The objectives of this study to determine seasonal changes in species composition and abundance of fish and decapod assemblage, and the relationships between environmental factors and their abundance in an eelgrass bed of Jindong Bay. A total of 26 fish species and 29 decapod species were collected by a small beam trawl from an eelgrass bed in Jindong Bay in 2002. The dominant fish species were Hexagrammos otakii, Pholis neulosa and P. fangi and these accounted for 48.4 % in the total number of individuals. Dominant decapod taxa were Palaemon macrodactylus, Charybdis japonica, Pagurus minutus and C. bimaculata. These were primarily small species or early juveniles of larger species. Species composition and abundance varied greatly showing a peak in the number of individuals in April and May, and peak biomass in fish in July and decapods in August. Catch rate was low in winter months both in fish and in decapod. Seasonal changes in the abundance of fishes and decapods corresponded with eelgrass biomass and abundance of food organisms indirectly.
Seasonal characteristics of water and sediment qualities and potential effects of the freshwater discharge from a small tide embankment interior in a coastal area in Goheung county were investigated from May to September in 2012. Chemical oxygen demand values (COD) were mostly higher than 2 mg/L in summer ebb tide, which exceed the standard value of water quality criteria II of acceptable level for aquaculture activities. Nitrogen and phosphorus were found as the limiting nutrients for algae growth in summer and fall and in spring, respectively. Nitrogen was the limiting nutrient for diatom growth in the whole studied period. The sudden high values of COD, ammonia, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) were found in water sample collected from station 5 which located in front of the tide embankment sluice gate during spring ebb tide. The freshwater discharge form the tide embankment interior maybe affected the survey areas during a short time interval. Mean values of eutrophication index of the surveyed coastal region in spring, summer and fall were all bigger than 1. Water quality was mostly considered at level II which acceptable for aquaculture activities. Sediment quality in this study was generally in the range of standard for fisheries environment.
This paper describes the application method of bumper area defined in the ship domain theory and it is to identify risky sectors in VTS(Vessel Traffic Services) area. The final goal of this work is to develop early warning system providing the location information with high traffic risks in Mokpo VTS area and to prevent the human errors of VTS Officer(VTSO). The current goal of this paper is to find evaluation and detection method of risky sectors. The ratio between overlapped bumper area of each vessels and the summing area of a designated sector, Ratio to Evaluate Risk(RER) r is used as one of evaluation and detection parameter. The usability of overlapped bumper area is testified through three kinds of scenarios for various traffic situations. The marine traffic data used in the experiments is collected by AIS(Automatic Identification System) receiver and then compiled in the SQL(Structured Query Language) Server. Through the analysis of passing vessel‘s tracks within the boundary of Mokpo VTS area, the total of 11 sectors are identified as evaluation unit sector. As experiment results from risk evaluation for the 11 sectors, it is clearly known that the proposed method with RER r can provide the location information of high risky sectors which are need to keep traffic tracks of vessel movements and to maintain traffic monitoring by VTSO.
This study applied regression analysis to evaluate the impact of hourly average congestion calculated by bumper model in the congested area of each passage of each port on the peak time congestion, to suggest the model formula that can predict the peak time congestion. This study conducted regression analysis of hourly average congestion and peak time congestion based on the AIS survey study of 20 ports in Korea. As a result of analysis, it was found that the hourly average congestion has a significant impact on the peak time congestion and the prediction model formula was derived. This formula(Cp = 4.457Ca + 29.202) can be used to calculate the peak time congestion based on the predicted hourly average congestion.
This paper proposes that the Marine Search & Rescue and Salvage Association of Korea (MARSA) can provide KCG a very positive return on investment; that is, MARSA will save lives and property well over the budget needed from KCG to operate MARSA. To perform this Cost-Benefit Analysis, actual performance data and other figures are taken from the USCG Auxiliary, and these figures are used to project expected possible MARSA results. In this paper, MARSA is projected to provide a 1,493 % return on investment.
The Axiom propeller is a unique 3 bladed propeller and it enables to generate the same amount of thrust going ahead as it does going astern because of its ‘s’ type skew-symmetric blade section. A earlier variant of the design (Axiom I propeller) performed a low propeller efficiency, maximum 35 % efficiency, and further blade outline design was carried out to achieve a higher efficiency. The optimized new blade outline (Axiom II propeller) has more conventional Kaplan geometry shape than Axiom I propeller. Model tests of open water performance and propeller cavitation for both propellers were conducted at Emerson Cavitation Tunnel in order to compare their performances. Experiment results revealed that Axiom II propeller provides a maximum 53 % efficiency and provides better efficiency and cavitation performance over the Axiom I propeller under similar conditions.
In this study, to apply hydrogen energy to ship engine and to generate effective hydrogen production, we investigated the effects of high temperature H₂SO₄ feed rate and cooling water rate to pump parts with fixed frequency needed to reciprocate motion and a simulation was conducted at each condition. In the fixed frequency and cooling water inlet flow rate of 0.5 Hz and 3.9 kg/s, we changed the high temperature H₂SO₄ flow rate to 47.46 kg/s (it is 105 % of 45.2 kg/s), 49.72 kg/s (110 %), and 51.98 kg/s (115 %). Also, at 0.5 Hz and 45.2 kg/s of frequency and high temperature H₂SO₄ flow, the thermal hydraulic analysis was performed at the condition of 95 % (3.705 kg/s), 90 % (3.51 kg/s), and 85 % (3.315 kg/s). In overall simulation cases, the physical properties of materials are more influential to the temperature increase in the pump part rather than the changes on the feed rate of high temperature H₂SO₄ and cooling water. A continuous operation of pump was also capable even if the excess feed of high temperature H₂SO₄ of about 15 % or the less feed of cooling water of about 15 % were performed, respectively. When the increasing feed of high temperature H₂SO₄ of up to 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % were compared with base flow (45.2 kg/s), the deviation of time period rose to a certain temperature and ranged from 0 to 4.5 s in the same position (same material). In case of cooling water, the deviation of time period rose to a certain temperature and ranged from 0 to 5.9 s according to the decreasing feed changes of cooling water at 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % compared to a base flow (3.9 kg/s). Finally, the additional researches related to the two different materials (Teflon and STS for Pitch and End-plate), which are concerned about the effects of temperature changes to the parts contacting different materials, are needed, and we have a plan to conduct a follow-up study.
In this paper, the wave run-up height and depression depth around air-water interface-piercing circular cylinder have been numerically studied. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) and continuity equations are solved with Reynolds Stress model (RSM) and volume of fluid (VOF) method as turbulence model and free surface modeling, respectively. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software “Star-CCM+” has been used for the current simulations. Various Froude numbers ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 are used to investigate the change of air-water interface structures around the cylinder and experimental data and theoretical values by Bernoulli are compared. The present results showed a good agreement with other studies. Kelvin waves behind the cylinder were generated and its wave lengths are longer as Froude numbers increase and they have good agreement with theoretical values. And its angles are smaller with the increase of Froude numbers.
A kind of field bus called Actuator and Sensor interface bus(AS-i) was designed in this paper. The configuration of AS-i network system used Application Specific Integrated Circuit(ASIC) SAP5S chip and PLC S7-200 station, which included CPU 224 and AS-i master module CP 243-2. We also created an example program for PLC S7-200 to control AS-i network. The fire and smoke detection system was made with AS-i network system that was designed. This system had got more advantages than other system such as number of stations, easy installation, wide working area, etc. And designed system can be used as a partner network for higher level field bus networks.
In this paper, the wakes behind a square cylinder were simulated using two kinds of different turbulence models for the eddy viscosity concept such as the zero- and the one-equation model in which the former is the mixing length model and the latter is the k-equation model. For comparison between numerical and analytical solutions, we employed three skill assessments: the correlation coefficient(r) for the similarity of the wake shape, the error of maximum velocity difference(EMVD) for the accuracy of wake velocity and the ratio of drag coefficient(RDC) for the pressure distribution around the structure. On the basis of the numerical results, the feasibility of each model for wake simulation was discussed and a suitable value for the empirical constant was suggested in these turbulence models. The zero-equation model, known as the simplest turbulence model, overestimated the EMVD and its absolute mean error(AME) for r, EMVD and RDC was ranging from 20.3 % to 56.3 % for all test. But the AME by the one-equation model was ranging from 3.4 % to 19.9 %. The predicted values of the one-equation model substantially agreed with the analytical solutions at the empirical mixing length scale L=0.6b1/2 with the AME of 3.4 %. Therefore it was concluded that the one-equation model was suitable for the wake simulation behind a square cylinder when the empirical constant for eddy viscosity would be properly chosen.