Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a best-first search algorithm to evaluate states of the game tree in game playing, and has been successfully applied to various games, especially to the game of Go. Upper Confidence Bounds for Trees (UCT), which is a variant of MCTS, uses the UCB1 formula as selection policy, and balances exploitation and exploration of the states. Rapid Action-Value Estimation (RAVE), which is a All-Moves-As-First (AMAF) heuristic, treats all moves in a simulation as the first move, and therefore updates the statistics of all children of the root node. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of RAVE and UCT playing against each other in the game of Tic-Tac-Toe. The experimental results show that the first player RAVE is much inferior to the second player UCT (13.0±0.7%); on the other hand, the first player UCT is far superior to RAVE (99.9±0.1%).
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the parent’s game addiction has an effect on children’s physical activity, physical self-conception was used by medium. Participants were 230 mothers with children between 5 and 7 years old. One-hundred eighty surveys, excluding those with omitted or odd answers, were analyzed. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis, path analysis using WEB-R 3.0(LAVAAN). The first, as the result indicated, parent’s game addiction affected the children’s physical activity directly. The second, parent’s game addiction affected the children’s physical self-conception. The third, children’s physical self-conception. affected the children’s physical activity. Therefore the effort to increase the children’s physical self-conception may contribute to developing children’s physical activity.
Recently, many computer-based programs for cognitive function training are being developed. However, they are not sufficient for voluntary training with interest and immersion since most of the programs developed so far have been developed for therapeutic purposes. In this paper, the contents were implemented by applying visual element based design which can provide interest and immersion for the elderly. It is important to note that this approach may be more effective in cognitive rehabilitation training. In the future study, it will be necessary to verify how much the visual design elements based on the elderly are effective for cognitive function rehabilitation.
Internet Addiction and Internet Gaming(Game) Addiction are two terms regularly used in our daily lives, however, their distinction is rather vague. Internet Gaming Addition refers to a psychological, emotional, and social state where one, due to increased tolerance and dependence to games and other reasons, loses control over and plays internet games excessively and compulsively, and any efforts to reduce or stop playing will be ensued by withdrawal symptoms. One means to better the problems caused by Gaming Addiction is development of a variety of Serious Games and related services. Whereas Internet games are played for entertainment, Serious Games utilize the entertainment function to further education and addition preventive measures objectives.
Therapeutic serious game treats mental health problems such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and behavioral disorder by allowing clients to manage and express feelings. These games are developed according to a primary principle of the cognitive behavior therapy that the mental health can be improved by training cognition and behavior with proper stimulation. For those who have difficulties in expressing emotions, stepwise treatment is offered to create a safe emotional environment which induces them to express themselves. The game environment provides affective feelings that encompass physical experiences. In addition, emotional distance is formed between the user and the game environment, and thus even those who have high psychological barriers feel free to express and release their feelings. Game users can experience self-exposure and awareness and gradually construct their self-images, expressing themselves in the virtual world in a continuous and repetitive fashion.
Storytelling in games is different from storytelling in other media in that it must interact with the user. The existing storytelling engine is not appropriate for interactive storytelling in games, so interactive storytelling engine is developed to supplement this shortcoming. However, the interactive storytelling engine uses methods that manages game events. Thus it is not appropriate for games with stories that are composed mainly of characters. This research examines the defects to propose improvement suggestions to apply the existing storytelling engine to games. This would be useful in developing stories that interact with the player in games.
In this paper, we developed 3D games which use lip-motion input device and displayed it on a non-glass 3D display using integral video method. The games called Jenga and Cubes are developed by using unity3D. Potential immersion and usability of games displayed by integral video method is experimentally tested. Experiment participants played the test games and are surveyed to measure immersion and potential usability. In this survey, the immersion scored 3.83 out of 5 in average, and we confirmed relatively higher satisfaction than 2D display. Positive results on implementation of non-glass 3D display on game contents are obtained from the experiment and survey.
Virtual reality plays an important role in special education. Students with special needs often face challenges with social interaction and learning. It is the use of interactive simulations to allow students with disabilities to engage in environments that appear to be and feel similar to real world objects and events. Virtual environments encourage interactive learning and provide a variety of opportunities for the learner to have control over the learning process. This study reviews relevant research that explores the use of virtual reality and suggests game contents for supporting social interaction for students with disabilities.
This study was conducted to analyze the effect of message frame on Exercise Interest and User Experience including Fitness App Fun, Fitness App Satisfaction, and Fitness App Use Intention in the mobile fitness app game. ‘Enjoy Your Fitness’, a fitness app game developed by Healthcare Media Research Institute, was used for this study and Repeated Measure Design and Playtest methodologies were used for the experiment. The results showed that the persuasive effect of gain messages were higher than loss messages in all factors. This results implies that exercise, as a preventive health behavior, can be promoted more effectively when messages are presented in the frame of gain message rather than loss message. Therefore, messages in the fitness app game need to be presented by emphasizing the positive outcome and benefit of exercise.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the level of realism of the game character provided in the smoking simulation game on user experience, such as psychological stress, psychological resistance, immersion, and awakening of the smoking behavior. The results showed that psychological stress, psychological resistance, arousal/awakening, and immersion were higher with higher levels of self-existence, and that psychological effects were associated with the levels of self-existence. It is expected that it will change the perception of smoking.
In this paper, the performance of 3D game rendering with and without application of frustum culling and PVS (Potentially Visible Set) culling is evaluated in FPS(frame per second). Both frustum culling and PVS culling are two representative methods to efficiently remove invisible contents before a rendering stage in a large 3D game scene. As a result of the performance evaluation, frustum culling and PVS culling have a large effect on rendering performance. In case of not applying any culling, the average performance is decreased by 15.8% compared to the case where all culling is applied. Also, in this paper, the number of portals for indoor static contents in the 3D game contents used in the experiment is larger, so that the application of PVS culling has more influence on the performance than frustum culling.
This paper introduces the implementation of runtime synchronization method when mobile network is broken during the game play. In case of network failure, the game is restored using the saved play record. Before the network failure, the previous game play is recorded in the server. The runtime synchronization is performed using the recorded game play in 2-times, 4-times, 8-times and 12-times according to the paused time and the game is played continuously. Using the proposed method, the user can play the mobile game uninterrupted. The project mobile game is implemented, and shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
This study designs an interactive serious game for children with ADHD to sustain attention concentration and improve their reading comprehension skill. This serious game enables to read fairy tale interactively. The fairy tale consists of 6 sequences and the game assigns tasks for concentration training to 2, 4, 5, and 6 sequences. Executing concentration task, MindWave BCI is used to measure brain waves and to judge success of failure of the task with that measurement. Game play data and concentration data were stored in a sever real time. As the experiment progressed, the concentration levels of the participants are sustained stable. The results of paired t-test on pre- and post- reading ability, short reading comprehension, and story understanding are significant. It is expected that this study will help game design for children with ADHD as well as reading disability.
This study is aimed at providing an exploratory education plan that is of direct interest to the local community through community-based art education. In this study, the “Naver Map” was used as a learning tool. The main theories behind the composition of contents of this plan are based on information and communication technology (ICT) education. First, classes were conducted over four sessions for 38 junior high school students. Subsequently, these classes were supplemented by six sessions for 12 elementary school students from the fifth and sixth grades. Consequently, the use of the Naver Map in community art education was effective in terms of convenience, ease of operation, accuracy of visual data, motivation, and continuity. The learners recognized the concept of “place” in the local community, and by producing appropriate works of art, they understood the concept of “place” and realized “social participation” and “culture creation.”
We present a flow-based watercolor rendering scheme for game background images. Our scheme is composed of two stages: a flow-based abstraction stage, which is followed by a noise-based watercoloring stage. In the abstrction stage, we apply a 3D Sobel filter to accelerate the abstraction process. The abstracted image is then applied a Perlin noise-based watercoloring process to produce watercolor effects. Finally, we apply paper texture to improve the realism of the results. Among various categories of photographs, our scheme shows good results on portraits, which is a common background of game scene. We apply our scheme for several game backgrounds and produce visually pleasing watercolor effects from them.
With rapid advances in science and technology, there is a greater demand and need to revolutionize higher education with strong emphasis on creative convergence. Lately STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Mathematics) has been deemed as a possible solution to stimulate creative convergent education. Aligning with STEAM pedagogical philosophy, this paper presents a case of game jam as an alternative educational platform that helps to encourage creativity and collaboration across diverse cultures and disciplinary boundaries at the global level. Game jam is a social event at which programmers, graphic designers, producers, and game mangers work together to make a playable game within given time constraints. Based on empirical experimentation with and observation on global applied game jam over the past few years, this paper suggests that global applied game can serve as a creative convergent educational platform within and beyond traditional classroom settings.
Most games induce their players to be immersed in and to be interested in those games by presenting a specific purpose. And, developers provide and recommend the form and method of game play as a process to achieve that goal, allowing players to naturally experience the aesthetics for which the games intended. However, unlike the intentions of these developers, players who actually play games often reject or reorganize the form of game play that is recommended to achieve the games’ primary purposes faster and easier. Based on the total of twelve weeks since December 2016 when the expansion pack of Heartstone, “Mean Streets of Gadgetzan”, was added, this study analyzed the game phenomenon in which players devises a new type of game play by reconstructing a given content in addition to the game experience desired by game developers in the process of adding a new content to an existing game. Through this, this study aims to present a new perspective on game research and actual development.
This paper is to show how electronic game components can galvanize into the outdated regions. The purpose of this study is to research on game mechanics and PX(player experience) for the interactive urban regeneration design with gamification. Urban regeneration involves the old public, private and community sectors to improve the quality of urban life and to reach a sustainable development of urban economic. The gamification is the idea of using game-thinking and game mechanics to solve problem and engage players, so theoretical background of gamification is based on game design studies such as game components and MDA framework which consists of mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics. Most of researchers regard game mechanics as game components and converse, but game mechanics is representative of these two terms. So this paper treats game mechanics as the first effective factor for successful urban renewal. Such games which have huge fans bring the powerful and manipulated user experience, a well-gamified applications can provide players (stand for users, audiences, customers, clients, buyers, learners, patients, soldiers, etc) with the supreme user experience, aka PX(player experience) causing playful behavior and a positive mindset. The main goal of gamification of urban regeneration is to encourage greater engagement in renewed town people(player) and aiding in creating richer experiences in everyday life events through game mechanics and PX. Also this paper shows tens of gamification ideas for interactive urban revitalization.
In Amanda Lewis v. Activision Blizzard, Inc., the U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco held that Recordings used by defendants of a former employee’s voice for a character in a video game constituted a “work made for hire” under the Copyright Act. The court found evidence that the voice recordings were within the employee's job description, the recordings took place during office hours in Blizzard's studios and were part of her job reviews. Also the federal court found Lewis's state law claims for commercial misappropriation of voice pursuant to California Civil Code Section 3344 to be preempted by the Copyright Act. The purpose of this study is to analyze legal solutions of this case and to study on considerations to construe an employee’s job responsibilities in applying the “work made for hire” doctrines. To achieve the purpose, the study analyzed the Federal Court's decision by examining the legal points in the case. On the basis of the results of the analysis, the study found desirable principles to be applied to game developers and publishers effectively from copyright disputes.