The paper describes system design of next-generation Ship Simulator using Virtual Reality (VRSS), well known as human-computer interaction. VRSS system is required to have special condition that comprises multiple user participants such as captain, officer, pilot, and quartermaster. To cope with that condition, core technologies were explored and proposed multi-networking system with broker server. The evaluation of the proposed system was done with PC-based immersion-type VR device, constituted with HMD (Head Mounted Display), Head Tracking Sensor, Puck, Headphone, and Microphone. Using the VR device, assessment test was carried out in a virtual bridge with 3D objects, which are created by VRML (Virtual Reality Model Language) program. As results of tests, it is shown that the cybernetic 3D objects were act as if real things in a real ship's bridge. Therefore, interesting interaction with participants can be obtained in the system, Thus, we found that the proposed system architecture can be applicable to VRSS system construction.
The paper describes creation methods of background scenes to implement realistic virtual environments in the VRSS (Virtual Reality Ship Simulator). VRSS is next-generation system constructed with virtual tools in a virtual space. Thus, it could have many benefits compared to conventional ship simulators composed with heavy bridge mock-up system and wide visual presentations. In this work, we developed effective 3D object modeling techniques, and constructed virtual harbor scene by using 3D-Webmaster authoring tool. The virtual harbor was built with object-oriented 3D objects modeled to interact with user's action. With the immersion-type VR system, we created virtual harbor environments in a virtual space, and discussed on the naturalness of the scene with test results of SDMPA (Semantic Differential Method for Psychophysical Assessment) by 10 subjects. As the results of subject assessment, all of the participants could felt natural-like harbor. Therefore, we found that the proposed creation methods and procedures of background scene are enabling to fit to the full mission VRSS construction.
This paper is concerned with finding the global optimal solutions for the redundancy optimization problems in series-parallel systems related with system safety. This study transforms the difficult problem, which is classified as a nonlinear integer problem, into a 0/1 IP(Integer Programming) by using binary integer variables. And the global optimal solution to this problem can be easily obtained by applying GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) to the transformed 0/1 IP. From computational results, we notice that GA(Genetic Algorithm) to this problem, which is, to our knowledge, known as a best algorithm, is poor in many cases.
The slipway, which is one of stern construction, is necessary for stern trawler to let fishing implements, such as fishing net, otter board and warp, go out effectively. It may be doubtable whether there is any possibility for deckwetness to occur because the slipway is obliquely in contact with sea surface. The author discusses any possibility for deckwetness through slipway of stern trawler in wind and waves. A 350 G/T class, ocean-going stern trawler is adopted for the present study. The stem trawler is particularly assumed to drift with fishing implements hung down the slipway due to internal or external accident during fishing operation in real sea. The author considers two factors as possibility for deckwetness to occur through slipway. One is mooring effect of fishing implements hung down the slipway under wind pressure, and the other is relative ship motion in vertical direction in waves. Through the numerical calculation, the author clarifies that there is thin possibility for deckwetness to occur from above two points of view.
A three-dimensional digital image processing technique is proposed to quantitatively predict the dispersion phenomena of oil droplet onto the surface of the water. This technique is able to get the dispersion rate of an oil droplet three-dimensionally just below the surface of the water over time. The obtained dispersion rate obtained through this technique is informative to the investigation into the relationship among the gravity, surface tensions between oil, water, and air. This technique is based upon the three-dimensional PIV(Particle Imaging Velocimetry) technique and its system mainly consists of a three CCD(Charge Coupled Device) cameras, an image grabber, and a host computer in which an image processing algorithm is adopted for the acquisition of dispersion rate oil an oil droplet.
All crude oil carries a little of water, sand, and mineral sediment molecules tightly bounded with hydrocarbons. The result is the gradual precipitation of these heavier elements into thick, granular petroleum by products known as crude oil sludge. The oily sludges in ship tanks and in storage facilities have to be treated efficiently in order to keep the security and the capacity of storage facilities, to protect a serious environmental pollution, and to retrieve lost resource. The oily sludge treatment system should be designed to satisfy requirements mentioned in safe work condition. As a basic study, in this paper, an oily sludge treatment system by ultrasonic waves was proposed. Then, the features of ultrasonic energy and recovery of sludge with ultrasonic waves are investigated by experiments. As results, we found that ultrasonic waves are a new energy to flow oil sludge environment-friendly in safe work condition. In addition, it was shown that ultrasonic energy is more efficient than thermal energy in treating oil sludge, and that the volume of wastes for disposal is reduced remarkably.
Bubble boom may be a good alternative for the prevention of oil spill pollution due to its easy deployment and clean post-process tasks. The present work is focused on the experimental investigation of air bubble movement for the bubble boom by visualization and quantitative PIV measurements. Bubble plume was generated by adjusting the pressure of pressure vessel ranging 6.7 kpa to 14.7 kpa. The results showed at lower inlet velocity and higher supply air flow rate that bubble boom maintained its containing capability reasonably well up to the maximum containing limit.
En coastal area, many submarine facilities such as pipes and cables are installed on/under the sea bed. Also, there are heavy traffic due to numerous vessels which call in ports or navigate passages in adjacent water. Therefore, the frequency of dropping anchors will be increased to avoid various dangerous situations. When an anchor is dropped from vessel on the sea bed, the anchor strikes on the sea bed, and then, the anchor penetrates to certain depth into the sea bed. In this case, sometimes submarine facilities on/under the sea bed may be damaged by the strike or the maximum penetrating depth of anchor. In this paper, some approximate equations on the strike and the penetrating depth of anchors have been derived on the basis of actual data, and the results are expected to use as basic design data of related facilities.
It has been studied a lot to solve the problems concerning about the port management system in Korea. Since the international competitive power of port system in Korea is decreasing these days. This paper suggests that Port Authority should be given to the local government in order to not only properly meet the demands from worldwide change in port condition but also develop the major country which will lead distribution system of northeast Asia in 21th century. In this paper, I also acknowledge the following facts. 1. more power needed for local government to develop and manage port system 2. the harmony of port function and urban capacity needed in order to utilize the extending effect from port development.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea(hereinafter referred as "the Law") adopted in 1982 was enacted on November 16, 1994. South Korea, China, and Japan signed and ratified the Law, respectively. These three countries announced their domestic laws relating to Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ) with reserving their applications. The enactment of the Law and announcement of EEZ inevitably brought new order on the seas. The New Fishery Agreement based on the Law with EEZ was concluded between South Korea and Japan and ratified by each country′s parliament. Another New Fishery Agreement between South Korea and China is also going to be concluded in near future. The New Fishery Agreements, however, do not include regulations relating to the marine scientific research, the protection of the marine environment, and so forth, which are essential for the States to fully implement the Law According to the New Fishery Agreements, it is impossible for the Coastal States to excercise their jurisdiction. Because the agreement of delimitation ocean boundaries among the three countries are not easy to settle, provisional agreements can only be concluded. Thus, many problems including the sovereignty over Dok-do between South Korea and Japan and delimitation of EEZ between South Korea and China can be arose anytime. This paper investigates the problems and possible counter measures in legal excercise on the seas by South Korean Government. The above mentioned problems introduced by the New Fishery Agreements include potential problems in the Middle Sea Zone, Provisional Zone, and so forth. In this paper, only the legal aspect of the Zones will be discussed excluding the law enforcement and the economic aspect of the Zones.
In this study the drift prediction models currently used in search and rescue(SAR) operations are introduced and the basic differences among them are analyzed by comparing the target classification, the treatment of environmental conditions, leeway equations and the determination of search area. In addition the new methods under development including AP98 of U.S. Coast Guard are compared and studied to improve the efficiency of SAR operation.