To find characteristics and areas of greater risk of oil spill at the coastal waters in Korea, some of risk factors were analyzed with historical data of oil spill and marine traffic. As a result, it is characterized that frequency of oil spill is increasing year by year and greatest percentage of spill source is fishing boat. It is proposed that the ports of Ulsan, Yeosu, Incheon and Pusan will be designated as primary area of risk as they have a higher risk of oil spills and its response authority is required to maintain appropriate regional response capability for prompt and effective response to a future spill incident. In addition, the regional response equipments at Ulsan are examined under a assumption of a medium size spill and it is found that the use of chemical dispersant can be an alternative when mechanical containment and recovery is not feasible in this area, and the existing response equipments may be appropriate to address that size of spill. However, the response authority is required to maintain more numbers of stronger boom for unsheltered waters and more quantity of concentrate dispersant to disperse all spilled oils on the water, furthermore the response authority should be prepared for a possible future catastrophic spill with sufficient equipments.
The marine structures with sea water cooling system always expose to the oceanic atmosphere. Therefore, the protection of the equipments is very important. To investigate the effectiveness of advanced composite materials for the application in offshore environments, the tensile test, hardness test, undercutting property test, permeance test and the friction and wear test were carried out by using various applicable coating materials. The main results obtained can be summarized as follows; 1. The micro-hardness of the Archcoat 502B showed the highest value. 2. The coefficient of friction of the Rigspray coating at the speed of 2.21m/sec showed the lowest value, and that of the Archcoat 502B coating at 1.08m/sec and 0.18m/sec indicated the lowest values. 3. The wear mass at the speed of 0.18m/sec and 1.08m/sec in dry condition showed the smallest values. 4. The Archcoat 502B coating is fitted to the dynamic instruments in the range of low speed and middle speed. Rigspray coating is fitted to the dynamic instruments in the range of high speed. 5. The wear mass of five kinds of coating materials at the range of low speed was very small, and those of the Archcoat S02B, Archcoat 402B and Rigspray coating at high speed range were quitely smaller than those of the Modified Epoxy and Tar Epoxy.
The present study is concerned with the hydrostatic extrusion process of copper-clad aluminum rod through metallurgical joining. In this study, the rigid plastic finite element program, HICKORY, is used to analyze the steady state extrusion process of the bimetal rod. Simulations are performed for copper-clad aluminum rod with several extrusion ratio to give the distributions of effective strain rate, equivalent stress and hardness. Experiments are also carried out for aluminum-inserted copper rod at room temperature. It is found out that finite element predictions are generally in good agreement with the experimental observations. The detail comparison of the extrusion loads by the finite element method with those by experiments are given.
High negative pressure coefficient is formed in the corner of the bluff body structures. For many curtain wall designers this phenomena is of interest because this high negative pressure coefficient is adopted in structural calculation. The present study is aimed to investigate shedding vortex characteristics of two-dimensional rectangular prism flow. Unsteady calculation by finite difference method based upon SOLA is carried out for three aspect ratios(1:1, 1:2, 1:3) of Re=104 in viscous incompressible flow within infinite domain. Fluctuation of velocity components at various pick-up points and time variation of drag and lift coefficients are analysed by FFT method to reveal shedding vortex frequency patterns. At aspect ratio 1:1, one primary Strouhal number appears for about all pick-up points. At aspect ratio 1:2, two representative Strouhal numbers are classified by pick-up positions and their flows show two different reattachment patterns. For aspect ratio 1:3, frequency spectrum maintains multiple peaks.
The majority of fishing vessels(under 20 tonnages) in Korea have a high casualty accident of the flood and capsizing occurred by lack of stability. Actually, it is so difficult to make out the data of inclining and stability tests of small fishing vessels after building, because most of them were built on experiences of manufacturer. According to above reasons, the aim of this study is an attempt to propose a stability criteria of small fishing vessels as follows: Firstly, it is examined that the stability is driven from a transverse metacenter height of actual ships, which is able to obtain a basic drawing and stability data. Secondly, it is examined the heeling at high-speed turning, and the period of rolling according to B/D(breadth/depth). Finally, it is suggested the stability criteria by using a dynamic state which is applied in passenger boat and fishing vessels over 24 meters.
The in situ observations and the seawater analyses were conducted at all seasons from July 1996 to April 1999 for the purpose of describing the characteristics of seasonal variations of water quality in Mokpo harbour, Korea. Vertical stratification started to be formed in water column in spring, developed in summer and disappeared in fall. In summer, vertical density distribution of water column was found to be in stable structure with lower temperature and higher salinity of bottom water, and the vertical mixing of water between surface and bottom layers was restricted. In winter, however, surface water was found to be similar to bottom water in temperature and salinity, and water column was in unstable structure and in well-mixed condition between surface and bottom waters. The saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen(DO) in bottom water of inner part of Mokpo harbour at all seasons was shown to be decreased to the third grade or under the third grade of Korean standards of seawater quality. In particular, dissolved oxygen was oversaturated in surface water and undersaturated in bottom water in summer, due to stratification and organic pollution. The difference of DO concentration between surface and bottom waters was found to be greater in spring and summer than in fall and winter, due to stratification and photosynthesis of phytoplankton. The concentrations of chemical oxygen demand(COD) over the entire waters of Mokpo harbour were found to fluctuate from below the third grade to the first grade of Korean standards through all seasons and COD concentrations of same seasons were shown to be different year after year. In particular, in view of COD, the annual average seawater quality of Mokpo harbour was evaluated to be in third grade of Korean standards, due to organic pollution. The average COD of surface water was greater than that of bottom water in spring and summer, due to the autochthonous COD caused by production of phytoplankton in surface waters, while the average COD of surface water was similar to that of bottom water in fall and winter, due to the vertical mixing of water between surface and bottom layers.
Recently, a greater part of all ship use a coarse heavy fuel oil(HFO) over specific gravity(S.G) 1.00/15℃ and viscosity 3,500 cSt/40℃ as the fuel oil of marine boiler or internal combustion engine from the viewpoint of economical ship' operation. The greater plan to improve a combustion methods of heavy fuel oil, such as atomization, homogeneity and emulsification, were contrived and carried out newly, and then applied 20kHz ultrasonic homogenizer to one of test methods. Also, adopted the marine oils(fuel oil and lubricating oil etc.) and sludge oil as test solutions, and its matrix structures were examined with photographs, Especially, it is important at control system of oil pollution, for the sludge oil emulsified, to be recycled as fuel oil of boiler according to 20kHz Ultrasonic homozenizer, and then fuel saving is attained effectively by making sludge oil to be burnt.
This study aims at improving the channel of Pudo-sudo in Chinhae-Man according to the development project of the port of Masan, by investigating the design criteria of harbour facilities for the maximum sized ship. The new deep-water route was proposed and according to it the present separation scheme was adjusted appropriately. The width of the deep-water route is suggested to be 350m and would be wide enough for the 30,000 DWT container ship to go through However, the proposed channel will be tested and validated by the shiphandling simulator.
This study is concerned with developing a hybrid heuristic algorithm for solving the redundancy optimization problem which is very important in system safety, This study develops a HH(Hybrid Heuristic) method combined with two strategies to alleviate the risks of being trapped at a local optimum. One of them is to construct the populations of the initial solutions randomly. The other is the additional search with SA(Simulated Annealing) method in final step. Computational results indicate that HH performs consistently better than the KY method proposed in Kim. Therefore, the proposed HH is believed to an attractive to other heuristic methods.
The object of this study is to get the superior double hull structure to its crashworthiness against collision comparing absorbed energy capacities of its various types with each other, varying material properties, collision positions and velocities, and structural arrangements such as double hull width, web and stringer spaces, etc. Local absorbed energy capacities, failure behaviors and damage extents of their members are also considered during collision in addition to the estimations of their global ones. This paper describes a series of numerical simulations of collisions between DWT 45,000 oil tanker(struck ship) and DWT 10,500 rigid one(striking ships) using Hydrocode LS/DYNA3D. Collisions are assumed to occur at the middle of struck ship with striking one moving at right angle to its centerline. The following remarks were obtained through this study: More flexible the double hull structure is, much superior its crashworthiness against collision is. The increment of double hull width does not give much influence than other factors do. The exact use of material property such as failure strain is also important on the numerical simulation of collision.
Thanks to the fact that the 1953 Korea Armistice Agreement does not have any clear provisions on the sea demarcation line, the North Korea insists that the sea demarcation line in the Yellow Sea Area should not be the NLL designated by the Commander in Chief. UN Command, unilaterally, but the hypothetical extention of the Latitude Parallel from the end of the provincial boundary line between Whanghae-do and Kyongki-do In those unique situations at the end of the Korean War, the cease-fire line on the part of the western sea area, a logically indispensable element of the contents of an armistice agreement, however has formed and crystallized by the act of the UN Command designating the NLL. In implementing the South-North Korean Basic Relations Agreement, a fair and clear common consent on the sea demarcation line in the western sea area should be deliberated.
The Customs Act provides for a general rule all goods entering Korea shall be subject to customs duties as set in the customs tariff schedules as other fees and taxes determined except those excluded by virtue of the Customs Act or intentional agreements. Importation begins from the time carrying vessel or aircraft enters Korea territorial jurisdiction with the intention to unload the same until the time the goods are released or withdrawn from the customhouse upon payment of the appropriate duties. Imported articles may be categorized into prohibited importations, dutiable importations and conditionally free importation. Some other articles are qualifiedly prohibited, meaning they can enter the country after compliance with certain conditions. If there is any conduct violating these act, criminal sanctions may be imposed for the prevention and suppression of smuggling and other frauds, and the enforcement of tariff and customs act. As a result importers who intentionally violates Korea Customs Act may be subject to criminal prosecution. Many major provisions of customs act have imposed severe sanctions for customs crimes in comparison with other crimes due to general rule of criminal law. There is a great deal of activity in Pusan area relating to smuggling of narcotics and prohibited drugs, obscene articles and weapons. On one side, criminals who seek to profit by narcotics or drug threaten public health and human environment, On other side, weapon smuggling is a significant threat to our national security. However the studies on customs crime and customs act have not been viewed. Thus this Article overviews especially the customs crime and criminal sanction focused on domestic customs act.