During the last 10 years, the various type of high speed craft have been greatly developed, and since around of 1990 the large size of high speed passenger and/or cargo vessels are also introduced and took into the service in the various routes over the world. In a marine traffic way some bridge need to build across a rivers, cannals or a waterways. This one will be an obstruction and potential risk of collision in the way of high speed craft. Accordingly some of collision accident have been reported, which were caused by a lost control, wind and hydrodynamic forces, fog or human errors. In this paper a high speed craft having 40 m length is assumed to be collided with a circular type of bridge piers at right angle. The mode of deformation, penetration depth of collapse, impact forces, reduction of speed, loss of kinetic energy, and influence of scantlings, etc. have been calculated in each speed with a time variation to find a maximum values within a limit, and are graphically presented.
To predict the oil spill dispersion phenomena in the ocean, the oil spill response model, which can be used for strategic purpose on the oil spill site, based on Lagrangian particle-tracking method was formulated and applied to the neighboring area with Pusan port where the oil spill incident occurred when the tanker ship No.1 Youil struck on a small rock near the Namhyungjeto on September 21, 1995. The real-time tidal currents to be required as input data of the oil spill model were obtained by the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the tide prediction model. Evaluation of tidal currents using observation data was successful. For wind data, other input data of oil spill model, observed data on the spot were used. To verify the oil spill model, the oil spill modelling results were compared with the field data obtained from the spill site. Compared the modelling results with the observation data, there exist some discrepancies but the general pattern of modelling results was similar to that of field observation. The modelling results on 7 days after spill occurred showed that the 40% of spilled oil is in floating, 36% in evaporated, 23% at shore, and 1% in out of boundary, respectively. According to the evaluation of weighting curves of effective components to the dispersion of oil, the winds make a 37% of contribution to the dispersion of oil, turbulent diffusion 39.5%, and tidal currents 23.5%, respectively. Provided the more accurate wind data are supported, more favorable results might be obtained.
This paper is to estimate the long and short term variations of mean sea level in Korean coastal waters by identifying interrelations among the mean sea level, atmospheric pressure and air temperature along the coast. For this, long-term tidal data observed at tidal and weather observation stations were brought into a statistical analysis. It was noted that, in a general sense, an inverse relationship exists between the sea level and the atmospheric pressure and a positive relationship between the sea level and air temperature, respectively. The maximum difference of monthly mean sea level was in the range of 21 to 25 cm at the eastern and southeastern coasts, meanwhile more than 30 cm being in both in southern and western coasts. It was also noted that mean sea level continues to rise in a long-term basis. Long-term variation of mean sea level trends to rise 0.10 ∼ 0.44 cm per year for each region. However, the long-term variation of mean sea level in the isolated islands shows a different trend, Ullngdo being 0.41 cm fall per year and Chejudo being 0.44 cm rise per year.
인체의 표류특성을 규명하기 위해 1997년 8월부터 1998년 4월까지 실물을 이용한 현장실험을 실시하였다. 실험은 부산 영도구에 위치한 조도 부근해역에서 행하여졌고, 조난자로는 제중 60∼87kg, 키 170∼178 cm의 대학생들이 역할을 대신하였다. 실험중 조난자의 과도한 열손실을 방지하기 위해 네오프렌 재질의 5mm 잠수복을 착용하였다. 그리고 표류물체 주위의 유속 측정을 위해서는 비닐 백을 사용하였다. 결과 비교를 위해 조난자 옆에 스쿠버 장비를 갖추고 부력조절기에 바람을 가득 넣은 다이버를 함께 표류시켰다. 자료를 분석한 결과 잠수복만 입은 조난자 및 스쿠버 다이버의 평균 leeway rate는 각각 수면상 10m 높이 풍속의 약 0.4％와 1.3％이었다.
In the decision of a collision avoidance action for navigators and intelligent ships, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of surrounding risks and to control them effectively. In this paper, we propose the new methodology for navigational risk evaluation and control at sea. In the methodology, navigation risk is evaluated in two dimensions using Even Risk Contour on the basis of the concept of contour line. In addition, the movement information of dangerous targets is assessed continuously and precisely with wide band data. The presented technique is useful for the safety navigation at the heavy traffic sea and will be applied for the ultra automatic ship.
Although recently vigorous studies on environmental crime have contribute criminal respects to be advanced in our country, most of them are focused on German discussions about the theory of environmental crime or environmental criminal law. As each countries in criminal legislation for environmental protection have some distinctive characteristics not found in others, the study which is more helpful to regulate environmental crime can be extend to other country in the view of comparative law. Thus this Article overviews especially the environmental criminal enforcement program involving civil and administrative enforcement in the United States. Notwithstanding that enforcement is an evolving phenomenon that only recently appeared on the scene, there is widespread public support for it. Once viewed as mere economic or regulatory offence lacking an element of moral delict, environmental crimes now provoke moral outrage and prompt demands for severe sanction and strict enforcement. Many major provisions of modem environmental acts that imposed criminal liability have been added or significantly restructured during the last decade. Notable among them are the imposition of the felony penalties for federal environmental crimes and the enactment of the endangerment crime in federal environmental law. This Article approaches the characteristics of environmental criminal enforcement form introducing major federal environmental acts. It develops the result that, considering the difference that exist between Korea and United States in environmental criminal law, our proper environmental regulatory framework can be constituted.
By the IMF condition, tax revenues of local governments are decreasing, under these conditions, container tax take important proportion in financial resources in Pusan Metropolitan City. However the container tax have time limit until 2001, that is, purposeful tax. But after the creating container tax, the level of accomplishment is very insufficient. So for the activation of local economy, we need active study on the existence problem of container tax. Though the abolition of container tax item is frequently discussed in central government, If the worst case comes, namely the abrogation, it gives big damages to the financial management of Pusan Metropolitan City. Therefore the container tax should be existent for both residents and local government. Because the expansion rate of container tax is so rapid, it makes very critical contribution to the stability and sound condition of Pusan Metropolitan City's finances.