The study performs a risk analysis on container ship accidents using accident data collected over the six years from 2006 to 2011, presents the resulting risk level, and suggests three risk mitigation measures to reduce the overall risk, for the safer operation of container ships. More specifically, starting from the initial accident of collision, we developed 13 different accident scenarios using event tree analysis based on which the overall risk level was obtained and presented as a FN curve. Since diverse human factors are the main cause of most of the ship accidents, our study focuses on the effect of reducing human causes on the resulting risk level. For the research we considered the injuries for the calculation of fatality with the help of MAIS. The results show that collision was the main type of accident, accounting for 62 % of all accidents, and the measures employed were proven to be effective in the sense that the risk level was much lowered and the average number of fatalities was also reduced. With more data accumulated, more precise risk level will be calculated with which the practical risk mitigating measures will be also developed. For future study, economic loss and environmental damage as consequences need to be considered.
This paper aims at presenting bunkering educational programs for LNG fueled ship taking into consideration existing similar education programs and safety systems at the international level in order to enhance both seafarers' and vessels' safety. Heavy fuel oil has typically been used as fuel of ship propulsion. The competitiveness of the fuel oil is recently getting weak in terms of cost and environmental aspects. Liquefied natural gas is introduced for ship propulsion in the maritime field as a new energy source replacing heavy fuel oil. In order to prepare for installation and operation of LNG fueled propulsion ship on board, International Maritime Organization has discussed this subject for about 10 years. As a result of the discussion on such ships in IMO, the International Code of Safety for Ships Using Gases or Other Low-Flash-Point Fuels entered into force on the year 2015. International organizations and several countries therefore drives actively entire researches and other businesses with a view to providing equipment and system of LNG bunkering. The systems are divided into ship-to-ship transfer, terminal / pipeline-to-ship transfer and truck-to-ship transfer. By adopting transfer system of LNG bunkering, many human resources will be needed in these areas on scene as well as on managing, operating, trading, finance, design of LNG bunkering industries. LNG bunkering is just in the beginning stage. Hence, this paper reviews and proposes professional educational programs of LNG bunkering in consideration of technical aspects of the safety system of LNG bunkering based on the types of bunkering systems.
The key features of maritime accidents are the change of their attributes by new risks from time to time. To prevent maritime accidents in Korea, the impacts by new risks on domestic safety environments should be identified or predicted. The purpose of this paper is to find the hazard factors by new risks on maritime safety in Korea. The meaning of new risks is the elements of accident hazard which is compiled from new or rare or unprecedented events in the worldwide maritime transportations. The problems of new risks are the lacks of optimum countermeasures to mitigate accident risks. Using the questionnaires with 152 event scenarios classified by 20 accident causes, the hazard identification and risk analysis of new risks was performed based on the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by IMO. A total of 22 Influence Diagrams, which is to depict the transit flows between accident causes to consequences, is used in the construction of 152 event scenarios. A total of 20 accidents causes is the same contents as the causation factors represented in Statistical Year Book for Maritime Accidents of Korean Maritime Safety Tribunals. After defining the evaluation equations to the response results of questionnaires by 46 experts, the work for risk analysis is carried out. As results from the analysis of 152 scenarios, it is known that the root cause to affect on maritime safety in Korea is the pressure of business competition and it led to the lacks of well experienced crews, the overload of vessel operations and crew's fatigue. In addition, as results from the analysis of 20 accident causes, the three accident causes are to be candidate as main issues in Korea such as the inadequate preparedness of departure, the neglecting of watch keeping in bridge and the inadequate management of ship operations. All of the results are thought to be as basic hazard factors to safety impediments. It is thus found that the optimum Risk Control Options to remove the hazard factors and to mitigate consequences required are the following two factors: business competition and crewing problems.
With the results of observations in 2013 and 2014 including ocean buoys, in-situ investigations and wind data, we examined the spatio-temporal variation of cold water masses along the eastern coast of Korea. Usually, a cold water mass first appears along the northern part of the eastern coast from May to July, and then along the southern part of the eastern coast from late June to mid-August. Cold water masses appear 3~5 times a year and remain for 5~20 days in the southwestern part of the East Sea. A distinctive cold water mass appeared usually in mid-July in this area, the surface temperature of which was below 10℃ in some cases. During the appearance of a cold water mass in the southwestern part of the East Sea, the horizontal temperature gradient was large at the surface and a significant low water temperature below 8℃ appeared at the bottom level. This appearance of cold water masses clearly corresponded to southwesterly winds, which generated coastal upwelling.
In this paper, a numerical experiment on a tidal turbine was performed based on a water wheel design using the commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX to contribute to the development of water wheels. The water wheel type tidal turbine was studied with different numbers of rotor blades (including ten, twelve and twenty blades types) and with different blade shapes (Straight, Curved and Zuppinger types) for comparison at several values of tip speed ratio (TSR) ranging from 0.7 to 1.2. The numerical results indicated that the 10-bladed type and the Straight-bladed type turbines absorb the highest power efficiency, up to 43 % at TSR 0.9. In addition, the 20-bladed and the Curved-bladed types showed the lowest performances in all cases of TSRs comparing with the others. Besides that, it was found that this turbine operates much effectively at low range of TSR, especially at TSRs 0.9 and 1 for all cases of blade shapes and all numbers of blades.