Recently, EI nino and La nina phenomena have known as a cause of the unusual weather and meterological disasters in the world. The meteorological disasters in Korea have mainly caused by typhoons. In this paper, we studied the relationship between EI Nino and La Nina phenomena and the number of typhoons which have affected on Korea using the long-term data for the period from 1940 to 1999 (60 years) in case of normal years, EI Nino years and La Nina years, the numbers of typhoons which have affected on Korea are 3.1/year, 2.7/year and 3.9/year respectively. The number of typhoons which have affected on Korea in La Nina years is more than those in EI Nino years and normal years The occurrence rate of typhoon in La Nina years is also higher than those in EI Nino years and normal years.
The amount of petroleum consumption has been Increased according to the industrialization and It leads to the increase of the possibility of marine oil pollution. In Korea, some countermeasures including oil skimmer, gelling agent and herding agent of oil have been used for the remediation of the pollution. However, most of them have lets of shortcomings in the application under in-situ condition, because they are sensitive to the situation such as geographical feature, the wind and the tide. In reported literature, the natural powdered oil absorbent which is made of peat moss is an effective mean to clean spilled oil from lake or coast. However, the peat moss is a natural resource which is only Produced from a specific cold weather are like Canada. This indicates that the alternative materials which is readily obtained from everywhere are needed for powdered oil absorbent. Therefore. in the study, same natural materials including pine leaves and straw are tested as the alternative materials for the absorbent. The raw materials were dried and treated by heat at various temperature during several Periods and then. shattered by a grain cracking machine. The oil sorption capacity of the prepared materials was compared according to the methods of heat treatment and their sizes. The proportion of hydrogen cyanide to combustion of the absorbents was measured to confirm their final disposal methods. The biodegradability test of the absorbents was carried our to evaluate possibility of a side pollution in the coast. In was found that the heat treatment of pine leaves enhanced the capacity of oil sorption and decreased the water sorption. The maximum oil sorption was observed for the material treated at 180℃for 60 min. The amount of hydrogen cyanide from the combustion were 0.09ml/g, 0.07ml/g for pine leaves and straw respectively meaning that the final disposal by combustion might be feasible. The amount or organic carbon extracted from pine leaves during 7 days was up to 0.015g organic carbon from one gram of pine leaves. but the degradation was as fast as for glucose. It is concluded that the pine leaves can be served as a good raw material for the powdered oil absorbent like peat moss
In regulation of IGC code 12.1 mechanical ventilation should be arranged to ensure sufficient air movement through the space to avoid the accumulation of flammable or toxic vapours and ensure a safe working environment, but in no case should the ventilation system have a capacity of less than 30 changes of air per hour baed upon the total volume of the space. In this study, a scaled mode chamber was constructed to investigate the ventilation characteristics and stagnation area in the hood room of LNG carrier and pump room in tanker. An experimental study was performed on the model by using visualization equipment with a laser apparatus and an image intensifier CCD camera. Twelve different kinds of measuring areas were selected as the experimental condition. Instant simultaneous velocity vectors in the whole fields were measured by a 2-D PIV system A three-dimensional numerical simulation was also carried out for three different Reynolds numbers. Then the CFD predictions were discussed with the experimental results. The results show the spiral L-shape flow that moves from the opening on the left wall diagonally to the upper right part dominates the ventilation structure. The stationary area of hood room in the velcoity distributions was located in the upper left stern part.
The coastal waters and the adjacent coastal lands strongly influenced by each other and includes islands, transitional and intertidal ares, salt marshes wetlands and beaches. We focus on the coastal zone because of its unique geographical characteristics, Its ecological and economic importance, and the increasing pressures on its integrity. Our coastal zone have been controlled individually about 50 of a different kind of laws, as a result, to reach an individual purpose of the laws, people have developed the coastal zone without considering environmental condition, which brought about ecological destruction, pollution and devastation of the coastal areas. Finally, In 1999, the Coastal Management Act and the Wetlands Conservation Act were established and hereafter the environmental concern has been increased. They will be an important role to preserve our environment of coastal zone. Here I will examine the Laws concerned with environmental management of coastal zone and indicate immanent problems of it. So, I expect that problems will be improved one by one through this paper
미국은 연방국가이기 때문에 미국의 주요정책을 이해하기 위해서는 연방정격의 정책과 주정부의 정책 을 살펴봐야함. 연안통합관리정책도 마찬가지이며, 여기서는 우선 연방정부의 정책을 소개하며, 주정부의 정책은 다음 기회에 소개하고자 함 본고는 필자가 1년 6개익간 미국 로드아일랜드대학교의 연안자원센타 에서 연안통합관리에 관한 연수할 기회를 가졌는데 동 기간동안 수집한 자료들을 정리한 것임.