The decrease in under keel clearance (UKC) due to the increase of draft that occurs during advancing and turning of very large vessels of different types was analyzed based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The trim change in the Duisburg test case (DTC) container ship was much smaller than that of the KRISO very large crude oil carrier 2 (KVLCC2). The sinkage of both ships increased gradually as the water depth became shallower. The amount of sinkage change in DTC was greater than that in KVLCC2. The maximum heel angle was much larger for DTC than for KVLCC2. Both ships showed outward heel angles up to medium-deep water. However, when the water depth became shallow, an inward heel was generated by the shallow water effect. The inward heel increased rapidly in very shallow water. For DTC, the reduction ratio was very large at very shallow water. DTC appeared to be larger than KVLCC2 in terms of the decreased UKC because of shallow water in advancing and turning. In this study, a new result was derived showing that a ship turning in a steady state due to the influence of shallow water can incline inward, which is the turning direction.
Identifying which international maritime legal instruments are mandatory or recommendatory is complicated task even for maritime regulatory bodies. Although International Maritime Organization (IMO) had tried to ease the complexity by adopting guidelines on uniform wordings for making reference to other instruments in IMO parent conventions, there has still been some confusion identifying the mandatory status of IMO instruments. The aim of this study was to map out a step-based guideline to resolve the complexity of the mandatory status of IMO instruments to the maximum extent possible. This study reviewed the history of IMO rule-making process to find the root cause of the problem, then analyzed the approaches of regulatory enforcement bodies to check the practices. In conclusion, readers are directed to find such information as to legal status of IMO instruments and an improvement is proposed to enhance the transparency of information sharing for maritime industry to make better informed decisions.
The mandatory installation of the ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) became an important navigational equipment for navigation officer. In addition, ECDIS is a key component of the ship's digitalization in conjunction with various navigational equipment. Meanwhile, cyber-attacks emerge as a new threat along with digitalization. Damage caused by cyber-attacks is also reported in the shipping sector, and IMO recommends that cybersecurity guidelines be developed and included in International Security Management (ISM). This study analyzed the cybersecurity hazards of ECDIS, where various navigational equipment are connected. To this end, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) was conducted on navigation officer using ECDIS. As a result, the development of technologies for cyber-attack detection and prevention should be priority. In addition, policies related to ‘Hardware and Software upgrade’, ‘network access control’, and ‘data backup and recovery’ were analyzed as contents to be maintained. This paper is significant in deriving risk factors from the perspective of ECDIS users and analyzing their priorities, and it is necessary to analyze various cyber-attacks that may occur on ships in the future.
Environmental damage caused by marine plastic debris occurs and has become a major contributor to marine pollution. This study analyzed the current state of marine plastic debris pollution and proposed essential strategies to reduce damage. To assess the current state of pollution arising from marine plastic debris, this study investigated the properties of plastic debris, reviewed case studies of ecological impacts, and examined the inflow and distribution of marine plastic debris. The results of this study indicate that the major deleterious effects of marine plastics are entanglement and ingestion. In addition, the amount of plastic waste entering the sea was estimated to be 230 Mt in 2015 and may increase to 554 Mt in 2050. In this study, three key strategies were proposed to reduce damage and preserve the ecosystem, including: 1) removing plastic debris in the marine environment, 2) limiting the release of plastic debris to the marine environment, and 3) preventing damage to humans and marine life from plastic debris. To minimize the environmental damage caused by marine plastic debris, the proposed response strategies should be implemented in parallel.
Methods for predicting the ultimate/buckling strength of ship structures have been extensively improved in terms of design formulas and analytical solutions. In recent years, the design strategy of ships and offshore structures has tended to emphasize lighter builds and improve operational safety. Therefore, the corresponding geometrical changes in design necessitate the use of high-tensile steel and thin plates. However, the existing design formulas were mainly developed for thick plates and mild steels. Therefore, the calculation methods require appropriate modification for new designs beased on high-tensile steel and thin plates. In this study, a modified formula was developed to predict the ultimate strength of thin steel plates subjected to compressive and shear loads. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the yield stress, slenderness ratio, and loading condition on the buckling/ultimate strength of steel plates were examined, and a newly modified double-beta parameter formula was developed. The results were used to derive and modify existing closed-form expressions and empirical formulas to predict the ultimate strength of thin-walled steel structures.