The amount of Sea Casualty is increased by heavy sea traffic, increasing sea-borne cargoes, and superannuated vessels. This study analyzed the circumstance of ship salvage in Korean Salvage Units and management of Salvage Divers in Korea and other countries in order to make establishment of Ship Salvage Divers. This paper reputed the object, the necessity and the character of Ship Salvage Divers. For the purpose of study two parts are considered in order to analyze the environment of salvage divers(the circumstance of Sea Casulties and Ship Salvage). Under the present circumstance in Korea this development planning study may be restricted, but the effective planning to activate Korean Ship Salvage Diver is abstracted as follows; First, the political assistance of concerned government authority is needed. Second, establishment of new course, grade, certificate and licence for Salvage Diver is a Pre-requisite factor for the successful enactment. Third, establishment of Korean Ship Salvage Diving Center or School is strongly required.
This work aims at examining the navigational safety of the entrance channel of Inchon harbour and suggesting the way to improve ship's navigation of the navigational safety at Inchon, that small ships such as fishing boats and barges coming out of the harbour through the East Channel cause major threat to the inbound large ships using the channel. An additional new waterway, therefore, has been recommended to be established in the middle of the East and West Channels so that the outbound small ships can use it. A waterway design simulation methodology has been applied to examin the sagety of the newly suggested channel. Minor chansge has been made to the original design after the simulation experiment, and the corrected final design of the waterway has been suggested to be implemented as soon as possible.
The present paper deals with the casualties of bulk carriers, many of which resulted in catastrophic and fatal consequencies - losses of ships and lives. In fact the fatality and the alarming statistics of bulk carrier casualty have ling been criticized since 1980's by several seafarers. In the paper, the features of hull structure and operation of bulk carrier are, firstly, examined and, then, casualties and major causes are speculated, Secondly, the issues of circumstances around shipping and naval architectural circles related to the casualties are raised and discussed. Finally, it highlights the need and the way for a higher safety standard for the shipping industy
The assesment of the safety of ship's transit in a curved narrow channel consists of the maneuvering safety determined by the chance of running aground, the maneuvering difficulty determined by ship's workload, and shiphandler's subjective evaluation. In this study to examine the correlation between shiphandler's subjective evaluation and the maneuvering risk, the real-time and full-mission shiphandling simulator in the Korea Marine Training & Research Institutes(KMTRI) was utilized. On the conning bridge of the shiphandling simulator, 50 experienced masters conducted the modeled vessel of 60,000 deadweight tonnage along the designed channel under 3 different environmental conditions. The findings were as follows : (1) The frequencies of stress levels, work difficulties, vessel controllability and overall workload of shiphandlers are similar irrespective of environmental conditions and they are able to be represented as shiphandler's subjective evaluation. (2) It s possible to assess and analyze theoretically the correlation between the shiphandler's subjective evaluation and maneuvering risk under each environmental condition by quantifying the data obtained from the test. The results are as follows : ① As the degree of maneuvering risk increases, the shiphandler's subjective evaluation increases sharply near the curvature area of the designed channel. ② In the area of the curvature of the designed channel, maneuvering risk sincreases sharply with the danger of running aground under the environmental condition of current and wind coming from the stern.
국제간 정보통신전달 수단으로 인공위성과 해저케이블이 상호보안적으로 사용되어 왔다. 특히 최근에 와서는 해저 광케이블의 등장으로 국가간 정보통신전달 수단으로 케이블의 역할이 급격히 증대되고 있다. 해저케이블은 열악한 해양환경에 노출되어 있으므로 건설시나 운용중에 손상 받을 가능성이 아주 크며 그로 인한 파급효과가 엄청나다. 또한 해저케이블 사고시 복구에 많은 시간과 어려움이 뒤따르며 비용도 막대하다. 따라서 해저케이블의 안전성을 확보하는 것은 매우 중요하며 이에 대한 보호대책이 절실하다. 본 논문에서는 해저케이블의 건설 및 운용상에 발생할 수 있는 여러 불안전 요인들을 찾아 그에 대한 대책방안을 고찰해 보고자 한다.
본 연구는 Bessel 측지계에서 WGS-84 측지계로 좌표변환할 경우 발생할 수 있는 우리나라 지형정보의 변동을 고찰한 것이다. 고찰 대상은 우리나라 지형형태와 독도와 일본의 오끼제도 사이의 거리로 하였다. Bessel 측지계에서 WGS-84 측지계로 좌표변환한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1). Mercator 도법에서, 임의로 선정한 정사각형의 우리나라 주변 지형은 고위도에서 축소되면서 부채꼴 모양으로 변형되는 결과를 나타내었다. 2). UTM 도법에서, 우리나라 남동부근 연안의 52S 지역중에서 임의로 선정한 정사각형 지형은 가로가 2m 축소되고, 세로는 1m 축소되었다. 3). Mercator 도법을 이용한 한국의 독도와 일본의 오끼제도 사이의 거리를 비교한 결과 오끼제도가 독도쪽으로 약 25.3m 근접하게 되는 결과를 나타내었다.
This paper intends to evaluate the seakeeping performance in consideration of nominal speed loss of ships in a seaway. Authors calculate the nominal speed loss in the Sea State of Beaufort Scale 6, 7 & 8 and obtain each response amplitude of ship;s motion by New Strip Method in consideration of them. This study presents some results of the seakeeping performance by the maximum dangerouseness of ships on each sea state.
The latest date, No. 1 YouII was grounded and sunk into the sea at MAMHYUNGJEDO ( South brother Island) in Sep. 21. 1995, and M.V. Sea Prince of V.L.C.C also made a big oil poullution accident owing to Typhoon "Paei" at front sea of Yeu Choun on Jul. 25. 1995. The large or small scall scale of oil poullution accident frequently was occurred about 300-350 cases per ine(1) year. The countries advanced in marine relations like as, nited Kingdom and Japan, have perfect system The country of expert education, training and oil recovery equipments in oil poullution accidents. The large quantity oil skimming ship's basic condition need general skimming ship which was high speed and large quantity skimming ability , and hve to store the recovered oil into tanks This oil skimming shop are composit the skimmer whuch move up and down according to the wace movements, storage tank which storage the recovered oil in after side, transfer pump which transformed from flooding tank to separating tank and separating tank which separated the oil mixtures, Also there are cylindrical floated which keep the auto positing, gate which keep the auto positing, gate which protect and guide the recovering oil from sea and balance weight for skimmer balance. Also there are cylindrical floated which keep the auto positing, gate which protect and guide the recovering oil from sea and balance weight for skimmer balance. The important arrangement is twin arm which moved by two hinge and move te skimming unit by wave movement. In gate of inside, made long wear in the gate bellow position, there are also connected the flexible hose for oil mixtures drop. The separating tank composited with multi-divided bulkhead for ffective oil and sea water separating by settling and flotation principle. As use the above natural princile and equipment, we can remove the large quantity oil by developed oil skimming ship.ming ship.
The assesment of the safety of ship's transit in a curved narrow channl consists of the maneuvering safety determined by the chance of running aground, the maneuvering difficulty determined by shop's workload, and shiphandler's subjective evaluation. In this study to examine the correlation between shiphandler's subjectice evaluation and the maneuvering risk, the real-time and full-mission shiphandling simulator in the Korean Marine Training & Research Institutes(KMTRI) was utilized. In the conning bridge of the shiphandling simulator, 50 experienced masters conducted masters conducted the modeled vessel of 60,000 deadweight tonnage along the designed channel under 3 different envrinmental conditions. The findings were as follows: (1) The frequencies of stress levels, work difficulties, vessel controllability and overall workload of shiphandlers are similar irrespective of environmental conditions and they are able to be represented as shiphandler's subjective evaluation. (2) It is possible to assess and analyze theoretically the correlation between the shiphandler's subjective ecaluation and maneuvering risk each environmental cindition by quantifying the data obtioned from the tests. The results are as follows: ① As the degree of maneuvering risk increases, the shiphandler's subjective evaluation increases sharply near the curvature area of the desgined channel. ② In the area of the curvature of the designed channel, maneuvering risk increases sharply with the danger of running aground under the environmental condition of current and wind comung from the stem.
An innovative batch electrolytic system consisted of electrolytic basin, which was equipped with DSA(Dimensionally Stable Anode) type insoluble electrode, Ti/IrO2 anode and H-C metal cathode, and flotation separator was developed for the efficient treatment of shipboard emulsified oily wastewater. The electorod cleance and current density of elecrolytic basin to ensure maximum treatment efficiency of oily wastewater was evaluated as 6 mm, 3 A/dm3, respectively. The electrolytic efficiency of oily wastewater was affected by the operationtemperature, and it means that the temperature controller to ensure the stabiity of the process is required. The conductivity in the electrolytic basin was increased with the percentage of sea water in the oily wastewater, and over 90% of treatment efficiency of oily wastewater could be obtained at 7% of sea water. The oil removal rate was increased according to the increase of the quantity of electricity, and the maximum value of electrilyic rate constant was 288 mgoil/A.min. The information obtained from this study might be used for development of an efficient continuous electrolytic system treating the emulsified oily wastewater.
Subsea pipelines are exposed to several potential risks of damage due to wave, soil instability and other hazards. Structural failure of the steel pipelines will result in serious consequences such as release of transported hydrocarbons, pollution to the ocean environment and heavy costs due to repair. This paper examines the safety of subsea pipelines with free span which is one of high potential damages. The variation of an allowable length of static free span is examined for different boundary conditions and is given in a curve which is useful for the dsign of the subsea pipeline with a free span.
This study aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally second-order water level variation. The simple method obtaining second-order water surface elevation and mean water level applicable to both progressive and diffraction wave, mean water level set-down, as well as set-up occurs and it is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
This paper describes a fuzzy controlled pre-chlorination technique for purifying the pulluted raw water in water purification lants. For the purpose of obtaining the high quality water, the appropriate pre-chlorine dosage rate has to be continuously adjusted according to a change in quality of a intake raw water, weather, solar nergy mount, temperature and etc. Therefore, the method of expressing an expert's empirical knowledge cumulated from his past carrier by fuzzy reasoning and the fuzzy controller design technique is necessary.In this paper fuzzy membership functions and rules accordingto emprircal knowledge and experimental field data were obtained, And also fuzzy cintriller design using four feedforward components for the determination of pre-chlorine dosage rate and four feedback ones for the compensation of its dosage rate with residual chlorine and its change rate, was executed.
One of the main problems in evaluating complex objects, such as an ill-defined system, is how to treat ambiguous aspect of the evaluation. Due to the Complexity and ambiguity of the objects, many types of evaluation attributes should be identified based on the rational dsision. One of these attributes is an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). the weight of evaluation attribtes in AHP however comes from the probability measure based on the additivity. Therefore, it is notapplicable to the objects which have the property of non-additivity. In the previous studies by other researchers they intriduced the Hierarchical Fuzzy Integral method or mergd AHP and fuzzy measure for the analysis of the overlaps among the evaluation objects. But, they need more anlyses in terms of transformation of the probability measure into fuzzy measure which fits for the additivity and overlapping coefficient which affects to the fuzzy measure. Considering these matters, this paper deals that, ⅰ) clarifying the relation between the fuzzy and probability measure adopted in AHP, ii) calculating directly the family of fuzzy measure from the overlapping coefficient and probability measure. A simple algorithm for the calculation of fuzzy measures and set family of those from the above results is also proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the algorithm developed by applying this to the problems for estimation of safety in ship berthing and for evaluation of ports in competition is verified. This implied that the new algoritnm gives better description of the system evaluation.
In general, a source of international law comes out of either treaties or customs. Process of forming treaty law is relatively clear as it is created by both negotiations of legal experts in issue and express of sttes concerned in the international conferences. However, this process does not apply to the creation of customary international law. Rather the process to customary law depends on legal inference from or reasoning states' practices in fact so that there is no definite process or procedures for establishing customary international law and objective criteria to identify it. It is more difficult to prove when and what states' practices have been recognized customary law that turns to bind on all members of world community. This paper is to explore, through theories and findings of ICJ, how the customary international law is formed to be effective as a binding norm of law.
Technical developments, particularly in communications, increase the potential for effective maritime search and rescue(SAR). The paper identifies some of the questions those seeking to proveid effective SAR service should ask, and outlines possible answers.
I hope that in the limited allotted to me today I managed to draw to your attention just some of the recent legal developments relation to international maritime safety and environmental protection or more simply, of safer ships and cleaner seas, none of us should be in any doubt the ever increasing pressure that is going to be placed upon the shipping industry to achieve the objectives to which those expressions refer.
Safety is built in to the activities of the prudent ship operator. Ant investment made towards this end is likely to have a measurable payback in positive terms. That there must be an investment is inevitable, because the industry at large has let things slip too far too long. Those who have not allowed it to slip too far and who are the first to recognize that safety, far from costing money, in the long term actually preserves it, will be wieners. Too many seem to have lost sight of the fact that every one hundred pennies saved is a full one hundred pennies profit. Every hundred pennies of additional revenue contributes no more then fifteen pence to profit. Environmental protection is not so simple, nor so financially attractive. Man needs the minerals of the Earth as well as the products of the soil and sea survive. We(the human race) are still not in the position, politically or financially to manage the Earth's assets without causing damage. The evidence of our damage is evident in many different parts of the Glove and will in some cases haunt several generations still to come. We have learned a lot, and continue to learn, but despite the best intentions some Government needs for their people will be at the expense of people in another region for the foreseeable future. We sailors ply the seas with the raw materials of commerce as well as the finished and part finished goods. It does not always sit well to consider too deeply what effect the ship and the cargo it carries is having, or may have, on some communities, or on the sea through which sail. None my generation can hold up his head and claim to be without blame in the pollution of the seas. Times are changing though, and Governments are turning their attention more to the protection of our planet and its precious resources. This will not be without cost. The investment will have to be made not for our benefit, but for the benefit of generations yet to come, however the cost will have to be borne by society as a whole, not by the shipping community alone. The debate surrounding the choice between engineering our way to a better tomorrow, or adapting our working practices will continue. Each method has the same goal as its target and as long as we attain the goal does it really matter how we get there?
When considering marine pollution control procedures there are three general areas which demand close attention. These are: ⦁ oily bilge water ⦁ refuse ⦁ sewage All of these applications can be handled constantly changing to address the complexity of the waste management issues. The basic marine pollution regulations are covered by the International Maritime Organizations MARPOL 73/78 convention, with the various annexes and revisions. Of particular importance for equipment to deal with oily-water, sewage and plastic wastes.
The improvement in the high-class planning, design, and construction characteristics of new model Cruise Liner has been required. To find design philosophy way to improve the total Cruise, we need a world Cruise Fleet which agrees well with design morphology results. This paper describes the creation of world Cruise Fleet from conceptual design to total Cruise model and procedures to confirm the model with embodiment design test result.