In order to evaluate the pollution of heavy metals in offshore surface sediments around shipyards in Korea, surface sediment samples were collected at eleven stations around four major shipyards located in the southeastern coast of Korea in summer 2010 and nine kinds of heavy metals such as copper(Cu), zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), lead(Pb), chrome(Cr), arsenic(As), mercury(Hg), iron(Fe) and aluminum(Al) in sediments were analyzed. The concentrations of Cu at all sampling stations were in the range of 47.10 ~ 414.96 mg/kg and exceeded TEL(Threshold Effects Level) 20.6 mg-Cu/kg of Korean marine environmental standards for offshore sediments and ERL(Effect Range-Low) 34.0 mg-Cu/kg . The concentrations of Cu at seven stations around four shipyards were 65.18 ~ 414.96 mg/kg and exceeded PEL(Probable Effects Level) 64.4 mg-Cu/kg of Korean marine environmental standards for offshore sediments. The concentration of Cu at one station around B-shipyard was 414.96 mg/kg and exceeded ERM(Effect Range-Median) 270.0 mg-Cu/kg . The concentrations of Zn at all stations were in the range of 135.09 ~ 388.79 mg/kg which exceeded ERL 150.0 mg-Zn/kg . The concentrations of Zn at seven stations around four shipyards were 157.57 ~ 388.79 mg/kg and exceeded PEL 157.0 mg-Zn/kg . The concentration of Zn at one station around B-shipyard was 388.79 mg/kg and was approaching ERM 410.0 mg-Zn/kg . The concentrations of Cd at all stations were in the range of 0.11 ~ 0.54 mg/kg and were below TEL 0.75 mg-Cd/kg and ERL 1.2 mg-Cd/kg . The concentrations of Pb at all stations were in the range of 18.04 ~ 105.62 mg/kg . The concentrations of Pb at two stations around B-shipyard were 73.87 ~ 105.62 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 44.0 mg-Pb/kg and ERL 46.7 mg-Pb/kg , and were below PEL 119.0 mg-Pb/kg and ERM 218.0 mg-Pb/kg . The concentrations of Cr at all stations were in the range of 51.26 ~ 85.39 mg/kg. The concentration of Cr at one station around B-shipyard was 85.39 mg/kg and exceeded ERL 81.0 mg-Cr/kg . The concentrations of As at all stations were in the range of 8.70 ~ 22.15 mg/kg which exceeded ERL 8.2 mg-As/kg and were below ERM 70.0 mg-As/kg . The concentrations of As at eight stations around A-shipyard, B-shipyard and D-shipyard were 14.93 ~ 22.15 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 14.5 mg-As/kg and were below PEL 75.5 mg-As/kg . The concentrations of Hg at all stations were in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.35 mg/kg. The concentrations of Hg at three stations around A-shipyard were 0.11 ~ 0.13 mg/kg which were almost equal to TEL 0.11 mg-Hg/kg . Those at two stations around B-shipyard were 0.27 ~ 0.35 mg/kg which exceeded TEL 0.11 mg-Hg/kg and ERL 0.15 mg-Hg/kg, and were below PEL 0.62 mg-Hg/kg and ERM 0.71 mg-Hg/kg. The concentrations of Fe and Al at all stations were in the range of 2.90 ~ 3.66 % and 3.12 ~ 6.80 %, respectively. These results imply that heavy metals such as copper, zinc, lead, arsenic and mercury were likely to be transferred to marine environment from shipyards, especially from B-shipyard.
This paper focuses on analyzing the modern warfare and weapon systems supported by improved GPS informations. The GPS capability was investigated through the real experimental test for verifying the most recent GPS features under its modernization processing. And then it was verified that such capabilities, accuracy and availability, of a typical L1, C/A code GPS receiver are equivalent to the military receiver's ones. It was also sure that the influence of GPS improved informations on NCW(Network-Centric Warfare), PGM(Precision Guided Munition) and C4SIR(Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) should be increased and the modern warfare may be strongly dependent on GNSS informations.
In this study, experiments were performed using a model of a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC), which is a typical blunt ship, in a wave-making towing tank. The aim of the experiments was to determine the effect of added resistance in waves on the various operating conditions of a VLCC. An analysis of the results was conducted to determine the characteristics of resistance performance in waves. In addition, the characteristics of added resistance on a tanker were analyzed under irregular waves based upon the above result. The experimental results showed that added resistance was the highest around λ/L = 1.0, and the added resistance increased with the increase of the ship speed. Furthermore, under even keel conditions, the added resistance was higher than that under the trim changes, and the smallest added resistance was measured at the trim by the stern. Based on the experimental results, this study proposes effective operating conditions by analyzing the characteristics of the mean added resistance and the expected extreme response in irregular waves.
This paper compared the consistency of the Environment Stress(ES) model and the Potential Risk Assessment Model (PARK model, which was developed based on a Korean mariner risk perception) for the Busan adjacent waterway. Evaluation of accuracy and comparison of these two models have been made by Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) officers in the Busan VTS Centre. The assessment results of Busan waterway show that the PARK model is more consistent than the ES model as follows. (1) The difference between assessment results applying ES model and PARK model with risk degree of VTSOs were 34% and 5% respectively in six typical traffic situations. (2) The assessment using PARK model is more suitable and identical with the VTSOs opinion in his or her duty time.
The purpose of this study is to find suitable probability distribution function of complex distribution data like multimodal. Normal distribution is broadly used to assume probability distribution function. However, complex distribution data like multimodal are very hard to be estimated by using normal distribution function only, and there might be errors when other distribution functions including normal distribution function are used. In this study, we experimented to find fit probability distribution function in multimodal area, by using AIS(Automatic Identification System) observation data gathered in Mokpo port for a year of 2013. By using chi-squared statistic, gaussian mixture model(GMM) is the fittest model rather than other distribution functions, such as extreme value, generalized extreme value, logistic, and normal distribution. GMM was found to the fit model regard to multimodal data of maritime traffic flow distribution. Probability density function for collision probability and traffic flow distribution will be calculated much precisely in the future.
It is clearly understood that e-navigation is beneficial to prevent collision and grounding of ships. The purpose of this study is to define and present a future ship operation system under the e-navigation environment in order to provide clear direction for the design of Korean e-navigation system. The future ship operation system consists of shipboard navigational system, shore supporting system and maritime communication system. To achieve the objectives of this study, the ship operation system was discussed separately into SOLAS ships and non-SOLAS ships in this study. In SOLAS ships, mariners become a system manager, choosing system presets, interpreting system output, and monitoring vessel response. In small ships and fishing vessels, mariners may enjoy their navigation by using the automatic tracking of ship’s position on the portable electronic chart display. The improved bridge design, integrated and harmonized navigational system and single window reporting will reduce significantly the administrative and physical workload of mariners. Mariners can concentrate their attention more on navigational duty under the e-navigation environment. To build an effective Korean e-navigation system, the essential navigational functions and e-navigation services for small ships and fishing vessels must be identified and developed taking into account user needs.
Keeping in mind that there are only limited social, economic and administrative resources for reducing marine casualties, the result of statistical survey showed the loopholes of safe maritime transport system, and rendered that most casualties occurred in coastal waters by human errors. When the IMO Marine Casualty Investigation Code was utilized to reveal any structural vulnerability of the international measures, IMO was required to expand its roles to enhance the interface between Liveware and Environment of SHEL model. So, several risk assessment models were studied and found that Maritime Safety Audit System of the Republic of Korea could be a good example of enhancing safe interface between navigators (Liveware) and the navigational circumstances (Environment). It could be dealt with at IMO level as a tool for applying at human error enforcing waters. International cooperative research for upgrading risk assessment modes should also be future terms of reference.
This research is the result on calculating the logical speed limit through certain process which some elements must be considered on selecting the speed limit of harbour and waterway. The suggested speed limit select model on this research is processed from 1~6 steps by forming a professional group of experts. Each step has its information which 1st step(water division), 2nd step(selecting the model vessel and vessel applied with speed limit.), 3rd step(selecting the maximum and minimum speed range on each section), 4th step(evaluation on the safeness of traffic), 5th step(suggesting the appropriate speed limit), 6th step(execution and evaluation.). The appropriate speed limit was decided on consideration of the safety of maritime traffic on the range of the maximum speed and the minimum speed. This model was used to derive the appropriate speed limit on the harbour water and Busan harbour entrance waterway. As the result, the harbour water was calculated to be 6.9 knots, the appropriate speed limit of Busan entrance harbour was 9.3 knots. The present calculation of the speed limit on the approaching channel area is 10 knots, inner harbour area is 7 knots, which are similar to the result of the speed limit. This research is the first research on selecting the speed limit model and has its limits on finding the perfect speed limit result. More detailed standards on the safeness of traffic evaluation must be found and additional study is necessary on discriminating consideration of the elements. This research has its value which it provides instances of aboard cases on guidelines of selecting the speed limit.
This paper provides a study on the application and proposals of safety culture, new public management and social amplification of risk framework via ship accidents in Korea. This document analyzes what are the concept of safety culture, new public management as well as social amplification and risk framework and describes how 3 issues act, harmonize, interrelate through M/V Sewol accident. Korean government is needed to apply social amplification of risk framework to the in order to promote the safety culture in the maritime administration. Hence, this paper proposes safety framework in order to prevent and resolve future unexpected accident especially for maritime field.
This paper presents a novel educational model of subjects of electric, electronic and control for marine engineer in accordance with STCW 2010 amendments. In accordance with STCW 2010, contents of such courses in marine engineering operations of undergraduate programs in maritime university should be updated correspondingly to new features. In order to propose the model, this paper analyses and reviews subjects on electric, electronic and control in STCW convention compared to STCW 1995. Also, in this paper, subjects of electric, electronic and control in marine engineering operations in Korea and other countries are analyzed and a new educational model is proposed. in theoretical perspective and practical perspective.
To prevent cargo accidents by repeated loads, a continuous monitoring for securing rope or additional safety measures are needed, but most of prevention measures have been conducted only by operator's own experience not a quantitative assessment. Hence, the Load-Displacement curve and approximation formula of securing rope were drawn in this research for a quantitative assessment and simplified measurement on a tension of securing rope using a tensiometer. Moreover, a com parison was conducted between m easuring tension and calculated tension on securing rope with portable tensiometer, 'Load-Displacement' approximation formula. The calculated tension of securing rope is obtained 153.3kfg using the formula and that result has not much difference with initial tension 150.0kgf. Lastly, an analysis of the characteristics of various ropes was suggested to enhance the reliability about quantitative assessment of securing rope's tension through further research.
Compressed air has many uses on board ship, ranging from diesel engine starting to the cleaning of machinery during maintenance. In an effort to enhance the performance of the marine compressed air system, this work studied a way to reduce condensation from the air compressor via experiments. Especially more condensation is produced when the temperature at compressor outlets and the humidity of the air are higher. so in the research, drain production change has been observed by additionally installing the cooling fan on the suction portion of the air to air compressor and this is the method for reducing the compressed air drain that has passed through the compressor. For the result, it was verified that when the cooling fan was used, less drain was made where per hour it was 500.9ml of drain and the measured result after installing the cooling fan was that less drain was made. Other additional and various researches are needed including experiments like silica gel passing through the suction portion afterwards.
A sunken ship often involves an oil spill. This paper was carried out to minimize environmental and cost damages stemming from oil spil of sunken shipl. Through the analysis of both the standards of the oil tank system and installation, we have identified potential oil spill sites and proposed a remedy of prevention. The result of study, the air pipes of the oil tank are a vulnerable point for oil spill. Also, the remote control devices of emergency shut-off valve have poor accessibility at abandon ship, making it difficult to shut off the emergency shut-off valve. Thus, we propose the addition of a remote quick closing valve in the air pipe and the building of a central control system.