이드로젤은 팽윤에 의해 발생하는 내부 응력에 의해 노란색의 스피로피란(SP) 분자를 보라색의 메로사인(MC) 형태로 변환시켰다. 또한 pH에 따라 양성화된 메로사인(MCH) 형태로 변환 하여 팽윤과 수축을 시각화 하였다.
The pitch-based activated carbons were prepared with KOH/KMnO4 as a multiple function activation agent to increase the specific capacitance of a supercapacitor electrode active material. And the porous structure and electrochemical properties of activated carbon were analyzed on varying amounts of KMnO4. KMnO4 was decomposed into K2O, MnO, and O2 at the activation temperature of KOH, and MnO was introduced to activated carbon. K2O/ O2 reacts with a surrounding pitch to generate micropores and forms a pathway that exposes MnO to the outside. It also affects to the specific surface area of activated carbon like KOH chemical activation. The enhanced specific surface area and introduced MnO in activated carbon led to a 28.9% increase in specific capacitance.
Introduction The concentration of manufacturing factories in China signals a significant change in the global economy. Manufacturers in countries that are not price competitive feel a sense of crisis and use servitization in the manufacturing industry as a countermeasure. In particular, with the recent rapid development of IoT and AI, service methods are becoming faster and more diverse resulting in increased research on servitization. Vandermerwe and Rada (1988), who first mentioned the term servitization, define it as providing customer-focused products, services, support, self-service, and knowledge, all bundled together. Despite numerous studies on servitization few consider the customer’s perspective, although many consider the producer’s point of view. So far existing research only explored on how consumers accept value-in-use based on an accurate understanding of consumers' needs from the consumer perspective in servitization, based on expectation-confirmation theory. This study examines how customers accept servitization and links it to customer satisfaction. Literature review Servitization Ren and Gregory (2007) defined servitization as a strategic change in which manufacturing companies develop service-oriented or better services to satisfy customers, gain competitive advantage, and improve corporate performance. Raja et al. (2013) examined servitization to find the most important attributes of value-in-use for customers using servitized products and classified them into seven attributes. This study is based on the seven attributes identified by Raja et al. (2013). Perceived Usefulness, Confirmation, and Customer Satisfaction Bhattacharjee developed the Continuance Use Model based on the expectation-confirmation theory and conducted empirical studies for verification (2001b). Our study analyzes the correlation between customer acceptance process and customer satisfaction based on the Expectation-Confirmation model by Bhattacharjee (2001b). Research method We conducted surveys and analyzed the data of 50 Korean university students and members of the public using Smart Pay (Samsung Pay, Apple Pay etc.). The reliability of the questionnaire was verified by using the Cronbach’s alpha values and exploratory factor analysis. The seven variables of the value-in-use attributes of servitization identified by Raja et al. are as follows: relational dynamic, accessibility, range of product and service offering, knowledge, price, delivery, and locality. We measured three additional variables: perceived usefulness, confirmation, and customer satisfaction. Contributions Academic contribution This study provides a theoretical basis for examining the relationship between variables and the influence of the value-in-use attributes of servitization on customer acceptance and satisfaction. Practical contribution We present implications for customer satisfaction in the servitization process of manufacturing companies by explaining how customers accept the value-in-use attributes of servitization.
ABSTRACT The growth of the social platform has led to a rapid increase in sustainable value cocreation activities with customers in order to know what a customer wants. In this study, we have studied about co-creation experience in social platform service. Previous prior studies have systematically classify co-creation between customer and enterprise as co-product and value-in-use, Conceptual factors. The co-creation and value-in-use factors theoretically derived from previous researches attempt to investigate the relationship between value co-creation experience and online service quality. We also tried to investigate the relationship between value co-creation experience and online service quality, customer equity, and online word of mouth. To do this, social platform services are divided into open sns and closed sns. Open SNS was targeted to Facebook, Twitter, and Pintrest users. Closed sns were targeted to Instagram, Cyworld, Band, and KakaoTalk users. In this study, it was confirmed that the relationship between online service quality, customer equity, and online word of mouth is significant through value co - creation experience. In the future, companies that design social platforms will be asked to do what they should do to co-create with customers, and provide suggestions for how to operate the platform in order to continuously activate value co-creative experiences.
The fashion products are believed that reinforce the inequities, exploit workers, spur resource use, increase environmental impact, and generate waste. Sustainability has been recognized as a major concern worldwide, and this also increases considerations regarding the challenges to business need to be faced in the fashion industry. When the fashion industry aims to promote sustainability, the main change factors have been linked to environmental and ethical issues in production. This paper aims to exploring an index for measuring sustainable performance of fashion company based on customer’s perception. The index measurement system is built from the basic dimensions of sustainability: economic, environment and social and the key influencing items in fashion industry: culture. Culture acts an important role in fashion consumption since it gives effects to customer’s behaviou and customer self-identity. Based on these four dimensions the this study designs a model related with customer’s perception and expectation to measure the evaluation of fashion company’s sustainable performance. Based on the result of index this paper studies how the customer’s evaluation upon sustainable performance works on customer’s loyalty. This index is designed for evaluating the sustainable performance of fashion company and give a direction to the managers in fashion industry that what the advantage is and weakness is in the sustainability strategy. It is efficiency for the managers to improve the sustainability strategy to match customer’s needs for engaging long-term benefit from fashion customers.
Internet technology now allows products and services to be purchased through online or mobile shopping. Many firms open online and mobile stores or establish social network services to meet changing customer desires. Despite the convenience of online shopping, customers are often uncertain about product quality because they cannot see or touch products. Consequently, firms may use various certifications that assure product quality such as KC in the Republic of Korea, CE in Europe, and UL in the United States. In addition, consumers are becoming increasingly concerned that the fashion industry presents threats to the environment and well-being. In response, fashion manufacturers are turning to the use of organic, eco-friendly, sustainable fabrics. Most studies about organic manufacturing have focused on the food industry, but we contend that clothing is similar to the organic food industry in the importance of certification that guarantees whether products are produced organically. In this study, we focus on how consumers rely on certification when they search for information and purchase organic clothes for infants. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our results.
Individual safety is a fundamental concern. People generally try to avoid danger or mishaps in the workplace, and to consider safety as a primary condition for satisfactory employment and agreeable shopping experiences. Organizations can assure that workers, clients, the public, and the environment perceive that they are in safe environments by providing highly secure services.
Secure working environments and safety-focused human resource environments are essential antecedents to safe performance and outcomes. Dangerous workplace environments cause employees to feel stress and anxiety. Thus their performance decreases and accidents and injuries increase. Workplace safety is the most important factor influencing service and performance, especially for allowing frontline salespersons to focus on providing customer satisfaction.
In this study of workplace safety, we apply the service quality dimension to examine its relationship with employee perceptions of job satisfaction and their related job performance. We discuss theoretical and practical implications based on the results.
Composite resins are developed as restorative materials to improve esthetics and mechanical properties. To improve the physical properties of resin material, resin filler have to be added. However, no imaging method is adopted for resin filler distribution. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a optical imaging technique to delineate microscopic structures within biological tissue. The OCT application to dental composites resin and its filler is not described yet. So, this new and advanced optical method is needed for clinical application for evaluation of dental composite resin. To analyze the spatial distribution of dental composite resin and to evaluate the resin restoration in cavity, frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) was used for their analysis. Resin restored tooth was prepared. For morphological observation, serially sectioned teeth, conventional X-ray taking and micro computed-tomography (CT) images were compared with OCT images. The experiment has done to evaluate the success of the resin restoration using 3 dimensional structure OCT image. In this research, OCT is evaluated as a new technique to image resin restoration. The evaluation of resin restored tooth was performed by OCT. Inappropriate restoration such as marginal adaptation, large porosities, internal integrity and poor contour could be detected. Resin filler also could be checked by OCT. The distribution, number, regularity and size of resin filler can be differentiated from several commercial products. Considering the characteristics of the OCT, it can be used to evaluate the defects of resin restoration, resin filler distribution, and internal integrity between resin material and tooth structure. The OCT can be considered to be a new and advanced method for the evaluation of resin restorations.