The heat transfer characteristics of double-pipe spiral heat exchanger were investigated by various curvature sizes, experimentally. The three different sizes of heat exchanger were made and tested with water as a working fluid to analyze the heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer rates, overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop were analyzed with various heat exchanger sizes (i.e., curvature ratios). As result, the heat transfer rate increased with increasing the size of the heat exchanger as the flow rate increased due to increasing the area size of heat transfer. However, the overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop increased with decreasing the heat exchanger size (i.e., increased curvature ratio) due to the enhanced centrifugal force and inertia.
Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising future energy carriers due to its noteworthy advantages of renewable and high calorific value. The long-term storage of liquid hydrogen with low heat leakage is essential for future deep space exploration. Because of low critical temperature and volatility, liquid hydrogen tank poses severe requirements to multi-layer insulation (MLI). In order to reduce heat leak into tank, vapor cooled shield (VCS) was set up to cool MLI by retrieving the heat of discharged cryogenic gas hydrogen. This paper presents an parametric study on insulation system in liquid hydrogen storage vessel with MLI and VCS. Thermal model was developed, and heat transfer analysis by varying VCS position was conducted. Temperature and heat flux distributions along time passing were derived, and effect of VCS position on insulation performance was investigated.
PURPOSES : In this study, we propose a mini-trench method, which involves using warm mix Guss mastic asphalt as a backfill material and an installation temperature of 160 ℃. The method is verified via a heat transfer analysis of a pavement using the finite element method.
METHODS : First, the density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat required for heat transfer analysis were determined based on previous studies. Subsequently, the boundary conditions for convection and radiation to perform the heat transfer analysis were determined. The pavement temperature, which is the initial condition of the analysis, was determined based on the summer pavement temperature distribution using the temperature prediction program of the Korean pavement Research Program. Heat transfer analysis was performed by determining the temperature of the backfill material based on 160 °C and 200 °C for the heat load temperatures. The temperature change was observed on the backfill surface, and the temperature change of the conduit was observed directly.
RESULTS : When the pavement surface temperature for traffic opening is 50 °C, the backfill thickness ranges from 50 to 250 mm, the warm mix Guss mastic asphalt requires 2 h to 5 h, 15 min until traffic opening, and the hot mix Guss mastic asphalt requires 2 h, 30 min to 6 h, 40 min until traffic opening. The limit temperature of the conduit evaluated based on KS C 8454 shows that the warm mix Guss mastic asphalt does not satisfy the standard when the backfill concrete cover is 50 mm thick, whereas the hot mix Guss mastic asphalt does not satisfy the standard when the concrete cover is 50 and 100 mm thick.
CONCLUSIONS : The backfill depth of the mini-trench using warm mix Guss mastic asphalt as a backfill material should be less than 100 mm, considering the traffic opening time. Meanwhile, the thickness of the backfill concrete should be 100 mm or less.
Research is being actively conducted on the continuous thin plate casting method, which is used to manufacture magnesium alloy plate for plastic processing. This study applied a heat transfer solidification analysis method to the melt drag process. The heat transfer coefficient between the molten magnesium alloy metal and the roll in the thin plate manufacturing process using the melt drag method has not been clearly established until now, and the results were used to determine the temperature change. The estimated heat transfer coefficient for a roll speed of 30 m/min was 1.33 × 105 W/m2·K, which was very large compared to the heat transfer coefficient used in the solidification analysis of general aluminum castings. The heat transfer coefficient between the molten metal and the roll estimated in the range of the roll speed of 5 to 90 m/min was 1.42 × 105 to 8.95 × 104 W/m2·K. The cooling rate was calculated using a method based on the results of deriving the temperature change of the molten metal and the roll, using the estimated heat transfer coefficient. The DAS was estimated from the relationship between the cooling rate and DAS, and compared with the experimental value. When the magnesium alloy is manufactured by the melt drag method, the cooling rate of the thin plate is in the range of about 1.4 × 103 to 1.0 × 104 K/s.
Asphalt concrete(Ascon) is used to repair potholes and cracks. Special truck-mounted cargo boxes transport 200℃ asphalt concrete to repair potholes and cracks. However, long working and transportation hours to repair wide roads decrease the temperature of the asphalt concrete inside the cargo boxes. If the asphalt concrete temperature drops below 170℃, the adhesion with roads that need repair decreases. Therefore, the temperature of the asphalt concrete needs to be maintained for a long time. Conventional asphalt concrete cargo boxes are mostly burner-type models using hot air to prevent the temperature of the asphalt concrete from dropping. However, there are significant temperature differences between the asphalt concrete near and far away from the hot air, so the temperature decreases over time and leads to the disposal of large amounts of asphalt concrete. This causes waste of resources and environmental pollution. Therefore, this study proposed a heat dissipation cut-off type cargo box model to solve this problem and demonstrated its performance over conventional burner-type models through tests and analysis.
In this paper, a heat exchange system using cooling dehumidification and mixing process was proposed as an experimental study for a white smoke reduction heat exchanger system under winter condition. The white smoke reduction heat exchange system is divided into an EA part, SA part, W part and mixing zone. For the operating conditions, three types (Cases 1, 2, and 3) were selected depending on whether EA fan, SA fan, and A-W heat exchanger were operated. In addition, in order to visualize the white smoke exhausted from the mixing zone, it was photographed using CCTV. In order to investigate the performance of the white smoke reduction heat exchange system, the temperature reduction rate and absolute humidity reduction rate of EA and the heat recovery rate of W were calculated. The temperature change of EA and SA according to operating conditions was most effective in Case 3, and the temperature and absolute humidity at the outlet of the mixing zone were greatly reduced. From the results of the white smoke visualization, it was confirmed that the white smoke generation mechanism was different depending on the operating conditions, and the amount of white smoke generation was greatly reduced.
Due to environmental pollution, regulations on existing petroleum-based fuels are increasing day by day. LNG is in the spotlight as an eco-friendly fuel that does not emit NOx or SOx, but its boiling point is -163°C, so it needs to be handled with care. Materials that can be used at the above temperature are defined by IMO through the IGC Code. Among them, 9% nickel steel has great advantages in yield strength and tensile strength under cryogenic conditions, but it is difficult to use in arc welding such as FCAW for various reasons. This study is a study to apply fiber laser welding to solve this problem. As a previous study, this study conducted a study to find a welding heat source. After performing bead on plate welding, the optimal heat source was derived by analyzing the shape of the bead and adjusting the parameters of the heat source model. In this case, by applying the multi-island genetic algorithm, which is a global optimization algorithm, not the intuition of the researcher, accurate results could be derived in a wide range.
The enhancement of heat transfer in cooling system of cylindrical lithium-ion battery pack is numerically investigated by installing fins on the cooling plate. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery and the conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+. The result shows that installing fins on the cooling plate increases the convective heat transfer on the surface and thus lowers the maximum temperature of the battery pack. As the length and thickness of the fins increase, heat transfer in the battery pack improves. Considering the geometry and airflow of the battery pack, the optimal values for the length and thickness of the fin are both 2mm. As the convective heat transfer coefficient of the surface increases, the maximum temperature of the battery pack is greatly reduced and the temperature gradient is greatly improved.
Solar energy is being constantly studied since it can reduce green house gas by adapting cooling and heating system of domestic architecture as a clean energy source. This study confirmed the reliability of experimental apparatus with temperature measurement of each components by developing cooling and heating system which is combined with artificial solar thermal energy using halogen lamp and refrigerator, examined the heat transfer characteristics according to room internal temperature and lamp distance with the materials of emissive plate (acrylic, copper and stainless). As a result of it, We found that the room internal temperature 18℃ was finer than 21℃ and 24℃ in case of heat transfer rate according to each components. Also, copper in the material change of emissive plate was showed finer heat transfer effects than stainless because of high thermal absorptivity when lamp distance was short.
In this study, the effect of thermal grease and heat sink material of cooler on CPU temperature was measured and compared with LinX(v0.9.6) and HWMonitor.When the computer is booted without thermal grease applied, the CPU temperature rises rapidly, and the CPU temperature reaches 100℃ after 60 seconds for aluminum heat sink and 140 seconds for copper heat sink. The CPU temperature is lower as the thermal conductivity coefficient of thermal grease is higher, and the CPU temperature is lower when the thermal conductivity coefficient of the cooler is higher. In addition, when using a thermal grease and a heat sink with a high coefficient of thermal conductivity, the cooler rpm can be lowered, which is considered to be advantageous in terms of system stability and energy saving.
The effect of flow direction on heat transfer in water cooling channel of lithium-ion battery is numerically investigated. Battery Design StudioⓇ software is used for modeling electro-chemical heat generation in the battery and the conjugated heat transfer is analyzed with the commercial package STAR-CCM+. The result shows that the maximum temperature and temperature difference of battery with Type 1 are the lowest because the heat transfer in the entrance region near the electrode is enhanced. As the inlet velocity is increased, the maximum temperature and temperature difference of battery decreases but the pressure loss increases. The pressure loss in Type 2 channel is the lowest due to the shortest channel length, while the pressure loss with Type 3 or 4 channel is the highest because of the longest channel length. Considering heat transfer performance and pressure loss, Type 1 is the best cooling channel.
PURPOSES : This study aims to determine the type (e.g., melting point, freezing point, latent heat fusion) and optimal content of phase change material (PCM) based on the numerical and experimental analyses evaluating the effects of heat transfer in PCM-modified asphalt pavement systems.
METHODS : The effect of PCM on the thermophysical properties of PCM-modified asphalt concrete can be taken as an effective volumetric heat capacity. The volumetric fraction of PCM was calculated using an iterative method. The numerical model was established and computed using the MATLAB 2020 software. The optimum PCM design tool was developed to select the type and contents of the PCM. The PCM was chosen based on the following criteria: black-ice-formation delay time, minimize temperature increase, and increase temperature area. To validate the numerical model, asphalt mixtures were modified with varying PCM contents, and the temperature response of the PCMmodified asphalt samples was examined via temperature test. RESULTS : The numerical results showed that incorporating PCM into the asphalt mixture can slow the cooling rate of the pavement system. The predicted results from the optimum PCM design tool were highly consistent with the measured values from the laboratory temperature test. CONCLUSIONS : The temperature of PCM-modified asphalt pavement can be predicted via numerical method. The effect of PCM on the thermophysical properties can be considered as effective volumetric heat capacity; while the volume fraction of PCM can be calculated via an iterative method. The accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed by a high agreement between the measured and predicted values.
The temperature distributions were numerically calculated for the two-dimensional transient conduction heat transfer problem of a square plate. The obtained temperature distributions were converted into colors to create images, and they were provided as learning and test data of CNN. Classification and regression networks were constructed to predict representative wall temperatures through CNN analysis. As results, the classification networks predicted the representative wall temperatures with an accuracy of 99.91% by erroneously predicting only 1 out of 1100 images. The regression networks predicted the representative wall temperatures within errors of C. From this fact, it was confirmed that the deep learning techniques are applicable to the transient conduction heat transfer problems.
In this paper, the heat transfer performance of nanofluids is predicted by numerical analysis methods. The nanoparticles used in this study is SiO2, with concentrations of 1, 2, 3vol.%, and the base fluid is water. Reynolds number of nanofluids ranges from 10,000 to 50,000. A numerical study on the heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid was conducted using a single-phase model. The temperature of the fluid entering from the inlet of the tube is 293.15K. A constant heat flux of 31,650W/m2 was applied at the wall, and the thickness of the wall was ignored. Heat transfer coefficients, thermal conductivity and Nusselt number were selected as indicators for comparing heat transfer performance of nanofluids. As the nanofluid concentration increases, the temperature and velocity distribution by the cross section of the coil tube and straight tube increased. As the Reynolds number increases, temperature difference between inner direction and outer direction reduced in coil tube. For straight tube, the temperature difference between the wall and the center of the tube also decreased.
While the vehicle has a wide front view, making it easy to recognize obstacles while driving, the rear side has a narrow view and the inconvenience of having to turn its head to check. A side mirror developed to address this discomfort is mounted outside the front door of a passenger car and used to identify rear objects. In this study, heat transfer analysis was performed and analyzed in order to obtain optimal defrost conditions using regression analysis method for removing mirror condensation and frost. As a result of this study, the coefficient of determination, R2, which represents the regression to the total variation through regression analysis, showed a good reliability of 85.3%. Comparing the predicted and interpreted values of the maximum temperature distribution in the regression equation established in this study, it was included in the 95% confidence interval, enabling the prediction of the maximum temperature distribution over the heat conduction time.