In light of recent social concerns related to issues such as water supply pipe deterioration leading to problems like leaks and degraded water quality, the significance of maintenance efforts to enhance water source quality and ensure a stable water supply has grown substantially. In this study, scan statistic was applied to analyze water quality complaints and water leakage accidents from 2015 to 2021 to present a reasonable method to identify areas requiring improvement in water management. SaTScan, a spatio-temporal statistical analysis program, and ArcGIS were used for spatial information analysis, and clusters with high relative risk (RR) were determined using the maximum log-likelihood ratio, relative risk, and Monte Carlo hypothesis test for I city, the target area. Specifically, in the case of water quality complaints, the analysis results were compared by distinguishing cases occurring before and after the onset of "red water." The period between 2015 and 2019 revealed that preceding the occurrence of red water, the leak cluster at location L2 posed a significantly higher risk (RR: 2.45) than other regions. As for water quality complaints, cluster C2 exhibited a notably elevated RR (RR: 2.21) and appeared concentrated in areas D and S, respectively. On the other hand, post-red water incidents of water quality complaints were predominantly concentrated in area S. The analysis found that the locations of complaint clusters were similar to those of red water incidents. Of these, cluster C7 exhibited a substantial RR of 4.58, signifying more than a twofold increase compared to pre-incident levels. A kernel density map analysis was performed using GIS to identify priority areas for waterworks management based on the central location of clusters and complaint cluster RR data.
In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
이 연구는 GFRP관을 상수도관으로 사용하기 위해 테스트베드를 설치하여 지중매설된 관의 구조적 거동에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 또한, GFRP관의 역학적 성질을 조사하고 관 강성을 추정하였다. KS규격에서 제시하고 있는 허용드로우와 고압력(사용압력의 1.5∼2.0배), 트럭하중을 적용시켜 관 내부와 외부의 복합하중이 작용할 경우 관 내압의 변화와 관의 거동을 확인하였다. 그 결과, 상수관으로 GFRP관을 장기 사용하여도 충분한 내압을 가지고 있음을 확인하였다.
경주지진과 포항지진으로 수도관 파열과 상수도관 누수가 보고되었다. 따라서 상수도 시설의 지진안전성 확보는 지속적이고 안정적인 물공급을 위하여 중요한 이슈이다. 상수도관은 주로 도로 하부나 일반 성토지반에 매설되어있기 때문에 지진파에 의한 변형뿐만 아니라, 지반의 영구변형, 사면의 불안정성 및 지반 액상화 등에 의한 배관의 굽힘 변형이 발생하게 된다. 이러한 배관의 굽힘 변형이 과도하게 발생 되면 배관 이음부 변위허용량을 초과하여 손상 및 누수로 이어지게 된다. 따라 서, 상수도관 이음부의 허용 변형각이 산출되어야 지진으로 인한 지반의 변형에 대하여 상수도관의 지진안전성을 정확하게 평가할 수 있다. 상수도 시스템은 현장 상황과 설치 여건에 따라 다양한 종류의 상수도관을 이용하고 있다. 그중 주철 상수도관은 오랜 기간 사용되고 개선되어 일반적으로 널리 사용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 한국주철관공업(주)에서 제작한 EZ-LOK 조인트가 적용된 주철 상수도관에 대하여 4점 굽힘시험을 수행하였으며, 매설된 주철 상수도관의 내진 및 내침하 설계기준인을 참조하여 지진안전성을 평가하였다.
Pipe for water supply is one of the important parts that supply water to home, factory and so on. Water leakage in pipe for water supply due to deterioration, ground sinking and earthquake leads to enormous economical loss. Therefore, pipe for water supply should be designed to satisfy the requirement of, for instance, structural stability and fatigue durability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatigue durability of flexible joint for relaxing the impact due to earthquake and ground sinking. For this purpose, flexible joint was simulated using dynamic characteristics and fatigue life. As the results, the problem of fatigue durability may occur when flexible joint and pipe for water supply are treated as rigid body in simulation. Thus it means that the role of packing in flexible joint is very important and packing should be designed as optimal conditions that are considered fatigue durability as well as waterproof.
The pipe for water supply is essential part among SOC (Social Overhead Capital) fields. Pipe for water supply is mainly damaged by deterioration of pipe, earthquake, ground sinking and so on. The leakage of water have been led to enormous economical loss in our country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural stability of flexible joint for relaxing impact due to earthquake and ground sinking. For this purpose, flexible joint was simulated using tensile load and internal pressure. As the results, flexible joint for structural stability was needed the tensile load of below 3 ton and internal pressure of below 60 kgf/cm2. However, it is considered that real flexible joint should be applied more high safety factor than that of simulation result because of combined stress.
The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for setting environmental design standards for domestic greenhouses. We conducted experiments on thermal environment measurement at two commercial greenhouses where hot water heating system is adopted. We analyzed heat transfer characteristics of hot water heating pipes and heat emission per unit length of heating pipes was presented. The average air temperature in two greenhouses was controlled to 16.3oC and 14.6oC during the experiment, respectively. The average water temperature in heating pipes was 52.3oC and 45.0oC, respectively. Experimental results showed that natural convection heat transfer coefficient of heating pipe surface was in the range of 5.71~7.49W/m2 oC. When the flow rate in heating pipe was 0.5m/s or more, temperature difference between hot water and pipe surface was not large. Based on this, overall heat transfer coefficient of heating pipe was derived as form of laminar natural convection heat transfer coefficient in the horizontal cylinder. By modifying the equation of overall heat transfer coefficient, a formula for calculating the heat emission per unit length of hot water heating pipe was developed, which uses pipe size and temperature difference between hot water and indoor air as input variables. The results of this study were compared with domestic and foreign data, and it was found to be closest to JGHA data. The data of NAAS, BALLS and ASHRAE were judged to be too large. Therefore, in order to set up environmental design standards for domestic greenhouses, it is necessary to fully examine those data through further experiments.
In this paper the potential of the principal component analysis(PCA) technique for the application of detecting leaks in water pipe networks was evaluated. For this purpose the PCA was conducted to evaluate the relevance of the calculated outliers of a PCA model utilizing the recorded pipe flows and the recorded pipe leak incidents of a case study water distribution system. The PCA technique was enhanced by applying the computational algorithms developed in this study which were designed to extract a partial set of flow data from the original 24 hour flow data so that the effective outlier detection rate was maximized. The relevance of the calculated outliers of a PCA model and the recorded pipe leak incidents was analyzed. The developed algorithm may be applied in determining further leak detection field work for water distribution blocks that have more than 70% of the effective outlier detection rate. However, the analysis suggested that further development on the algorithm is needed to enhance the applicability of the PCA in detecting leaks by considering series of leak reports happening in a relatively short period.
This study develops a model to estimate the economic life of the large-diameter water supply pipeline in Korea by supplementing existing methods used to perform similar calculations. To evaluate the developed methodology, the model was applied to the actual target area with the conveyance pipe in P waterworks. The application yielded an economic life computation of 39.7 years, considering the cost of damages, maintenance, and renewal of the pipeline. Based on a sensitivity analysis of the derived results, the most important factor influencing the economic life expectancy was the predicted failure rate. The methodology for estimating the economic life of the water supply pipeline proposed in this study is one of the core processes of basic waterworks facility management planning. Therefore, the methods and results proposed in this study may be applied to asset management planning for water service providers.
The estimation method of economical leakage management target utilized upon planning business for improvement of revenue water ratio in South Korea is presented and applicability of methods developed in this study is assessed through application on site. With a consideration of revenue water ratio in application target area, estimation method of long-term economical leakage management target is applied. Three leakage reduction methods such as replacement of residual aged pipe, leakage investigation and restoration and water pressure management are applied with a consideration of characteristics of site. Due to difficulty of obtaining data, analysis of cost/benefit by leakage reduction methods is performed by applying method of leakages estimation equation among statistical methods. As a result of application, revenue water ratio corresponding to long-term economical leakage management target is 91.6 %.
In this study, a hot water pipe and a blowing fan were combined for developing zone heating technology for cherry tomato. The concept of this system was that hot air was firstly made by hot water pipe in one layer plastic duct and then a blowing fan made the hot air formed in a duct discharge through a duct hole to a shoot apex or a flower cluster which was temperature-sensitive part of cherry tomato. This system mainly consisted of hot water boiler, thermal tank, heat radiation plastic duct with the function of moving up and down electrically depending on the height of shoot apex. Developed system was applied to the cherry tomato greenhouse located in Jangam Chungcheongnamdo from Dec. 28, 2015 to Feb. 16, 2016 and compared with conventional entire space heating system of cherry tomato greenhouse and looked into cumulative yield for the estimate of growing state and energy saving rate from the conventional consumed energy. The result showed that cumulative yield was 3% higher and consumed energy was 32% lower than those of control greenhouse. The average temperature of shoot apex zone was 0.4~1.1℃ higher and the average relative humidity of shoot apex zone was 2,2~2.3% lower than those of entire space during night time in a shoot apex zone heating greenhouse and the average temperature of shoot apex zone was 0.7~1.4℃ lower and the relative humidity of shoot apex zone was 2.9~8.3% higher than those of entire space during night time in a entire space heating greenhouse.
For the asset management of a water pipe network, it would be necessary to understand the extent of the maintenance cost required for the water pipe network for the future. This study would develop a method to draw the optimum cost required for the maintenance of the water pipe network in waterworks facilities to maintain the aim revenue water ratio and to achieve the target revenue water ratio, considering the water service providers’ waterworks condition and revenue water ratio comprehensively. This study conducted a survey with 96 water service providers as of the early 2015 and developed models to estimate the optimum maintenance cost of the water pipe network, considering the characteristics of the water service providers. Since the correlation coefficient of all the developed models was higher than 0.95, it turned out that it had significant reliability, which was statistically significant. As a result of applying the developed models to the actual water service providers, it was drawn that increasing revenue water ratio to more than a certain level can reduce the maintenance cost of the water pipe network by a great deal. In other words, it is judged that it would be the most efficient to secure the reliability of waterworks management by increasing the short-term revenue water ratio to more than a certain level and gradually increase the revenue water ratio from the long-term perspective. It is expected that the proposed methodology proposed in this study and the results of the study will be used as a basic research for planning the maintenance of water pipe network or establishing a plan for waterworks facilities asset management.
There is a growing concern on the improvement of water distribution pipeline for multi-regional water supply system in Korea along with its aging infrastructure. Rehabilitation of large diameter pipeline is more efficient in cost and time compared to replacement with trenching. The procedure for rehabilitation are diagnosis, cleaning, spraying coating material, and final inspection. The internal state of pipeline was carefully diagnosed and got C grade, which required rehabilitation. We found that 17,274,787,000 Korean won could be saved after pipe surface coating because of increased C coefficient of Hazen-Williams equation. Optimal coating material was D polyurea. We also found optimal distance between spraying nozzle and pipe wall to be 70 - 80 cm, which were critical factors for coating quality. This study also illustrated the time for spray drying to be more than 30 min. These results could be used in the quality control process during rehabilitation of aged pipelines.
In general, polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ductile cast iron pipes are widely used in the water supply pipeline system. However, they have some disadvantages such as reduced durability due to material degradation, defects in connections, breakage of pipelines, and difficulties in continuous maintenance. To mitigate such problems, recently, research on durable and outstanding corrosion resistant glass fiber reinforced polymer plastic (GFRP) pipe is being actively conducted. GFRP is classified into the flexible pipe and when soil pressure and live load act on buried GFRP pipe, the load acting on the pipe is transferred to the surrounding soil. So, it should review the structural behavior and interaction between buried pipe and its surrounding soil because pipe will support the load with the surrounding soil together at the same time. To apply GFRP pipe for the water supply pipeline system, the structural reliability of GFRP water supply pipe buried underground should be investigated by examining the mechanical properties of GFRP pipe as well as the soundness of the pipe under buried state. The field test of buried pipe is conducted and the results are analyzed and discussed.
In the water supply pipeline system, pipes made by cast iron, PE, PVC are generally used. However, the structural performance of these materials can be declined when used for long periodsof time because of corrosion, creep, deterioration of the material, etc. while glass fiber reinforced polymer plastics (GFRP) have many advantages such as light-weight, corrosion resistance, smooth surface, etc. For these reasons, GFRP pipes are good for construction when it is buried underground and are increasing trend in applying the water supply pipeline system. Therefore, more optimized structural design methodology should be developed. In this paper, we confirm pipe stiffness (PS) of GFRP pipe in which the pipe stiffness indicates the load-bearing performance. We compared data of parallel-plate loading test and theoretically predicted PS by the classical elasticity theory and the finite element method (FEM).
In the water supply pipeline system polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ductile cast iron pipe are mostly used. However, they have some problems such as reduced durability due to material degradation, defects in connections, the pipelines breakage, and lack of continuous maintenance. Recently, research on durable and outstanding corrosion resistance glass fiber reinforced polymer plastic (GFRP) pipe is being actively conducted. GFRP is classified into the flexible pipe and when soil pressure and live load act on buried GFRP pipe, the load acting on the pipe is transferred to the surrounding soil. So, pipe will support the load with the surrounding soil. In this paper, to apply GFRP pipe for the water supply pipeline system, the structural reliability of GFRP water supply pipe buried underground should be investigated by examining the mechanical properties of GFRP pipe as well as the soundness of the pipe under buried state. The field test of buried pipe is conducted and the results are analyzed and discussed.
This is to develop a micro water turbine which makes some power from just a fluid velocity in the water pipe. While power is produced from impulsive force which generated by a high head in the case of existing water turbine, this is to produce a power from rotating force of helical turbine which rotated by fluid velocity in the water pipe. Some results of analysis fluid pattern at turbine blade for design shows that bubble is generated from turbulence surrounding blade and pulsatory motion generated as fluid being blocked and opened by blade due to turbine structure. This two phenomena cause to lower power production efficiency and shorten turbine durability. So this is studied to minimize bubble generation and pulsation for optimizing design of turbine blade. Therefore it is determined that the number of blade is three, geometric form of blade is NACA 4420 and angle of blade is 30 degree. An experiment equipment of water turbine is manufactured on the base of these factors(NACA 4420, angle 30。). It is obtained that power production of turbine increases in proportion to velocity which is changed from 1.7 m/sec to 3.5 m/sec. When fluid velocity is 1.7m/sec the power production of turbine is 355W. Power production increase continuously as increasing the fluid velocity and power is 2kW on 3m/sec of fluid velocity.