Following the social requirement to strengthen field supervision of the asbestos containing materials (ACM) abatement process with regard to asbestos school buildings, this study was conducted to understand the status and characteristics of airborne asbestos that may potentially occur after the ACM abatement process is completed. In the area where a series of asbestos abatement processes were finally completed, comprehensive area air sampling was performed. For sample analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used according to The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) method and Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) analysis was also performed. Airborne asbestos was detected in 29.5% of the total samples, and the average concentration was 0.0039 ± 0.0123 s/cc (12.3 ± 38.9 s/mm2). 4.5% of the total samples exceeded the AHERA standard (70.0 s/mm2) and the average concentration was 0.0528 ± 0.0256 s/cc (167.2 ± 82.0 s/mm2). Airborne asbestos was no longer detected at the point when AHERA is exceeded after re-cleaning. Most of the detected asbestos was chrysotile (94.4%) and the structure types of asbestos were Matrix (41.4%), Fiber (39.9%), Bundle (10.8%), and Cluster (7.8%). Among the asbestos structures detected through transmission electron microscope analysis, the asbestos structures satisfying PCM-equivalent structures were found to be 6% of the detected asbestos, indicating that there is a limitation of the PCM analysis to check the airborne asbestos in that area. As a result of reviewing the status of airborne asbestos that may potentially occur and the type and dimensions of asbestos structure detected in the area, since the airborne asbestos exposure caused by poor field supervision for the ACM abatement process could not be ruled out, thorough management is necessary. In addition, the result of this study could be used as scientific evidence for establishing and strengthening policies related to ACM abatement, including cases of school buildings.
국내 폐슬레이트 발생량은 매년 증가 추세로 지정매립장 용량이 한계에 다다르고 있어 슬레이트를 대용량으로 안전하고 저렴하게 처리함과 동시에 재활용할 수 있는 방법이 필요하다. 이에 대한 대안으로 시멘트 소성로를 이용한 폐슬레이트 열처리 방법을 들 수 있다. 이 연구에서는 플라즈마를 이용하여 시멘트 소성로의 고온 환경을 모사할 수 있는 중간 규모(pilot scale)의 장치를 개발하고 이를 이용하여 폐슬레이트 내 석면의 비활성화 및 시멘트 원료로의 재활용 가능성을 확인하고자 하였다. 중간규모 실험 장치는 플라즈마 토 치를 이용하여 실제 소성로와 동일한 조건을 가지도록 1/50로 축소·제작하였다. 실험조건은 시멘트 소성로의 소성 시간과 동일하게 20분간 200-2,000oC까지 100oC 간격으로 온도를 상승시키며 폐슬레이트의 비활성화 실험을 실시하였다. 플라즈마 고온반응기를 이용하여 열처리한 폐슬레이트의 XRD, PLM, TEM-EDS 분석결과, 1,500oC 이상의 온도에서 슬레이트 내 백석면이 고토감람석으로 광물 상전이가 일어나 비활성화되고 시멘트 구성 광물인 라나이트(Ca2SiO4)가 형성됨을 확인하였다. 이 연구 결과는 추후 시멘트 소성로를 이용하여 대용량의 슬레이트를 경제적이고 안전하게 처리함과 동시에 시멘트 원료로 재활용할 수 있는 방안에 대한 기초자료로 활용할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.
안동 지역에 하나의 초염기성암 복합체가 격리된 안구상 형태로 산출된다. 이 초염기성암 복합체는 초염기성암에서 염기성암이며, 대부분은 페리도타이트이다. 이 복합체는 수 km로 동북동 방향으로 안동 단층을 따라 신장되어 있다. 이 연구는 안동 초염기성암 복합체 중 페리도타이트에 대한 암석지화학과 이곳에서 산출되는 석면의 특징에 대해서이다. 이 페리도타이트는 화성기원으로, 레조라이트에서 웨를라이트이고 높은 포스테라이트 조성의 감람석과 마그네슘 비의 단사휘석, 트레몰라이트에서 체마카이트질 조성의 각섬석을 포함한다. 지화학적으로 이들 암석은 높은 마그네슘비, 전이원소 함량과 낮은 알칼리 원소 함량을 보인다. 이 페리도타이트는 백석면, 트레몰라이트 및 악티노라이트 석면을 포함하나, 후자가 우세하다. 이들 각섬석계 석면은 소 단층면, 수 cm에서 십 cm 폭의 벽개, 단구에서 미끄럼 및 경사 섬유로써 산출이 되고, 백석면들은 수 mm~cm 폭의 맥 및 벽개에서 교차 및 미끄럼 섬유로서 산출이 된다. 이들 결과들은 PLM, XRD, SEM 결과로서 확인이 된다. 전체적인 안동 초염기성암 복합체 중 초염기성암의 특징과 석면의 산출 양상은 각각 전 세계의 알파인형 초염기성암과 충남 지역의 사문암화된 초염기성암의 특성과 유사하다.
The objective of this study was to determine whether crops and fruits absorb the naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). The concentration of asbestos in various crops and fruits grown in NOA areas was analyzed and background levels of asbestos in ambient air and soil samples were assessed. Actinolite/Tremolite asbestos were detected in all soil samples. Among 21 ambient air samples, 2 samples were recorded to contain 0.0005 f/cc (fiber per cubic centimeter) but no asbestos was detected in the other samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, no evidence suggesting that the crops and fruits could be contaminated by NOA was found in this study. The excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCRs) of ABS scenarios (agricultural activities) used in this study were calculated by using the Arithmetic (AM) and Geometric mean (GM) of ELCRs. The AM and GM of ELCRs estimated from digging soil and weeding activities did not exceed 1 × 10−4, which was defined as the general acceptable risk range for exposure. The results of this study would be informative to NOA managers and related policy makers to make plans to prevent unexpected exposure to asbestos to residents living in an NOA area.
This study aims to analyze the effects of 4 directions of wind, wind speed, year of construction of slate roofs, installation area and other factors on the concentration and size distribution of airborne fiber particles in farmhouses with a slate roof containing asbestos. Airborne fiber particle samples were collected from the air in six houses with a slate roof containing asbestos using a high flow rate pump (10 L/min) for 2 hours, three times a day with a different condition, 72 times in total. The airborne fiber particle concentrations were measured using a phase contrast microscope, and the size of fiber particles of 72 samples in total was estimated using the mean value of those in each sample measured at 100 with a field of view. The total average concentration of fiber particles collected from in the air in four directions of the targeted farmhouses was 2.83 fiber/L, and its maximum concentration was 5.75 fiber/L, which means that among all samples there was no place that exceeded 10 fiber/L, a recommended indoor air quality standard. The average size of the fiber particles was 11.55 μm, and the maximum size was 40 μm. A multiple regression analysis of factors affecting the concentration and size of fiber particles in the air collected from the farmhouses with a slate roof containing asbestos found that the closer to the main wind direction (p<0.001) and the faster the average wind speed (p<0.05), the fiber particles concentration became significantly higher. In this case, the coefficient of determination was 52.8%. It was also found that the wider the total area of the slate roof (p<0.001) and the slower the average wind speed (p<0.05), the longer the fiber particles; the coefficient of determination for this finding was 19.6%. The concentration of fiber particles in the air of farmhouses with a slate roof appeared to be the highest under the main wind direction, and became significantly higher as the wind speed became faster. This proved that fiber particles were leaked from the slate roof. The size of the fiber particles became significantly longer as the area of the slate roof became wider and the wind speed became slower.
In this study, we analyzed the factors affecting the concentration of airborne asbestos fiber in the indoor and outdoor environment of a slate roofing house, and performed a health risk assessment of residents living in houses with slate roofs. Sampling was conducted at ten houses with slate roofs on 3 different days under different weather conditions. A high flow rate pump was used for sampling. The specimen was assessed using a phase-contrast microscope. The degree of risk of exposure to asbestos was assessed using EPA’s carcinogen risk assessment method. Asbestos fiber concentrations for slate roofing houses were 2.43 fiber/L inside and 2.46 fiber/L outside, respectively. The correlation between the indoor and outdoor asbestos fiber concentration was 0.486. But on both sides, the asbestos fiber concentrations did not exceed the standard (10 fiber/L) for ambient air in Korea. The factors affecting the concentration of asbestos fiber were year of construction (p<0.05), total roof area (p<0.05) and average wind velocity (p<0.01). According to EPA’s ELCR (Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk) on air pollution substances, a level of 1.0E-04~1.0E-06 should be maintained. However, the ELCR level of 6 out of 10 houses was over 1.0E-04. Therefore, a risk management plan for residents of slate roofing houses must be prepared immediately.
부산과 울산의 중심지역에 대해 공기 중의 분진시료를 채취하여, 위상차현미경, 위상차분산현미경, 주사전자현미경 등으로 석면을 분석한 결과, 석면은 검출한계 이하로서 확인되지 않았다. 공기 중의 분진시료에는 섬유상물질이 다수 포함되었으나, 이들은 대부분 유기질 섬유인 것으로 나타났다. 무기질 섬유물질로는 암면, 세라믹섬유, 석고 등이 소량 포함되었으며, 비섬유상인 석영, 방해석, 장석 등의 광물도 가끔 관찰되었다. 국내의 공기 중 분진의 석면분석은 주로 위상차현미경으로 관찰하는 것으로 규정되어 있으나, 이것만으로는 석면의 식별이 불가능한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 일본 JIS법과 같이 저온회화 처리 장치에 의한 유기물질 제거 후에 분산염색법으로 석면을 식별하고 계수하는 것이 효율적인 것으로 사료된다.
Asbestos was a general term applied to certain fibrous minerals long popular for their heat-resistance, tensile strength, acoustic insulation and inexpensive price. Despite its many uses, asbestos is a hazardous material. Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause serious health problems, such as lung cancer, asbestosis and mesothelioma. According to the compliance regulations for asbestos-related materials in Korea, all kindergartens have to be inspected for asbestos materials before April 2014. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of asbestos containing materials in kindergartens in Gwangju, Korea. We investigated 93 kindergartens between January and May in 2014. Asbestos types and contents were analysed using the polarized light microscopy (PLM). Kindergartens facilities that featured ACM(Asbestos Containing Material) included ceiling textiles that contained chrysolite/amosite in amounts between 2 and 5% and gaskets that contained chrysolite in amounts between 15 and 35%. Also, wall cement flat boards contained chrysolite in amounts between 10 and 15%. In this study, risk assessment of asbestos material showed that all kindergarten materials were classified as Low grade when assessed by the Korea Ministry of Employment and Labor guideline method.
The research on the actual condition of indoor asbestos concentration in Korea has not been thoroughly accomplished up to now. In this research the ratio of asbestos-containing buildings and indoor asbestos concentration was studied. This investigation was conducted in 2012 and 2013 and buildings were categorized based on region, building type by use, existing space(ground or basement), and construction year, respectively. Also the indoor asbestos concentration change was monitored to evaluation the efficiencies of two types of asbestos-concentration abatement devices.As a result, the ratio of asbestos-containing buildings in Seoul was largely decreased. The ratio of asbestos-containing buildings was higher in hospitals and schools regionally and in ground buildings than in basement. The average indoor asbestos concentrations were 0.0011, 0.0008 piece/cc in 2012 and 2013 investigation, respectively. Those values were much lower than standards(0.01 piece/cc), therefore the threat of indoor asbestos concentration might be negligible. In asbestos-concentration abatement experiments, the circulation velocity of ventilator were changed 2-6.7 m/sec. With 6.7 m/sec of velocity of ventilator, the concentration of indoor asbestos was fluctuated and maximum value was 2.4 piece/cc. With 4.5 and 2 m/sec of velocities of ventilator, the maximum concentration of indoor asbestos was fluctuated and maximum value was 0.9 piece/cc. This indicated that the concentration of indoor asbestos was decreased partly due to the free drop of asbestos. From these results, the proper velocity of ventilator seems to be between 4.7 and 6.5m/sec under this circumstance and further research is required. These research results may be used to guideline of asbestos management policy.
We investigated the distribution of asbestos in Seoul for 16 school buildings built before and after 1990, includingkindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and high schools. The risk assessment standards of AHERA,HSE and ASTM were reviewed and a comparative analysis of assessment standards was conducted in schoolbuildings. For the risk assessment of 16 schools, 170 samples were selected, each of which was assessed usingstandards of AHERA, HSE and ASTM. The school buildings included the ACM (asbestos containing materials)ranged 3-4% of chrysotile and 1-3% of amosite in classroom ceilings and has 7-8% chrysotile in partitions of studenttoilets. The airborne concentrations of fiber materials were ranged with 0.002-0.022 fiber/cc in school buildingsby PCM. In this study, a simplified rating scale was used three categories of Good, Damaged and SignificantlyDamaged. In the result of comparative analysis for the risk assessment criteria, it was found that 113 samples, 132samples and 82 samples were classified as Good when assessed by AHERA, HSE and ASTM, respectively; and46 samples, 29 samples and 53 samples as Damaged, respectively; and 12 samples, 8 samples and 34 samples asSignificantly Damaged, respectively. From the distribution of asbestos and the comparative analysis for the riskassessment criteria, the management plan and new risk assessment were made based on the Korea backgroundshould be established to control asbestos exposure to students from damaged ACM and will be revealed that theassessment for the current condition and potential for disturbance on asbestos in school buildings.
선박에서의 석면사용은 SOLAS 규정에 의거 2011년 1월 1일부터 전면 금지되었다. 이는 우리나라 선박설비기준에서도 동일한 내용으로 금지하고 있다. 하지만 규정의 내용이 선언적이며 구체적으로 사용된 석면의 발견, 제거 및 확인에 대한 방안이 제시되지 않고 있다. 이 연구에서는 선박재활용협약, IMO 회보 및 육상에서의 석면안전관리법의 내용을 검토하여 각 관련당사자들의 대응 방안을 다음과 같이 제시하였다. 정부 및 선급단체는 조사대상 선박의 지정, 석면관리 기준 및 석면처리 전문가의 지정 등에 관한 규정을 제정하여야 하며, 조선소 및 기기 제조자는 그들의 제품에 석면이 사용되지 않았음을 확인하고 이를 문서화하여야 한다. 또한 선주 및 선박관리자는 선박의 안전경영시스템에 석면의 선내 사용을 통제할 수 있어야 한다.
인간의 생태계와 서식환경을 공유하고 있는 정주성 거미류의 경우 제한된 서식지 이동 특성으로 인해, 특정유해환경을 효과적으로 감시할 수 있는 환경 지표생물로서의 활용가치가 매우 높은 생명체로 판단된다. 따라서 본 연구는 석면 섬유에 노출시킨 거미의 서폐 미세구조를 관찰하고, 그 결과를 토대로 유해환경을 모니터링할 수 있는 생물지표로서의 활용 가능성에 대해 논의하였다. 고해상도의 주사전자현미경으로 서폐의 미세구조를 관찰한 결과, 기공 주위에 분지된 수지상의 큐티클지주(spike)는 기낭으로 유입되는 공기를 정화하는 필터구조로 작동하였고, 기낭 내부에 수직돌출된 큐티클 지주는 기낭 공간을 안정적으로 확보하고 호흡 표면적을 극대화하는 구조체임이 확인되었다. 짧은 노출 기간에도
불구하고, 기공 개구부의 전 영역에서 청석면의 미세섬유가 검출되어 석면과 같은 환경 오염원에 대한 효과적인 생물지표로서의 가능성을 거미의 서폐에서 확인하였다. 또한, 기낭으로 유입되어 혈림프 공간을 관통한 미세섬유는 고착구조를 형성하고 조직손상을 유발함이 관찰되었는데, 섬유 주위에 밀집된 혈구는 흔히 관찰되었으나, 섬유 표면에 부착된 혈구나 석면소체 등은 관찰되지 않았다. 이는 상대적으로 짧은 석면노출기간에서 기인하는 것으로 해석되었다.
The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of government's asbestos management policy for asbestos managers in school and asbestos industries, who are stakeholders related to asbestos, and the general public. The purpose is to suggest preliminary data for the establishment of communication methodology of asbestos risk, fit for the features of each audiences, by grasping the features of risk communication by each element for each group survey. For this study, a questionnaire survey has been conducted from May to August in 2012 and the responses of 617 people including 214 school asbestos managers, 95 managers related to asbestos industry and 308 the general people have been analyzed. As a result of the measurement of asbestos risk, the perception degree of general asbestos risk is higher in general public than the expert group's one, women than men, and nonsmokers than smokers. For the reliability of government's asbestos risk management, it was shown that it is the highest in school asbestos managers with public official personalities, who are a quasi-expert group for asbestos, than any other groups, the expert group of managers related to asbestos industry is in the middle level and general public group is in the lowest level. For trust in of government policy, it was shown that it is higher in school asbestos managers, than in group of managers related to asbestos industry, and the general public has a similar level of reliability with the group of managers related to asbestos industry. After consideration of path coefficient by structural equation modeling in order to investigate the relation between factors that the trust affects of asbestos management policy among the variables of awareness of asbestos management policy, it has been shown that the main factor in reliability of asbestos policy in all investigated groups was an awareness of information sharing for asbestos policy, and the second factor was reliability in government's asbestos risk management.
제천시 수산면의 고생대 백운암에는 속성기원 흑색 처트 단괴들이 함유되어 있으며, 흑운모 화강암 관입과 관련된 접촉변성작용으로 백운석과 처트가 반응하여 단괴 주위로 변질대가 형성되었다. 변질 초기에 활석 및 방해석이 처트와 백운암을 교대하며 생성되었지만, 후기에 투각섬석이 활석과 방해석을 교대하였다. 처트 단괴들이 밀집한 백운암 층준에서는 회백색 투각섬석이 다량으로 산출된다. 주사전자현미경 및 광학현미경 관찰결과, 투각섬석은 다양한 종횡비의 신장된 입자 형태를 보이며, 수 mm의 좁은 공간에서 같이 산출된다. 침상-섬유상 입자들이 다발을 이루는 석면상 투각섬석도 있으나, 주상 입자들도 흔히 존재함이 확인되었다. 따라서 자연 유래 석면물질의 경우, 모든 투각섬석이 석면상 투각섬석은 아니므로 석면 정량 시 유의해야 한다. 수산 지역에서 석면상 각섬석의 산출 환경은 함처트 백운암, 열원, 수용성 유체의 존재가 투각섬석 석면의 지질학적 생성 조건이 될 수 있음을 지시한다.
This study is to consider the introduction of the standard practice which test the asbestos stabilizer efficiency for the spray-applied ACBM, because asbestos stabilizer may be one of operation & management (O&M) program to prevent friable asbestos from spray-applied asbestos containing building materials( ACBM) and some countries like U.S and Japan have introduced the evaluation system or standard practice to test the efficiency of asbestos stabilizer which is used for spray-applied ACBM since 2002 and 2006, relatively. Efficiency test of 8 stabilizers which were manufactured from Japan, Australia and Korea was performed by the method of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. The contents of test method were consisted adhesive strength, penetration depth, impact resistance and wind affection. The efficiency of impact resistance and wind affection was improved 4.1～37.4% and 75.2～95.7% after asbestos stabilizer applied on the spray-applied ACBM. Although the results of adhesive strength were less than that of non-applied materials but that was satisfied the ASTM standard (2.4kPa).
This study was performed to evaluate the type and concentration of TVOC and formaldehyde emitted from asbestos stabilizers, because the stabilizers can be applied on the surface of asbestos contained building materials(ACBM). The emission test of three organic and synthetic resins(OSBS) and five inorganic based stabilizers(IBS) were tested for 7 days. The amount of emission and concentrations of TVOC were measured using GC/FID and GC/MS. In case of formaldehyde, quantitative analysis was carried out using HPLC. The average concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde of 8 stabilizers were 1.173 mg/m2․h and 0.007 mg/m2․h, respectively. The maximum TVOC concentration among five OSBS was 5.698 mg/m2․h and exceeded the TVOC emission standard(4.0 mg/m2․h) for general building materials. According to the this study results, the applied stabilizer can be role one of pollutant sources like paints, floor tile etc. The emission test has to be tested one of stabilizers efficiency to manage the indoor air quality of building.
This study was performed to investigate the asbestos contents on bulk samples of 4 building types(public, commercial, residential, school) in chungbuk area and collected from june 3, 2010 to July 10, 2011. We classified the bulk samples into the regulated asbestos containing building materials(ACBM) and architecture materials by 4 building types at removal and disposal sites. The results were as follows. </br>The detection rate of the ACBMs were found mainly public(86.6%), and residential (82.1%) buildings. The founded asbestos were chrysotile and amosite. Compared with 4 building types, the contents of chrysotile in public, commercial, residential and school were 32.6% (3-70%), 43.9% (5-87%), 39.6(5-72%) and 46.7%(range 4-89%), respectively. The miscellaneous materials were found chrysotile and a mixed form with chrysotile and amosite for 4 building types. </br>In the architecture materials, the contents of chrysotile was found mainly in slate (11.4%, range 2-37%). The slate in residential had high asbestos content of chrysotile (15.9%, range 1-31%). The textiles which collected from 4 building types were found chrysotile, the mixed form. The contents of chrysotile in cement flat board in public, commercial, residential and school were 8.9% (2-24%), 7.1% (1-16%), 7.9%(1-29%) and 3.7%(1-9%), respectively. </br>In conclusion, this study is suggested that it should be contributed to manage the ACBM in 4 building types and to protect the health of workers at building removal sites.
Recently, media coverages of the asbestos were gradually increased. In fact, serious problems have been found in asbestos removal. This study was performed against 375 workers from 30 asbestos removal firms from August 7 to December 10, 2010 in order to find out work conditions for asbestos removal. Then, the following results were obtained: In terms of area, Seoul/Gyeonggi was the highest with 218 workers (58.1%). In terms of age, '41-50' was the highest among 140 workers (37.3%). The mean age was 50.3. When asked if they smoke cigarette, 272 respondents (72.5%) said 'YES.' When asked how many cigarettes they smoke a day, 11-20 (190 workers, 73.2%) was the highest, followed by 10 or less (43, 15.8%) and 'a pack or more (30, 11.0%).' In terms of average off-days per year, '1 month or less (257 workers, 68.5%)' was the highest, followed by '1-3 month(s) (77 workers, 20.5%)' and '3 months or more (41 workers, 10.9%).' In terms of annual income, 'KRW 10-20 million' was the highest with 162 workers (43.2%). No one was able to earn more than KRW 50 million. In terms of the workers' knowledge of the danger of asbestos, when asked if they were aware that asbestos can cause lung cancer, 348 respondents (92.8%) answered 'YES' while 7 workers (1.9%) said 'I am Not Sure.' According to multi-response analysis on protective clothing and gear, 369 respondents (98.9%) put on 'dust respirator' while 364 workers (97.6%) wore 'helmet.' In addition, 220 respondents (59.0%) answered that they wore 'protective clothing.' When asked how the protective clothing and gear were handled after use, 'seal them up in a designated bag and have them disposed of properly' was the response that has the highest percentage (360 respondents, 96.0%). The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions. Cronbach's alpha, which was performed to assess the reliability of the survey, was 0.858.
This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of exposure to asbestos for ship repair workers in Korea by a systematic review. The number of articles studying asbestos exposure levels from ship repair workplaces was found to be 4. All asbestos concentration reported as either geometric mean and geometric standard deviation or ranges were transformed to arithmetic mean to estimate exposure level. In addition, weighted arithmetic means(WAMs) were calculated by weighing of the different number of samples. The WAM concentrations were 2.746 f/cc during asbestos dismantling work, 0.034 f/cc before asbestos dismantling work and 0.065 f/cc after working respectively. The maximum airborne concentration of asbestos during asbestos removal work was 7.02 f/cc which was 70 times higher than the occupational exposure limit of Korea, 0.1 f/cc. This study recommends that retrospective exposure to asbestos based on various ship types and operations should be assessed.
자연 석면 산출지의 투각섬석-양기석에 대한 전자현미경관찰 결과, 섬유상, 침상, 주상의 다양한 입자 형태가 관찰되었다. 섬유상 입자들은 일정한 너비로 가늘고 길게 휘어지며, 로프 모양의 다발이나 매트를 형성한다. 침상 입자들은 평행한 다발을 형성하나 장축 방향으로 쉽게 갈라지며 탄성이 있다. 주상 입자는 분쇄과정에서 벽개를 따라 쪼개지며 종횡비가 짧은 침상입자를 형성한다. 입자의 형태적 특성은 산출지별로 다르며 하나의 시편 내에서도 차이가 관찰된다. 투각섬석-양기석 계열의 각섬석은 섬유상에서 주상까지 형태적 연속체를 형성하므로 석면상 각섬석에 대한 유해성 평가를 위해서는 형태적 특성과 발암 특성 간의 인과관계에 근거한 동정 기준 및 시료준비과정이 수립되어야 한다.