This paper develops a risk index based on an indicator of risk assessment in terms of coastal activity location and accident type. The risk index is derived from a formula which adds the consequence of failure to a vulnerability value, then subtracts the mitigation value. Specifically, the consequence of failure is the number of casualties in coastal activity locations. An indicator of vulnerability refers to coastal environment elements and social elements. A pointer of mitigation includes managerial and organizational elements that indicate the capabilities of coastal activities. A risk rating of coastal activity location is found from a risk matrix consisting of the accident location and type. The purpose of this study is to prevent accidents at coastal activity locations by allowing the Coastal police guard to monitor effectively and inform visitors of potential risks.
We examined long-term variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and annual amplitudes of SST around the Korean Peninsula. Two SST data sets with data periods of approximately 51 years and longer than 100 years, respectively, were obtained from the National Institute of Fisheries Science and Japan Meteorological Agency. SST of Korean waters clearly increased during last 51 years (1968-2018), which was 2.5 times higher than the global trend. This significant increasing trend was caused by the dominant increasing SST trend during winter. However, a negative and positive SST anomaly frequently appeared during winter and summer, respectively, in a recent decade. These features of seasonal SST variation have changed the annual amplitude of SST, and resulted in a drastically increasing trend after 2009. Using the longer SST data set, it was revealed that the decreasing SST trend in winter began in the 2000s and the increasing SST trend in summer bagan in the 1990s. During a recent decade, there was a distinctive SST increase in summer, whereas a clear decrease in winter. In summary, the annual amplitude of SST around the Korean Peninsula significantly changed from a decreasing trend to an increasing trend during a recent decade.
This study examined the effects of freshwater discharge by artificial dikes from the Kanwol and Bunam lakes on the dynamics in the Chunsu Bay, Yellow Sea, Korea, during the summer season based on three-dimensional numerical modeling experiments. Model performances were evaluated in terms of skill scores for tidal elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity and these scores mostly exceeded 90 %. The variability in residual currents before and after the freshwater discharge was examined. The large amount of lake water discharge through artificial dikes may result in a dramatically changed density field in the Chunsu Bay, leading to an estuarine circulation system. The density-driven current formed as a result of the freshwater inflow through the artificial dikes (Kanwol/Bunam) caused a partial change in the tidal circulation and a change in the scale and location of paired residual eddies. The stratification formed by strengthened static stability following the freshwater discharge led to a dramatic increase in the Richardson number and lasted for a few weeks. The strong stratification suppressed the vertical flux and inhibited surface aerated water mixing with bottom water. This phenomenon would have direct and indirect impacts on the marine environment such as hypoxia/anoxia formation at the bottom.
Welding is the most convenient method for fabricating steel materials to build ships and offshore structures. However, welding using high heat processes inevitably produces welding displacements on welded structures. To mitigate these, heavy industries introduce various welding techniques such as back-step welding and skip-step welding. These techniques effect on the change of the distribution of high heat on welded structures, leading to a reduction of welding displacements. In the present study, various cases using different and newly introduced welding techniques are numerically simulated to ascertain the most efficient technique to minimize welding displacements. A numerical simulation using a finite element method based on the inherent strain, interface element and multi-point constraint function is introduced herein. Based on several simulation results, the optimal welding technique for minimizing welding displacements to build a general ship grillage structure is finally proposed.
The IMO (International Maritime Organization) has mandated the restriction of SOx emissions to 0.5 % for all international sailing vessels since January 2020. And, a number of countries have designated emission control areas for stricter environmental regulations. Three representative methods have been suggested to cope with these regulations; using low-sulphur oil, installing a scrubber, or using LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) as fuel. In this paper, economic analysis was performed by comparing the method of installing a scrubber with the method of using low-sulphur oil without installing additional equipment. We suggested plausible layouts and compared the pros and cons of different scrubber types for retrofitting. We selected an international sailing ship as the target vessel and estimated payback time and benefits based on navigation route, fuel consumption, and installation and operation costs. Two case of oil prices were analyzed considering the uncertainty of fuel oil price fluctuation. We found that the expected payback time of investment varies from 1 year to 3.5 years depending on the operation ratio of emission control areas and the fuel oil price change.
Sea trial tests are necessary to verify speed-power performance, and are an import contract between ship owners and shipyards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published ISO 15016:2015, which specifies the correlation method between model and full-scale ships. The results of sea trials have been questioned because of the uncertainty of speed and power measurements, especially when sea conditions differ from ideal calm water conditions. In this paper, such uncertainties were investigated by utilizing the standard speed-power trial analysis procedure defined in ISO 15016:2015 through Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the expanded uncertainty of the delivered power (PDid) at 95 % confidence interval (k = 2) was ±1.5 % under 75 % MCR conditions.
Recently, studies have been actively conducted on seismic design and improvement of the seismic performance of bridges, buildings, factories, and plants. In particular, heavy items that are being manufactured or waiting to be shipped from factories (such as generators, engines, and boilers) must be equipped with seismic stoppers to prevent them from moving or falling during an earthquake. Seismic stoppers should be suitably determined by the size and weight of these heavy items; however, they have no general design standard. In this study, structural analyses and seismic tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of newly designed seismic stoppers. Structural analysis was performed on three stopper models to estimate the external load at which the yield stress of the material was not exceeded. Based on the analysis results, a seismic test of the stopper was carried out in accordance with the AC156 test method. Finally, product specifications for all three seismic stopper models were determined and their static/dynamic load performance was evaluated.
Sandwich structures are general-purpose structures that can reduce the structural weight of composite ships. Core materials are essential for these structures, with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foams being the most popular. These foam core materials are subjected to various tests in the development process, and must satisfy the performance requirements of several ISO and ASTM standards. Therefore, a procedure for evaluating the performance of foam core materials was proposed in this paper. In addition, prototypes were fabricated using a commercial PVC foam core product in accordance with the structural design of an 11 m fiber-reinforced plastic yacht. Then, a case study was conducted on the proposed evaluation procedure. The proposed procedure facilitates the understanding of the performance requirements and evaluation of core materials used in composite ships and is expected to be utilized in developing core materials for marine structures.
In the study, energy flow analysis is performed to predict the performance of silencers. To date, deterministic approaches such as finite element method have been widely used for silencer analysis. However, they have limitations in analyzing large structures and mid-high frequency ranges due to unreasonable computational costs and errors. However, silencers used for ships and off-shore plants are much larger than those used in other engineering fields. Hence, energy governing equation, which is significantly efficient for systems with high modal density, is solved for silencers in ships and off-shore plants. The silencer is divided into two different acoustic media, air and absorption materials. The discontinuity of energy density at interfaces is solved via hypersingular integrals for the 3-D modified Helmholtz equation to analyze multi-domain problems with the energy flow boundary element method. The method is verified by comparing the measurements and analysis results for ship silencers over mid–high frequency ranges. The comparisons confirm good agreement between the measurement and analysis results. We confirm that the applied analysis method is useful for large silencers in mid-high frequency ranges. With the proven procedures, energy flow analysis can be performed for various types of silencer used in ships and off-shore plants in the first stage of the design.