Perfluorooctanoic acid(PFOA) was one of widely used per- and poly substances(PFAS) in the industrial field and its concentration in the surface and groundwater was found with relatively high concentration compared to other PFAS. Since various processes have been introduced to remove the PFOA, adsorption using GAC is well known as a useful and effective process in water and wastewater treatment. Surface modification for GAC was carried out using Cu and Fe to enhance the adsorption capacity and four different adsorbents, such as GAC-Cu, GAC-Fe, GAC-Cu(OH)2, GAC-Fe(OH)3 were prepared and compared with GAC. According to SEM-EDS, the increase of Cu or Fe was confirmed after surface modification and higher weight was observed for Cu and Fe hydroxide(GAC-Cu(OH)2 and GAC-Fe(OH)3, respectively). BET analysis showed that the surface modification reduced specific surface area and total pore volumes. The highest removal efficiency(71.4%) was obtained in GAC-Cu which is improved by 17.9% whereas the use of Fe showed lower removal efficiency compared to GAC. PFOA removal was decreased with increase of solution pH indicating electrostatic interaction governs at low pH and its effect was decreased when the point of zero charges(pzc) was negatively increased with an increase of pH. The enhanced removal of PFOA was clearly observed in solution pH 7, confirming the Cu in the surface of GAC plays a role on the PFOA adsorption. The maximum uptake was calculated as 257 and 345 μg/g for GAC and GAC-Cu using Langmuir isotherm. 40% and 80% of removal were accomplished within 1 h and 48 h. According to R2, only the linear pseudo-second-order(pso) kinetic model showed 0.98 whereas the others obtained less than 0.870.
This study evaluated how acid treatment affects the ability of customized beads of activated carbon (BAC) to remove formaldehyde from air. Two different acids (hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid) were used to modify the surface of BAC prepared from a polymer material. The acid-modified BACs were further subjected to heat treatment. Physical and chemical characteristics of modified and unmodified BACs were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Formaldehyde removal was evaluated under both dry and moist conditions. From the results, acid treatment clearly improved the adsorption performance, especially under the moist condition. Qualitative and quantitative surface analyses were conducted, mainly to examine the amount of O-bonds after acid treatment and the formation of S–O or Cl–O on BAC.
The present study focuses on the adsorption of organic matter mainly COD from pretreated landfill leachate of Lamdeng Khunou Solid Waste Management Plant, Manipur, India through the employment of H3PO4 treated activated carbon derived from Parkia speciosa (Petai) pods (PPAC). The adsorbent was analyzed for morphological and surface characterization by various methods including, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pH at zero point charges ( pHZPC). The impacts of adsorption processes such as initial pH, temperature, equilibrium time and dose of adsorbent were considered to evaluate the performance of PPAC. At 20 °C, PPAC showed maximum COD removal of 93% within 90 min contact time, at optimum pH 2. Adsorption kinetic was able to explain by Lagergren’s pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticular diffusion models suggesting the combined behavior of both the physical and chemical adsorption of COD on PPAC. Through thermodynamics and isotherm studies, the adsorption of COD on PPAC is revealed to be exothermic with maximum monolayer coverage of 200 mg COD/g PPAC. The performance of the PPAC adsorbent is also compared with other existing reported adsorbents for treating leachate.
Removing CO2 gas to address the global climate crisis is one of the most urgent agendas. To improve the CO2 adsorption ability of activated carbon, nitrogen plasma surface treatment was conducted. The effect of nitrogen plasma treatment on the surface chemistry and pore geometry of activated carbon was extensively analyzed. The porosity and surface groups of the activated carbon varied with the plasma treatment time. By plasma treatment for a few minutes, the microporosity and surface functionality could be simultaneously controlled. The changed microporosity and nitrogen groups affected the CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2 adsorption selectivity over N2. This simultaneous surface etching and functionalization effect could be achieved with a short operating time and low energy consumption.
Quality standards of activated carbon for gas-phase applications have been deleted from the Korean national standard list since 2007, and the iodine adsorption test is the only measure currently used for quality assurance. This study was performed to propose a suitable test method and a quality standard for gas-phase activated carbon. The "1/2 saturated vapor adsorption" test has been developed as a simple and convenient method to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. In this study, the developed test method was evaluated using model VOCs including toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and ethyl acetate (EA). A virgin activated carbon revealed adsorption capacities of 344mg/g, 322mg/g, and 328mg/g for toluene, EA, and MEK, respectively, and the adsorption capacity for a mixture of the three VOCs was 334 mg/g. When a regenerated activated carbon was applied, the adsorption capacities dramatically decreased to 62 mg/g, 52 mg/g, and 61 mg/ g for toluene, EA, and MEK, respectively. In addition, the 1/2 solvent vapor adsorption tests using 13 different specimens of activated carbon showed that their capacities were closely related to the iodine adsorption numbers, and this study suggested the adsorption capacity of 300 mg/g as a new quality standard. The novel test method and its standard may help to guarantee the quality of gas-phase activated carbon used for VOCs abatement processes.
Enhancing the capacitive deionization performance requires the inner structure expansion of porous activated carbon to facilitate the charge storage and electrolyte penetration. This work aimed to modify the porosity of coconut-shell activated carbon (AC) through CO2 activation at high temperature. The electrochemical performance of CO2- activated AC electrodes was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which exhibited that AC-800 had the superior performance with the highest capacitance of 112 F/g at the rate of 0.1 A/g and could operate for up to 4000 cycles. Furthermore, in the capacitive deionization, AC-800 showed salt removal of 9.15 mg/g with a high absorption rate of 2.8 mg/g min and Ni(II) removal of 5.32 mg/g with a rate close to 1 mg/g.min. The results promote the potential application of CO2- activated AC for desalination as well as Ni-removal through capacitance deionization (CDI) technology.
The pitch-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared from ethylene tar-derived pitches containing nickelocene (CNi) or nickel nitrate (NiN). The effects of different anions and contents of metal salts on the microstructure and surface chemical properties of fibers were investigated. The results revealed that Ni2+ from CNi mainly remained its pristine molecule in the organometal salt-derived pitch (OP-xCNi), while Ni2+ from NiN occurred complexation reaction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the inorganic metal salt-derived pitch (IP-xNiN) due to the weaker binding ability between anions and Ni2+ of CNi than CNi. The XRD and SEM results confirmed that IP-3NiN-ACF contained Ni, NiO, Ni2O3 nanoparticles with different size distributions, while OP-3CNi-ACF only contained more uniformly distributed Ni nanoparticles with small size. Furthermore, OP-3.0CNi-ACF presented higher specific surface area of 1862 m2/ g and a pore volume of 1.69 cm3/ g than those of IP-3.0NiN-ACF due to the formation of pore structure during the in-situ catalytic activation of different metal nanoparticles. Therefore, this work further pointed out that the desired pore structure and surface chemistry of pitch-based ACFs could be obtained through regulating and controlling the interaction of anion species, metal cations and PAHs during the synthesis of pitch precursors.
An electrical double-layer capacitor is fabricated with biomass-derived activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which are synthesized from Pongamia pinnata fruit shell and its seed oil, respectively. The activated carbon is produced by the chemical activation process at varying carbonization temperatures from 600 to 900 °C for 5 h at a rate of 10 min in an N2 atmosphere. The surface area of activated carbon and MWCNTs is 1170 m2 g− 1 and 216 m2 g− 1, respectively. The total pore volumes of activated carbon and MWCNTs are 1.51 cm3 g− 1 and 0.5907 cm3 g− 1, respectively. The as-prepared AC and MWCNTs are characterized by surface area analysis Brunner–Emmett–Teller method (BET), X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopic analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of AC-AC, MWCNTs-MWCNTs and AC-MWCNTs (25:75) symmetric electrodes are studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The AC-MWCNTs (25:75) single electrode performance is also studied in two different electrolytes, such as 0.5 M Na2SO4 and 0.5 M H2SO4. The fabricated AC-MWCNTs (25:75) symmetric supercapacitor cell exhibits excellent electrochemical performance in 0.5 M Na2SO4. It shows a specific capacitance of 55.51 Fg− 1, energy density 4.852 Wh Kg− 1 and power density of 199.18 W Kg− 1 at a current density of 1 Ag− 1 in the voltage window of 0–1.8 V. The AC-AC and AC-MWCNTs (25:75) symmetric supercapacitor electrodes show outstanding performance.
A conventional porous carbon is still a very promising material for the removal of gaseous pollutants because of its abundant surface functional groups and a high specific surface area. Here, we prepared an environment-friendly uniform N-rich narrow micropore activated carbon, for the removal of formaldehyde, based on steam activation and N-rich with chitin as the starting material. A sample carbonized at 500 °C and steam activated at 800 °C (CAC800) showed a reasonable yield (55%) with uniform and narrow micropores without mesopores but having a balanced nitrogen functionality. CAC800 possesses outstanding formaldehyde removal capabilities under both dry and wet (humidity 45%) conditions. In addition, when compared with commercial activated carbon materials, we clearly demonstrated that the existence of high nitrogen content with uniform and narrow micropores simultaneously removed formaldehyde, effectively.
This study investigates the preparation of activated carbon fiber derived from waste cotton fabric for economical and ecofriendly recycling as well as its application to water purification. The activated carbon fiber was prepared by physical activation using steam and the adsorption property was then evaluated using methylene blue. When the activation temperature increased, the specific surface area and mesopore volume of the activated carbon fiber increased up to 2562 m2/ g and 0.214 cm3/ g, resulting in the increased adsorption of methylene blue. The results of the adsorption experiment for the activated carbon fiber were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir equation was more suitable than the Freundlich equation to explain the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum adsorption amount of methylene blue was 161.1–731.5 mg/g for fiber samples activated at temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C with sample labeled 750SA to 900SA according to the Langmuir equation. The kinetics of methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbon fiber were analyzed using non-linear pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. Sample 750SA was suitable for the pseudo-first-order and 800SA, 850SA, and 900SA sample were suitable for the pseudo-second-order. Therefore, waste cotton fabric has the potential to be the precursor for activated carbon fiber with excellent adsorption properties.
In preparation of porous carbon materials microwave oven brightening is one of the warming modes used ever. The various procedures that take place in microwave combustion process include carbonization, incitation, and recovery and thus carbon is defined. This paper compares ideal conditions of traditional warming methods, as well as their implementation potential, losses, and specifications. This porous carbon with heat treatment possesses various properties and they are well suited for energy applications which require constrained space such as hydrogen storage in solid-state and supercapacitors. The enhanced properties are chemical and thermal stability, ready availability, low framework density and ease of processability. The recent trend in class of porous carbons is Activated Carbons that are employed traditionally as adsorbents or catalyst supporters but currently, they found potent applications in fabricating for hydrogen storage materials and supercapacitors. These activated carbons are much enhanced form in class of porous carbon materials and they possess the capability to enable hydrogen economy, where the energy carrier is hydrogen. Therefore, the utility of activated carbons as a source for energy storage experiences a rapid growth at current trend and they possess significant advances. This investigation is based on detailed cost development data and electrical imperativeness applications.
There is a need for the purification of indoor air owing to a high rate of pollution in today’s world. For this, cabin air filters (CAFs) are widely used, which requires the addition of certain adsorbents to increase the volatile organic compound (VOC) removal efficiency. However, this addition causes high-pressure resistance, which may hamper commercial applications by requiring more energy and negatively affecting fresh air delivery rate. Hence, in this study, a high-performance combined CAF (CCAF) with excellent dust and chemical filtration performance and low differential pressure was prepared using granular activated carbon (GAC)/activated carbon fiber (ACF) mixed medium. The GAC/ACF mixed medium had higher air permeability than the ACF medium of the same weight, and it exhibited similar ultrafine dust filtration performance to the ACF medium without an increase in differential pressure. In addition, the GAC/ACF mixed medium showed excellent gas removal performance without increasing differential pressure by combining the VOC removal characteristics of the GAC and ACF filter media. The improved VOC removal performance of the GAC/ACF mixed medium was due to the hybrid effect of the hierarchical pore structures of the GAC and the nearly uniform pore structures of the ACF, which resulted in a slow and increased gas adsorption by the GAC and rapid gas adsorption of the ACF.
The electrochemical capacitive properties of biomass-derived activated carbons are closely dependent on their microscopic structures. Here, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared from natural cattail fibers by carbonization and further chemical activation. The activation temperature affected on the microscopic structures and electrochemical properties of the activated carbon fibers. The results show that the optimum activation temperature is 800 °C. And the as-prepared ACF- 800 possesses high micropore specific surface area of 710.4 m2 g− 1 and micropore volume of 0.313 cm3 g− 1, respectively. For supercapacitor applications, the ACF-800 displays a high specific capacitance of 249 F g− 1 at a current density of 0.05 A g− 1, excellent rate performance and cycle stability in a three-electrode system. The excellent electrochemical performance indicated that the obtained activated carbon fibers could be a promising electrode material in supercapacitor.
In view of the activated carbon pore-forming mechanism, the fractal hypothesis of pore interior growth was proposed by optimizing the structure of Sierpinski sponge. Based on the hypothesis and the definition of fractal dimension, the function relationship between the reaction degree, reaction step length, specific surface area and pore volume was deduced, and the pore fractal growth model of activated carbon activation process was established. Semi-coke, apple charcoal and lychee charcoal were used to prepare activated carbon. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons are in accordance with the fractal growth hypothesis. Further, the reaction degree and reaction step length can be determined by the experimental data of pore and surface structure, which verified the feasibility of the pore fractal growth model.
In this study, the removal efficiency of PFCs(perfluorinated compounds) in the GAC(granule activated carbon) process based on the superheated steam automatic regeneration system was investigated in laboratory scale and pilot-scale reactor. Among PFCs, PFHxS(perfluorohexyl sulfonate) was most effectively removed. The removal efficiency of PFCs was found to be closely related to the EBCT, and the removal efficiencies of PFOA(perfluorooctanoic acid), PFOS(perfluorooctyl sulfonate), and PFHxS were 43.7, 75, and 100%, respectively, under the condition of EBCT of 6 min. Afterward, PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS exhibited the earlier breakthrough time in the order. After that, GAC was regenerated, and the removal efficiency of the PFCs before and after regeneration was compared. As a result, it was shown that the PFCs removal efficiency in the regenerated GAC process were higher, and that of PFOA was improved to 75%. The findings of this study indicate the feasibility of the superheated steam automatic regeneration system for the stable removal of the PFCs, and it was verified that this technology can be applied stably enough even in field conditions.
By polymerizing acrylonitrile in the presence of ammonium persulfate as an initiator and Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (P-AC) as a filler, a composite material polyacrylonitrile/Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (PAN/P- AC) was developed. By reacting hydroxylamine with the composite's nitrile groups, the prepared composite was functionalized by amidoximation. FTIR spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were all applied to thoroughly characterize the fabricated adsorbent. For the treatment of Cr(VI) ions from synthetic solutions, the adsorption properties of amidoximated polyacrylonitrile/Pterocladia capillacea-activated carbon (PAO/P-AC) were investigated. The pH effect, uptake kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and thermodynamics studies were used to characterize adsorption properties. As a kinetic model analysis, the data confirmed that the pseudo-second-order rate equation matched well the adsorption process. With coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.9998, the Tempkin isotherm model had the lowest error, suggesting that it is the best fitted model to describe this adsorption mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that Cr(VI) adsorption was endothermic.
Heavy metal pollution has a harmful impact on human health and is regarded as a vital problem. Preparation of a novel, low cost bio-sorbent for heavy metal sorption is the main target of this research. Non-living Chlorella Vulgaris Alga/Date pit activated carbon composite (1:1), (CV/AC), is a novel bio-sorbent prepared by the wet-chemical method for sorption of Pb (II) and Sr (II) from aqueous media. The optimum pH for sorption reaction is 5 and the equilibrium time is achieved within 1 h. The sorption efficiencies are 90.5% for Pb(II) and 95.7% for Sr(II) with initial concentration Co 10 mg L– 1 at 298 K. The monolayer sorption capacities of CV/AC composite at 298 K and pH = 5 were 6.34 ± 0.059, 5.97 ± 0.22 mg g– 1. The saturation capacities were 98.5 and 125 mg g– 1 for Pb (II) and Sr (II), respectively after 10 days. The sorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. It follows a pseudo-2nd-order mechanism. The results are suggestive of the need to adopt CV/AC composite as a potential bio-sorbent of Pb (II) and Sr (II) for waste water treatment.
Abstract Recently, the circular economy aiming at elimination of waste and the continual use of resources has attracted a lot of attentions. In the circular system, the resource recovery uses the recycled wastes as the raw material to manufacture new valuable products. This work focuses on a low-cost process, in which an activated carbon (AC) adsorbent was prepared from waste cation exchange resin by calcination and HNO3 activation hydrothermal method. Surface structure and chemistry of AC were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR and Boehm titration. It was found that the acid treatment could increase the number of pores and the content of oxygen-containing functional groups on AC surface. In the adsorption experiment, Methylene blue (MB) was used to assess the adsorption capacity of AC. Experimental results showed that the highest efficiency of MB removal was achieved by AC with modification of 4M HNO3, showing the acidification effect on the adsorption capacity of AC. Adsorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were employed to fit the experimental data. It was shown that MB adsorption on AC is more consistent with Langmuir model that assumes a homogeneous adsorption. In the adsorption kinetic analysis, the adsorption was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model, indicating that adsorption of MB on acidified AC is dominated by chemical adsorption. The study revealed that the waste ion-exchange resin is a proper precursor of carbon adsorbent for MB dye. This low-cost method would specifically reduce the environmental cost of waste disposal.
The production of macroalgae-derived adsorbent is of great importance to realize the idea of treating pollutants with invaluable renewable materials. Herein, a novel meso-micro porous nano-activated carbon was prepared from green alga Ulava lactuca in a facile way via chemical activation with zinc chloride. The resultant activated carbon possesses a significant specific surface area 1486.3 m2/ g. The resulting activated carbon was characterized and investigated for the adsorption of Direct Red 23 (DR23) dye from an aqueous environment. Batch method was conducted to study the effects of different adsorption processes on the DR23 dye adsorption from water. Isotherms and kinetics models were investigated for the adsorption process of DR23 dye. It was found that the adsorption data were well fitted by Langmuir model showing a monolayer adsorption capacity 149.26 mg/g. Kinetic experiments revealed that the adsorptions of DR23 dye can be described with pseudo-secondorder model showing a good correlation (R2 > 0.997). The prepared activated carbon from Ulava lactuca was exposed to a total of six regeneration experiments. The regeneration result proved that the fabricated activated carbon only loses 19% of its adsorption capacity after six cycles. These results clearly demonstrated the high ability of the obtained active carbon to absorb anionic dyes from the aqueous environment.
The pore structure of pitch-based activated carbon prepared by physical activation was improved by nitric acid treatment of pitch. The nitric acid treatment introduced oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on pitch, and increased pitch molecular weight by cross-linking. The introduced oxygen and nitrogen functional groups on pitch were removed during the carbonization process, so they did not directly affect the physical activation process. The increased pitch molecular weight induced an increase of the pitch softening point. The increased softening point prevented rearrangement between the pitch molecules during the carbonization process, thereby inhibiting the orientation improvement of pitch molecules. The crystal degree of the carbonized pitch was reduced due to the inhibition of the orientation improvement. The reduced crystal degree increased reactivity between carbonized pitch and activation agent ( CO2) and formed micropores, so that activated carbon with a high specific surface area could be prepared.