This study aims at examining the safety of the would-be approach channel of LNG Terminal at Kwangyang Harbour, by utilizing Captains 2000 port-design simulator. Six competent shipmasters or navigators participated in this study. The developed model ship was a 70,200DWT (138,000m3) LNG carrier. The environmental conditions were maximum flood-and-ebb current condition and wind condition. To evaluate the navigational safety, two categories were analyzed, which were measures of vessel's proximity and shiphandler's subjective evaluations. With respect to the effects of the worst environmental conditions on transit safety, it was concluded that the would-be approach channel was safe on basis of the support of four tugs of 3,200hp or more and current speed of 0.5knots or less.
This paper deals with PC-based ship handling simulator, which is now widely utilized not only for total assessment of safety in harbour area but also for training purpose. The suitable mathematical model for low advance speed manoeuvre is treated with the effects of current, wind, wave, tug force and water depth. We adopt 3 dimensional graphic technique for perspective representation of relative ship motion. Some graphical panels on the screen are devised for data input/output or ship manoeuvring information. We show the real time simulation of berthing menoeuvre applied to Pusan harbour as an example.
Marine casuality causes not only loss of lives and ships, but also severs damages to marine environment and related economic activities such as fishing industry, sea farming, and tourist industry. Basically, the great effort should be made to prevent the occurrence of maritime accidents by any means. However, once accident has occurred, the salvage works should be done rapidly and properly based on theoretical and technical informations, which could minimize the risk during salvage operation and the overall damage from the maritime accidents. Generally, to calculate accurate hydrostatics of a stranded ship, a large amount of input data is needed. But, an availability and a reliability of input data cannot be guaranteed in most situations, and the adequate time required for preparing all input data is not allowed to perform the timely operations of salvage. In this paper, the development process of simple computer program for salvage operation using limited input data is introduced and its application example is presented. This program was developed to provide technical support for planning salvage operations in the grounding accident.
Generally, the navigational safety of a ship under various loading conditions is evaluated by a loading manual. However, the loading manual handles only statical factors such as weight and buoyancy of ship without including any wave conditions. Practically ship's safety is much concerned with the occurrences on the rough sea as propeller racing, rolling, deck wetness, vertical acceleration, lateral acceleration, slamming and so on. The purpose of this paper is to present a synthetic and practical evaluation method of navigational safety using the integrated seakeeping performance index(ISPI) under loading conditions of ship in seaways. The method is calculated by means of the ISPI by measuring only vertical acceleration. Judgement of dangerousness is carried out for four lading conditions : homogeneous full loaded, half loaded, heavy ballast loaded, and normal ballast loaded conditions. In developing the practical evaluation system of navigational safety, it is useful to solve the difficulties in measuring factors by sensors. And by applying the evaluation diagrames, navigators are able to avoid dangerousness by keeping away of the danger encountering angle of wave direction which the diagram shows.
International Maritime Organizatin(IMO) has been chosen some of agreements for regulating the international stability criteria of fishing vessels and recommended that each goverment adopts theirs into the domestic law. As a result, 77/93 Fishing Safety Agreement was ratified. Among the above agreement, contents of stability was not only applied to domestic law, but also strenghten considerably compared with existing stability criteria. And even if the calculation guide of stability with recommendations was regualted, Analysis of stability on domestic fishing vessels never have been used according to such a caculation method. Moreover, the caculation of stability criteria caused by strong wind, rolling effect and deck inflow was not considered in the existing basic design program. Therefore, the development of stability criteria program available for such a caculation has been of vital impotance. This research has developed a stability criteria program under 77/93 Fishing Safety Agreement. Also through development of stability criteria program, the stability performance of fishing vessel with 69ton stow-nesting was evaluated.
This study is aimed to predict the configuration and tension of a towing cable of a side-scan sonar which plays an important role in developing ocean resources. The governing equations of 3-D static equilibrium equations for a flexible cable are derived and solved using a finite difference method. The forces considered in this paper are effective weights, drag forces due to currents and ship moving, and the tension at both ends of the towing cable. The governing equations are non-linear, so an iteration method is applied to solve the equation. A case study is carried out for several different conditions. The result will be useful for predicting the location of a side-scan sonar and to design the towing system.
Sea transportation has long been a vital component of the transport systems of the world. The great majority of imports and exports to and enlarge their national merchant marines. This effort is meant partly to arrest earlier trends of having their trade carried by ships from outside the region and partly to promote regional integration and improve the national balance of payments. However, sea transportation has been exposed to various types of threats on the high seas, in coastal waters and in port areas. Piracy is any robbery or other violent action, for private ends and without authorization by public authority, committed on the seas. Because piracy has been regarded as an offense against the law of nations, the public vessels of any state have been permitted to seize a pirate ship, to bring it into port, to try the crew(regardless of their nationality or domicile), and, if found guilty, to punish them and to confiscate the ship. Piracy has occurred in all stages of maritime history. The increased size of merchant vessels, the improved naval patrolling of most ocean highways, the regular administration of most islands and land areas of the world, and the general recognition by governments of piracy as an international offense resulted in a great decline in piracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Piracy has, however, occurred in the 20th century, and the practice of hijacking ships has developed into a new form of piracy. The number of incidents of sea piracy against ships reported was 229 in 1997. Since 1991, 1,051 such acts have been reported. The purpose of this research is to examine the origin and development of the piracy to understand the current situation of such violence on the seas. In addition, what should be done by international community will be presented to prevent the piracy in the future.