서울시 경동시장 및 인근 대형마트에서 유통 중인 건조 수산물 150여 건을 시료로, ICP-MS를 이용하여 규격 미설정 중금속인 비소, 크롬, 니켈에 의한 오염도를 확인하고 그에 따른 위해도를 분석하였다. 크롬과 니켈은 검출량 및 위해도 분석 결과, 유의할 만한 결과를 확인할 수 없었다. 비소 검출량의 경우 건조어류 1.76±1.36 (0.00- 7.34), 건조연체류 3.38±2.42 (0.06-7.89), 건조해조류 1.99±1.33 (0.28-5.97), 건조갑각류 6.62±2.50 (3.30-13.57) ppm으로, 현재 건조 농산물 일부 및 한약재에서의 3 ppm 이하 규정을 간접적으로 적용했을 때, 건조갑각류는 분석에 사용된 시료 21건 모두 기준 이상으로 검출되었고, 건조연체류는 총 20건 중 50%에 해당하는 10건이 기준 이상, 건조 어류는 총 108건 중 15건(13.9%)이 기준 초과, 건조 해조류는 35건 중 6건(17.1%)의 시료가 기준을 초과 한 결과를 보였다. 시료 건수에 따른 한계에도 불구하고, 위 결과를 통해 각 품목별 및 세부 품목별 미 규격 중금속 오염에 대한 지속적인 자료 축적과 규격 설정의 필요성을 확인할 수 있었다. 비록 %PTWI 분석 결과 아직은 안전한 것으로 확인되었지만, 중금속은 여러 경로로 인체 내로 유입되며 위해도는 총합으로써 평가해야 하므로, 해양 및 수산물의 오염으로 인한 건강 위해 가능성에 대한 확인은 다각적인 연구와 검토가 필요할 것으로 판단된다.
서울약령시장과 서울경동시장 등에서 유통되고 있는 식약공용 농·임산물 29품목 171건에 대하여 ICP-MS와 수은 분석기를 이용하여 중금속(납, 카드뮴, 비소, 수은) 함량을 분석하고 위해도를 평가하였다. 납, 카드뮴, 비소, 수은의 검출 범위는 각각 ND-4.719 mg/kg, ND-1.019 mg/kg, 0.002-8.696 mg/kg, ND-0.058 mg/kg로 나타났다. 171건의 검체 중 Artemisiae Capillaris Herba(인진호) 1건과 Actinidiae Ramulus et Fulium et Fructus Vermicultus(목천료) 1건에서 각각 카드뮴과 비소 항목이 허용기준을 초과 하여 부적합 판정을 받았으며 나머지는 모두 허용기준 이내였다. 위해도를 평가 했을 때 비발암위해도지수(HI)가 1을 초과한 품목은 없었고, 발암위해도가 납은 모든 품목에서 10-6 이하였으며 비소는 10-4-10-6 으로 나타나 전반적으로 안전한 수준으로 평가되었다. %PTWI는 납, 카드뮴, 비 소, 수은 모두 100이하로 나타났다. 유통중인 식약공용 농 ·임산물의 중금속(납, 카드뮴, 비소, 수은) 함량을 분석하고 비발암위해도지수(HI), 발암위해도, %PTWI를 평가한 결과 안전한 수준으로 평가되었다.
LC-MS/MS를 이용하여 신속하고 정밀한 카벤다짐 분석법을 연구하였다. 농산물 중 카벤다짐은 acetonitrile로 추 출한 후 SPE cartridge을 이용하여 전처리를 수행하였으며, 최소 검출한계 및 정량한계는 각각 0.001과 0.004 mg/kg 이었다. 농산물에 각각 1.0 mg/kg 및 0.02 mg/kg 농도의 카벤다짐을 첨가하여 분석 시 회수율과 정밀성은 각각 상추 가 84.9%, 1.0% 및 87.8%, 3.8% 얼갈이배추가 83.4%, 1.5% 및 86.8%, 2.7% 양배추가 86.4%, 2.0% 및 77.3%, 1.5% 근대가 83.3%, 0.2% 및 86.8%, 2.0 % 이었으며, 콩 나물은 85.9%, 3.0% 및 90.1%, 1.3%, 그리고 숙주나물이 83.3%, 2.0% 및 85.9%, 1.9% 로 조사되었다. 본 연구의 시험법은 식품공전의 다성분분석법에 비해 신속하고 정밀 한 분석법으로 농산물에 대한 카벤다짐 분석에 적합한 것으로 조사되었다.
To determine the contents of sodium and potassium in side dishes, 92 samples from 22 different kinds of side dishes that can be classified into 3 groups were collected in Seoul area and analysed using ICP-OES. The highest sodium content was detected in pepper doenjang muchim, while potassium content was the highest in kong jorim. When comparing the content of sodium and potassium in 3 groups, namely namul, muchim, and jorim, the sodium content of namul group was significantly different from those of jorim and muchim (p-value < 0.05). Sodium intake per serving size was the highest in parae muchim among the samples as estimated to 20.2% of WHO recommendation that is 2,000 mg/day. The amount of sodium by simultaneously intake of soybean sprouts namul, anchovy jorim and parae muchim per one serving size was estimated to 1,000 mg. The potassim/sodium ratios of spinach namul and kong jorim were 1.70 and 0.81, respectively, while that of bracken namul was very low as about 0.1. Foodborne pathogens were not detected out of 92 side dishes.
가열하지 않은 간편섭취 농산물의 섭취를 통한 세균 감염의 가능성을 줄이고자, 가정에서 쉽게 구할 수 있고 잔류에 대한 염려가 없는 천연 항균성 식품을 이용하여 세척할 경우, 물 세척에 비해 세균의 감소효과가 있는지 확인하고자 하였다. 여러 가지 항균성 식품성분 중 마늘의 allicin, 생강의 gingerol, 녹차의 catechin, 계피의 cinnamic aldehyde, 고추냉이의 allyl isothiocyanate의 단계별 희석액으로 세척한 후, 단순 물 세척의 세척효과와 비교한 결과, 단순 물 세척에 비하여 세균 감소의 효과가 큰 것으로 통계적으로 확인되었다. 간편섭취 농산물에서 검출된 Bacillus cereus 오염의 유래 및 연관성을 확인하고자 유전적 상관성을 분석해 본 결과 유사도가 매우 높은 균주들이 많이 검출되었다. 이 사실을 통해 간편섭취 농산물의 생산, 가공, 포장, 유통 등의 과정에서 공통적인 요인에 의한 지속적인 오염의 가능성 및 소비자의 감염 가능성을 파악할수 있었으며, 감염을 예방하기 위한 사전적이고 체계적인 관리가 필요함을 확인하였다.
The objective of this study is investigation of contamination levels and assessment of health risk effects of heavy metals in herbal pills. 31 Items and 93 samples were obtained for this investigation from major herbal medicine producing areas, herbal markets and on-line supermarkets from Jan to Jun in 2010. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer method was conducted for the quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd and As. In addition, the mercury analyzer system was conducted for that of Hg without sample digestion. The average contents of heavy metals in samples were as follows : 0.87 mg/kg for Pb, 0.08 mg/kg for Cd, 2.87 mg/kg for As and 0.16 mg/kg for Hg, respectively. In addition, the average contents of heavy metals in different parts of plants, including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 0.63 mg/kg, 3.94 mg/kg, 1.42 mg/kg, 1.05 mg/kg, 0.16 mg/kg, 22.31 mg/kg and 10.17 mg/kg, respectively. After the estimations of dietary exposure, the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the average daily dose (ADD), the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and the relative hazard of heavy metals were evaluated. As the results, the relative hazards compared to PTWI in samples were below the recommended standard of JECFA as Pb 3.1%, Cd 0.9%, Hg 0.5%. Cancer risks through slope factor (SF) by Ministry of Environment Republic Korea and Environmental Protection Agency was 4.24 × 10−7 for Pb and 3.38 × 10−4 for As (assuming that the total arsenic content was equal to the inorganic arsenic). Based on our results, possible Pb-induced cancer risks in herbal pills according to parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 1.95 × 10−7, 1.45 × 10−6, 2.14 × 10−7, 6.27 × 10−7, 1.99 × 10−8, 3.61 × 10−7 and 9.64 × 10−8, respectively. Possible As-induced cancer risks in herbal pills by parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 1.54 × 10−5, 7.24 × 10−5, 1.23 × 10−4, 2.02 × 10−5, 3.25 × 10−6, 2.18 × 10−3 and 5.67 × 10−6 respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the majority of samples except for some samples with relative high contents of heavy metals were safe.
This study was investigated to determine the contents of sulfur dioxide residues in medicinal herbs in Seoul Yang Nyoung Shi in 2010 (1,522 samples of 189 kinds). Samples were measured by modified Monier-Williams method. Of the total samples, 618 samples (84 kinds) were domestic, and 904 samples (158 kinds) were imported. The content of sulfur dioxide in the domestics showed the range of 0.0 to 1,298.0 mg/kg (average 12.7 mg/kg), while those in imported samples were the range of 0.0 to 3,982.2 mg/kg (average 42.4 mg/kg). The average (mg/kg) amount of sulfur dioxide by parts in medicinal herbs was as follows; Tuber 122.3, Radix 69.3, Rhizoma 37.4, Cortex 33.3, Fructus 8.8, Ramulus 4.9, Semen 4.6, Folium 3.4, Flos 2.7, Perithecium 1.4. Of the total samples (1,522), 52 samples (3.4%) were violated the KFDA regulatory guidance of sulfur dioxide. Among these 52 unsuitable samples, 16samples (7 kinds) were domestic, and 36 samples (23 kinds) were imported. Approximately 88.1% of the total samples was less than 10 mg/kg of sulfur dioxide and 6.3% of the total samples showed more than 30 mg/kg of sulfur dioxide.
The increase in the consumption of herb medicines have made their use a public health problem due to the potential fungal contamination and the risk of the presence of mycotoxins. 360 samples of herb medicines were evaluated for the aflatoxin contamination. The natural occurrence of aflatoxins in these samples were determined using immunoaffinity column clean up and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post-column derivatization. For samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in positive samples were 1.4 μg/kg (46.4%), 0.4 μg/kg (25.4%), 1.1 μg/kg (37.8%) and 0.9 μg/kg (24.3%), respectively. Recoveries of the full analytical procedure were 71.7~99.7% for AFB1, 88.1~99.2% for AFB2, 82.8~95.5% for AFG1 and 77.9~90.0%for AFG2. The excess cancer risk estimated using the cancer potency of aflatoxin B1 (7 (mg/kg/day)−1 for HBsAg− and 230 (mg/kg/day)−1 for HBsAg+) were 1.30 × 10^(−5) ~ 1.22 × 10^(−7) for hepatits B surface antigen negative (HBsAg−) and 3.31 × 10^(−4)~ 3.12 × 10^(−6) for hepatits B surface antigen positive (HBsAg+) respectively. In conclusion, although the contamination levels of samples used in the study were low, further actions are also required to undertake a program of herbal surveys in order to access mycotoxin contamination overall so that the safety of public will be protected.
A HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of six sweeteners (acesulfame-K, cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, stevioside, aspartame) in children's favorite foods. The procedure involves an extraction of the six sweeteners with 50% methanol solution, sample clean-up using the Carrez clearing reagent and filtering with cartridge filter. The HPLC separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold (150 mm × 2.1 mm 5 um) column using the water/acetonitrile mobile phase (95:5). Mass spectrometric analysis was carried out using the TSQ Quantum Ultra operated in negative and positive ESI/SRM. With this method, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. The spike recoveries of six sweeteners for 2 kinds of foods spiked into 0.4 mg/kg ranged from 87.4 to 114.7%. The detection limits were above 0.02 mg/kg. The method has been applied to determination of six sweeteners in children's favorite foods.
Most propionic acid is added to food (especially breads) as preservatives and its form is sodium or calcium salt. Most countries admitted propionic acid as food preservatives but a tolerance limit is somewhat different according to countries. Recoveries of the official method for propionates reported as 50.0~60.0%. Accordingly new rapid determination method for propionates was developed using formic acid added sodium chloride (5 g) and ether (formic acid : ether = 1 : 2) as the extraction solvent to improve the official method with the complex processes. Propionate was dissolved from the samples with formic acid omitting steam distillation and ion exchange procedure. Then propionate in formic acid was extracted with ether and sodium chloride again. A 1 μl aliquot of the filtrate of ether was analyzed by gas chromatograph. Recoveries from sample A and B fortified with propionic acid sodium salt were 85.0 % and 90.0 %, respectively.
This study was conducted to investigate the content of sulfur dioxide residues in medicinal herbs in Seoul in 2009. Sulfur dioxide in the samples were determined by Monnier-Williams's modified method. A total of 1,821 samples of 205 different types of herbs were collected from Kyung-Dong Herb markets and Oriental medicine hospitals in Seoul. Of these samples, 642 samples were domestic, and 1,179 samples were imported. Of the 1,821 samples, 61 (3.3%, 31 types) failed to meet the regulations for sulfur dioxide residues of KFDA in medicinal herbs. Among these 61 unsuitable samples, 17 (7 types) were domestic, and 44 samples (26 types) were imported. The content of sulfur dioxide in the domestic medicinal herbs ranged from 0 to 809 mg/kg, while those in imported medicinal herbs ranged from 0 to 4,481 mg/kg. Approximately 84.6% of the samples contained less than 10 mg/kg of sulfur dioxide and about 10.0% of samples contained more than 30 mg/kg of sulfur dioxide.
Our paper shows the results of 302 samples of herb medicines about fungal contamination at Yakyeang markets in Seoul. The sample medicines were treated VICAM pretreatment and analysed by post column derivatisation procedure(PHRED-HPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Aflatoxin B1 was founded from 50.3% of samples, aflatoxin B2 was 39.7%, aflatoxin G1 was 21.2% and aflatoxin G2 was 23.5%. The detected ranges of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were from 0.1 to 57.2 μg/kg, 0.1 to 42.6 μg/kg, 0.1 to 23.5 μg/kg and 0.1 to 9.5 μg/kg respectively. Among total samples, 26 samples contained aflatoxin B1 violated the regulation (less than 10 ug/kg) for aflatoxin B1 of KFDA. From the result, we could presumed that more than a half of samples were contaminated by aflatoxins. Therefore, it seems to be necessary that the new safety giudeline will be established aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 from herb medicines as aflatoxin B1.