As the demand for ready-to-eat foods continues to grow, concerns about the sodium in processed foods are also growing. In this study, a survey was conducted on the perception of low-sodium products and diffusion plans according to the type of employee (manufacturer, retailer, distributor). Of the 191 responses collected, 189 valid responses (98.9%) were analyzed. The results showed that the employees were aware of the health contribution of a low-sodium diet, labeling for low-sodium, and the promotion of low-sodium food to increase its consumption. Furthermore, retailers recognized the positive contribution of low-sodium products in terms of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) management. The use of sodium substitutes was preferred as the best way to reduce sodium in ready-to-eat foods. With regard to sodium reduction in readyto- eat foods, we found that the technical factors involved were clustered by the type of business. Specifically, distributors showed a similar performance but had a lower perception of importance than retailers. Manufacturers had a lower perception of both importance and performance. In this study, we collected perceptions from employees who were working at food companies, which differed from previous research. We sought to examine the differences in the perception of sodium reduction and consumption of ready-to-eat foods across various types of employment. Furthermore, we provided specific approaches to reduce perception gaps and enhance understanding among employees.
This study investigated the trend of research on ‘Food science and Nutrition’ in previously published papers in the Journal of Korean Society of Food Culture (JKSFC) from 2000 to 2021. Total number of published papers in this category in the JKSFC was 693 which we classified into 7 main categories and 40 subcategories. Of these, 256 articles were on ‘experimental cooking’ which was the most studied field among 7 main categories. There was a total of 19 published papers under the category of ‘microbiology and fermentation’. A total of 133 articles were published on ‘functional foods’ and provided essential data for discovering new materials under the theme of various physiological active functions of food materials. Furthermore, 107 articles were included in ‘food processing and storage’, which provided integrated knowledge of economy, stability and practicality based on various technologies. A total of 144 articles was included in the category of ‘nutrition’. Under the category of ‘nutrition’, the most actively studied topic was ‘eating behaviors and dietary habits,’ and the trending topic was ‘use of healthcare big data.’ In conclusion, this review would provide trends of various categories of food science and nutrition area for recent 21 years and suggest directions for future research.
Galactosemia is a rare, hereditary metabolic disorder caused by the accumulation of galactose and its metabolites in the body due to a lack of enzymes that convert galactose to glucose. This study aimed to investigate the dietary behaviors and nutritional statuses of patients with galactosemia and to provide basic information on the development of nutrition education programs to improve quality of dietary life. A survey was conducted on 13 parents of (<11 years of age) children with galactosemia and 26 parents of (<11 years of age) children without galactosemia. Mean body mass index was greater for school-age children with galactosemia (18.77 kg/m2) than for corresponding normal children (16.55 kg/m2). Underweight and obesity rates of children with galactosemia were greater than those of children without galactosemia. In addition, children with galactosemia had a higher food neophobia rate and thus consumed less food. Normal children exhibited a greater range of food preferences than those with galactosemia, especially for milk and dairy products (p= .001) and fats and sweets (p= .04). Reliable food databases and appropriate dietary recommendations are required to ensure the proper growth of children with galactosemia.
Galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disease caused by galactose and its metabolites generated during carbohydrate metabolism, which is relatively rare in Asian countries, including Korea. Patients with galactosemia should be treated with a galactose-restricted diet. However, information is lacking about the exact content of galactose in food, and dietary guidelines for patients with galactosemia in Korea. This study aims to recognize the difficulties faced by parents and clinical experts of patients with galactosemia, and understand their demands. Totally, 5 parents of children diagnosed with galactosemia and 5 clinical professionals participated in the focus group interviews. The parents’ interview focused on the daily life of the patient, which included diet and social difficulties. The clinical experts mainly answered about medical care, including the number and status of patients, and their suggestions for effective treatment. Most parents were worried about social isolation due to conflicts in the family as well as in society due to a lack of understanding of the disease. The clinical experts stated the absence of a disease management system as the greatest problem. An integrated support system for patients with galactosemia, which includes appropriate dietary guidelines by considering the domestic environment, is required.
Unhealthy dietary behavior such as insufficient calcium intake can be one of risk factors of osteoporosis and chronic diseases in older people. This study evaluated the recent trends in dietary calcium intake and the food source in Korean adults aged 50 years or older using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2015-2019) data. This study used 24-hour recall survey data to investigate the calcium intake, the major food groups and main dishes contributing to the calcium intake. The mean calcium intake was 479.55-506.81 mg/day. The major food groups that contribute to calcium intake were vegetables, milks and fishes. Dairy and frozen desserts and kimchi were the major dish groups that contributed to the calcium intake. Calcium intake from milk in dairy and frozen dessert group has been high in last 5 years (50-64 years old: 34.71-47.68 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.72-43.65 mg, over 75 years old: 22.91-42.93 mg). In addition, baechu-kimchi is the most contributed to the calcium intake in kimchi group (50-64 years old: 35.10-41.47 mg, 65-74 years old: 29.62-34.96 mg, over 75 years old: 23.79-29.13 mg). In conclusion, various source of calcium needs to be recommended to increase intake calcium in over 50 years, which may reduce chronic diseases and improve quality of life.
The intake of processed foods containing high levels of sugar increases the incidence of chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Limiting sugar intake is important for a healthy life at all ages. Therefore, this study analyzed food sources and sugar intake by the different age groups based on the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used 24-hour recall survey data to investigate the daily sugar intake and the major food groups and main dishes contributing to sugar intake. The mean sugar intake was 58.9-66.8 g/day. The three major food groups contributing to sugar intake were fruits (15.2-19.9 g/day), beverages (10.7-12.4 g/day), and milk and milk products (7.6-7.8 g/day). Teas and other non-alcoholic beverages (14.7-17.3 g/day), fruits (12.5-16.2 g/day), and dairy products (7.0-7.6 g/day) were the major food groups that contributed to the sugar intake. Carbonated drinks, apples, and milk were the top sources of sugar intake in each group. In conclusion, the sugar intake of Koreans is mainly from carbonated drinks, fruits, and milk. These results provided the basic data for nutrition education and nutrition program development according to the different age groups of the Korean population.
In this paper a new textbook series published by The National Institute of Korean Language in 2019 is analyzed for its three shortcomings in promoting gender equality and inclusiveness. First, the new textbook series are still assuming that women are the primary caretakers of the house and children. Second, the series questionably address people’s appearances in the text, in forms such as fat-shaming. Lastly, the new textbook series engage in trying to normalize Koreanness. An interview with a marriage immigrant was conducted to give insight about if these aspects are truly problematic in a perspective of the marriage immigrant.
The purpose of this study was to provide basic information on the development of nutrition education programs to improve the mealtime behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by investigating the mealtime behavior and food preferences of children with ASD through the perception of special education teachers. Surveys were given to 108 special education teachers in special education schools in Korea regarding the demographic characteristics, nutrition education support needs, mealtime behavior, and food preferences of children with ASD. Most of the special education teachers responded that nutrition education in special schools had not been conducted properly and nutrition education for ASD children is necessary. Mealtime behavior analysis classified the behavior into three clusters: cluster 1, ‘less problematic mealtime behavior’; cluster 2, ‘general feature of autism’; cluster 3, ‘difficulty in self-directed diet’. The age, eating habits, and food preferences were different according to each mealtime behavior cluster. Therefore, it will be necessary to develop a nutrition education program based on the characteristics of mealtime behavior.
사회적 상호작용에서 적절한 행동을 위해서는 사회인지적 정보 뿐 아니라 다양한 정서 정보의 처리 역시 중요하다. 정서의 처리과정은 자극의 속성 뿐 아니라 다양한 맥락과 외부 요인의 영향을 받는다. 본 연구는 정서처리에 영향을 미치는 요인들과 그 효과의 양상을 파악하기 위하여 생물형운동자극을 사용한 정서변별과제를 시행하였다. 첫 번째 과제에서는 분노, 행복, 또는 중립 정서를 지닌 단서자극과 함께 제시된 빨강, 초록, 흰색, 또는 노란색 중 하나의 색과 분노 또는 행복 정서를 지닌 표적자극을 비교하여, 단서자극에 비해 표적자극이 나타내는 정서를 판단 하도록 하였다. 두 번째 과제에서는 정서 중립 자극만을 사용하여 색의 효과를 조사하였다. 실험 결과, 표적자극의 특정 색과 정서 간 연합이 관찰되었다. 즉, 빨간색은 분노정서, 초록색은 행복정서 처리를 촉진하는 것으로 보였다. 또한, 단서자극과 표적자극의 정서가 일치할 때 표적자극 정서의 변별 정확도가 높았으나, 빨간색과 분노정서가 조합된 조건에서는 단서자극 정서의 영향을 받지 않았다. 두 번째 과제에서는 표적자극의 색에 의해 착각적인 정서반응이 나타남을 관찰하였다. 본 연구를 통해 기존에 주로 사용된 얼굴자극이 아닌 생물형운동자극을 이용해 자극의 정서처리 과정에 영향을 미치는 맥락 및 색 요인의 효과를 구체적으로 확인하였으며, 가능한 후속연구 및 임상적 연구에 대해 논의하였다.
This study examined the eating habits and preferences of foods according to the age of children with autism spectrum disorders and identified the nutritional needs of parents to support their healthy eating habits and provide basic data for the development of educational programs. A survey of 100 parents of children with autism spectrum disorders was conducted on their children’s snack intake, food preferences, and parents’ nutrition education needs. As a result, there were four times more boys than girls, and the body mass index differed according to age (p<0.001). Most children ate snacks more than once a day, and parents found that they wanted to develop nutritious snacks that could replace high-protein, low-calorie meals with the minimal use of additives. For the food preference, there was a significant difference in grains and starches, vegetables/seafood and fruits, milk and dairy products (p<0.05), fats and sugars, and Korean fermented pastes (p<0.01) between the two age groups. Regarding whether nutrition education was required, many parents had a high demand for nutrition education (4.24±0.70), and the intention to participate was 3.62±1.09. The most important content to be dealt with in parent education was ‘Inducing a change in bad eating habits and behaviors’, which was the highest (63%), and mostly face-to-face education was preferred. In conclusion, young children require diet education, and older children need to focus on weight control and obesity.
The following study analyzes the linguistic landscape of governmental public signs with focus on whether language rights are being fulfilled, in Garibong-Dong, Seoul, which has a high proportion of people with Chinese citizenship in Korea, most of whom are Korean-Chinese, utilizing “Language Rights of Linguistic Minorities: A Practical Guide for Implementation” (Izsák-Ndiaye, 2013) published by the UN OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) as a framework to see whether language rights are being fulfilled by governmental public signs. The study includes interviews with two workers of Korea Support Center for Foreign Workers about whether language rights of Garibong-dong's residents could be affected by the linguistic landscape and what efforts could the governments make for residents.
This study aims to classify parents by considering important factors in the management of foodservice for children. An offline survey was conducted by enrolling 583 Korean parents whose children attended public or private kindergartens in Seoul. The important factors required for managing foodservice for children are meal service resources, menu management, and food allergy. Considering these factors, parents were grouped into 3 clusters: the allergy important group, environment important group, and high concern group. Evaluation of the demographic characteristics revealed a significant difference between clusters with respect to type of kindergarten. Parents perceived that a private kitchen is more required than a private dining room, and perceptions about the need for a private kitchen and dining room were significantly different among the clusters. Furthermore, the results reveal significant differences between clusters, when considering the need to support meal service. Therefore, the government needs to consider characteristics of the parent cluster if they plan to support the kindergarten foodservice. We believe that this study can be used as supportive data to establish a working policy.
In this paper, two Korean textbooks that are most widely used in American colleges are analyzed for representations of gender, race and nationality. Literature review shows that representation in textbooks does matter for learners and that representations of gender, race, nationality, ethnicity, cultural diversities, disabilities, sexualities, non-nativeness, occupations, age, socioeducational backgrounds, etc. have been concerns of the researchers. While there have been a lot of studies on representations in EFL/ESL textbooks, such research on KFL/KSL textbooks is relatively new, even though representation is an important issue to the Korean language education in the era of globalization and multicultralism. The main characters who have names, conversations and illustrations and keep appearing throughout the analyzed textbooks are investigated. The main characters' number of appearances, firstness-the number of times to be presented first in exericses, examples or sentences-occasions, all speaking turns and I (initiation in the IRF sequence, Sinclair & Coulthard (1975))s are tallied, and it is explored if the numbers are relevant to the gender, nationality and race of the characters. Some analyzation of conversations and illustrations are also done for more discussion, which includes how KFL/KSL textbooks could be better in terms of representation.
This study investigated which type of corrective feedback, direct feedback or indirect feedback, would be more effective for reducing the targeted errors−verb, noun, and determiner errors−in L2 writing. The 20 Korean EFL college students were divided into two feedback conditions: direct feedback and indirect coded feedback. The results of the study showed that only the errors in the noun category, not the other two categories, showed a significant decrease over time. There were no significant differences in the effect of the differential feedback. The post surveys and interviews revealed that the students in both groups had difficulty in understanding their errors and feedback on them, and they wanted to receive a more detailed explanation about their errors in order to fully understand them. The overall findings indicate that different types of corrective feedback need to be combined with other methods such as a one-to-one conference or mini-lesson for further helping students understand their errors and reduce other errors in the future. This study provides L2 teachers with valuable information on how to respond more effectively to the needs of L2 learners.