Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia which has problems of land subsidence with the rates of about 1 to 15 cm/year, up to 20-25 cm/year. The study has examined the land subsidence in Pantai Mutiara, Jakarta Bay which is a reclaimed area by using the Terrestrial LIDAR survey technique. The Terrestrial LIDAR survey results show that the survey site has mean elevation of 0.24 m with the highest elevation of 0.93 m and lowest - 0.35 m. Considering that AHHW (approximate highest high water) is 0.51 m, many areas of the survey site are lying below the AHHW. Pantai Mutiara area is showing various subsidence rates depending on sites although the site is relatively narrow and small (about 1 km2). There is elevation differences of almost 1m within the site. In this study, key information including topography, dike height distribution, and future coastal flooding risk of the survey area was able to be provided by Terrestrial LIDAR survey conducted only once. Especially, as the 3D precision topography effectively conveys important messages relating to vulnerability of the site, policy makers and stakeholders can easily understand the situation of the site.
Yellow clay dispersion has been applied to minimize fisheries impact by the red tide Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in Korean coasts since 1995. The present preliminary study documents the effect of yellow clay on Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, in terms of oxygen consumption rate (OCR). The OCR in the low clay suspension (0.05 and 0.23 %, w/w) showed normal level compared to the control. In contrast, the OCR for each one of three replicates in the high clay suspension (1.16 and 5.58 %, w/w) was not returned to the previous level that clay was not treated, indicating that high clay suspension (≥1.16%, w/w) might give negative effect on Korean rockfish. Overall, this result suggests that field application of clay to control Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) may not give impact on Korean rockfish once the clay is dispersed in a low concentration (≤0.23%). In order to understand the changes of OCR in the repeated exposure to clay, it is required to do further studies on the changes of OCR when the fish is exposed to clay repeatedly after recovery in the normal seawater.
Part 2 of the Questionnaire Survey on Marine Safety and VTS in the Philippine Coastal Waters presents the alternatives to risk reduction, modifying the VTS, the qualification and competency of a VTS operator and effectiveness of the services and assistance rendered by VTS. This study finds that majority of respondents chose "Improved education and training of mariners" as the best alternative to risk reduction and the "Strict enforcement of ship safety regulations" as the best alternative based on the respondents' ranks last served onboard and areas of familiarity. In modifying the VTS, the areas with VTS chose to "Improve or upgrade" and for those without, is to "Implement" the system. The best VTS system is the "Port and Approaches" type and the PCG is selected to operate, maintain and supervise the system. As a VTS operator, the necessity of shipboard experience is considered "Essential" and the experiences include "Ship-handling and Communication", and "Management level" experiences. The effectiveness of the assistance and services rendered by VTS are considered "Very Important". Based on these findings, this study recommends improvement of education and training of mariners and users of the waterways including the training of VTS operators manning the VTS centers, strict enforcement of ship safety regulations along the busy and main ports of the country and installation of VTS system with the most appropriate type with the supervision of PCG.
The classification of risk factors and the identification of risk acceptance criteria are core works to assess risk levels with high enough confidential level in the field of marine traffic environment. In the previous study work, the twenty kinds of risk factors and its assessment criteria for the domestic marine traffic environment were proposed. In this paper, with these previous studying results, the relative importance of the risk factors were analyzed by questionnaire survey of marine traffic experts using the analytic hierarchy process. The analysis results showed that the relative importance of the visibility restriction is the highest among the twenty kinds of risk factors, and the relative importance of the traffic condition is the highest among the five kinds of risk categories. As results from analysis, it is expected that the approaching method on the relative importance is to be one of basic techniques for the development of risk assessment models in the domestic marine traffic environment.
This paper is to investigate propagation path characteristics of GPS potential jamming signal. To do this, the spherical ground diffraction model is applied to the potential jamming scenario referred to the GPS jamming events occurred in recent years. The fundamental theory on the propagation path loss is discussed and a specific model is applied to several vehicles types which have own heights of antennas in order to compare their propagation path loss values at same 2-D location. The transmitting powers are appropriately given as the ordinary GPS jamming events. And then the received powers in dBW are obtained with given transmitting powers and the estimated total loss. The result of received jamming power at various locations due to the given scenario was distinct. For example, propagation loss values were estimated as -147 ~ -142dBW and -167 ~ -162dBW in 106W and 104W, respectively. This computation result of the loss can be seriously considered with the tolerable jammer power against L1- C/A GPS receiver under any real jamming situations.
The educational process and result of onboard training should be evaluated according to the 1995 Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch-keeping for seafarers(STCW), 1978. In particular, the revised Convention requires that a trainee's seagoing service must be recorded in each cadet's Training Record Book approved by the maritime administration responsible for the issuance of certificates of competency. Trainees for certification under regulation III/1 of the STCW Convention are required to complete an approved on-board training programme. The purpose of this paper is to understand the compliance of the education for an approved on-board training programme. The questionnaire was distributed among 110 cadets being trained on board the training ship of the maritime college of the Mokpo National Maritime University. In this study, we conducted the questionnaire survey which is related to the on-board training programme such as marine engineering; controlling the operation of the ship and care for persons on board; electrical, electronic and control engineering; etc. The survey revealed that onboard training program was normally satisfactory, however, lack of practical training tools and time have accounted for most of the reasons for dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is our goal to enhance the satisfactory value of onboard training education by analyzing the reason of the dissatisfaction.
To ensure that the production system of a factory is efficient, the factory layout design should consider the location and material flow plans of facilities, workshops, and storage areas. Highly productive factories need to have an optimized layout planning process, and a customized design methodology of the production system is a necessity for feasible layout planning. This paper presents a method for designing a layout module's size and shape and provides a heuristic location-allocation algorithm for the modules. The method is implemented and validated using a rich internet application-based platform. The layout design method is based on the leisure ship production process; this method can be used for designing the layout of a new factory or remodeling an existing factory and its production system. In contrast to existing layout methods, the inputs required for the proposed method, such as target products, production processes, and human-resource plans, are simple. This layout design method provides a useful solution for the initial stage of factory design.
The coastal area of Republic of Korea is very clean compared to other countries. In this reason, west coastal area of our country is a good place for breeding up a fish such as shrimp. In winter season, the heating system is required for preventing shrimp death caused by freezing in the farm. The heater in the heating system for fishery's farm is operated very severe combating corrosion due to high accumulation by feeding material and high temperature in heated sea water. Almost all manufactured heaters of STS 316L and Ti material are scrapped every year due to heavy corrosion such a general and crevice corrosion. For comparing the general and galvanic corrosion in new heater material, the test material of Zirconium (Zr), Titanium (Ti) and STS 316L are tested by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), current density-time methods and microscopic examination in a 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion potential (Ecor) measured by potentiodynamic polarization for Zr, Ti and STS 316L reveals -198, -250 and -450mV, corrosion current density 0.5, 2.5 and 6.5μA/cm2 respectively. The film resistance measured by EIS are Zr 63,000, Ti 39,700 and 316L 3,150Ω, and the current of Zr-Ti couple is 0.03μA, whereas Zr-316L SS is 0.1μA. According to the result of this experiment in 3.5% NaCl solution, Zr is excellent corrosion resistance material than Ti and STS 316L.
The docking analysis of a global ship structure is requested to evaluate its structural safety against the reaction forces at supports during docking works inside a dry dock. That problem becomes more important recently as the size of ships is getting larger and larger. The docking supports are appropriately arranged in a dock to avoid their excessive reaction forces which primarily cause the structural damages in docking a ship and, up to now, the structural safety has been assessed against the support arrangement by the finite element analysis (FEA) of a global ship structure. However, it is complicated to establish the finite element model of the ship in the current structural design environment of a shipyard and it takes over a month to finish the work. This paper investigates a simple and fast approach to carry out a ship docking analysis by a simplified grillage model and to assign the docking supports position on the model. The grillage analysis was considered from the motivation that only the reaction forces at supports are sufficient to assess their arrangement. Since the simplified grillage model of the ship cannot guarantee its accuracy quantitatively, modeling strategies are proposed to improve the accuracy. In this paper, comparisons between the proposed approach and three-dimensional FEA for typical types of ships show that the results from the present grillage model have reasonably good agreement with the FEA model. Finally, an integrated program developed for docking supports planning and its evaluation by the proposed approach is briefly described.