Government is willing to abolish half of whole administration regulations and put emphasis to improve them. There was criticism that taper by bureaucracies' form and interest group's repulsion does not reach here upon in spite of these result. Therefore, need to ready diversified regulation adaptation administration countermeasure so that can observe because propel regulation innovation until now continuously and people, corporation, public official understand definitely contents of regulation. Contents of question regulation awareness about regulation adaptation and degree. On the basis of Question investigation about persons concerned of leisure safety law and wish to grasp observance degree, and produce synthetic Contents and field conformity degree, and draw solution plan of reformable item in leisure safety law and present development direction of leisure safety law.
Ship operators use anchor dredging for the collision avoidance or safety of ship handling in a harbour or narrow channel. This paper clarifies the technique of the anchor dredging known as a common sense for. the seafarers A mathematical model at low speed range is established for the estimation of ship motion under the assumed environment, simulate the advance speed , and turning ability under the anchor dredging or not. The results shows good agreement with the conventional seamanship and their experiences as follows. Ahead speed used the anchor dredging is slower(speed reduction ratio:40%) than the normal ahead speed and the stopping distance is shorter (distance reduction ratio:40%)than the normal ahead distance without the anchor dredging.. Turning speed used anchor dredging is slower(speed reduction ratio:72%)than the normal ahead speed and the tactical diameter is shorter(distance reduction ratio:24%)than the diameter by the normal turning without the anchor dredging.
Die vorliegende Arbeit handelt sich uber die Risikogesellschaft und das symbolische Strafrecht. Die Risikogesellschaft bedeutet die Ggesellschaft mit kunstlich erzeugten atomaren, chemischen, okologischen und gentechnischen Selbstvernichtungsmoglichkeit. Die Risikogesellschaft hat offenbar dort, wo sie die Gefahren nicht leugnen kann, Bedurfnis nach Minimierung von Unsicherheit, Dieses Be-durfnis wirkt sich einmal aus in der Neigung, das Entstehen bestimmter nicht konsentierter Gefahren schon in einem sehr fruhen Stadium der Entwicklung mit Hilfe des Strafrechts zu stoppen. Vorverlagerung der Gefahrabwehr bedeutet im Fall des Strafrechts die Vorfeldkriminalisierung. Hierfur scheint es zwei wichtige Methoden zu geben: die Formulierung weit vorgelagerter Rechsguter und die Konstruktion vorfelderfassender Deliktstypen. Aber in die modeme Risikogesellschaft handelt sich das Strafrecht mit dem Versuch der Vorfeldkriminalisierung unubersehbare Vollzugsdefizite ein. Neben Ermittlungsschwierigkeiten sind hierfur strukturelle Zurechnungsprobleme und evidente Kontra-produktivitat verantwortlich. Es scheint dennoch einen naheliegenden Ausweg zu geben. Wo das Strafrecht in seiner instrumentellen Wirkung versage, wo ein unvermeidbares Vollzugsdefizite vorliege, komme dem Strafrecht doch eine gewichtige symbolische Bedeutung zu. Aber ein Strafrecht, das sich als Mittel zur Losung von System-problemen versteht, wirkt instrumentell zu wenig, um seine Kontraproduktivitat auszugleichen. Eben darunter leidet dann aber auch seine symbolische Wirkung, die man sich zunachst noch eine Zeitlang von ihm erhoffen mag.
Reballasting at sea, as recommended by the IMO guidelines, currently provides the best-available measure to reduce the risk of transfer of harmful aquatic organisms, but is subject to serious ship-safety limits. It is therefore extremely important that alternative, effective ballast water management and treatment methods are developed as soon as possible, to replace reballasting at sea. Filtration-Ultraviolet radiation-Electrolytic process (FUE) was evaluated for disinfection of seawater used In ballast water Optimal current density and UV light intensity were 2.0A/dm2 and, 220㎼/ cm2/m with which 100% reduction time was 2sec in a Ultraviolet radiation-Electrolytic process. This study showed that FUE process was effective for the disinfection of commonly isolated bacteria and bacillus from ballast water.
Since the case of ″Ohio u. The United States, Department of the Interior″, claims for marine environment damage caused by oil pollution have been Increased in the United States. Also European countries have suggested in the Executive Committee of 10pc Fund that 10pc Fund should accept claims for marine environment and several claims for marine environment damage were made to 10pc Fund, but all of which were rejected. In this study, compensation system for marine environment damage caused by oil pollution in the United States and the 10pc Fund were comparatively analyzed and several policy recommendations were suggested.
In order to study the change of pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour after the operation of Mokpo Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (MMSTP) and to evaluate the contribution of MMSTP operation to the improvement of marine water quality of Mokpo harbour, the pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour from land in dry weather were surveyed and estimated on the bases of the seasonal flow rates and the seasonal water qualities of streams and effluents located around Mokpo harbour from summer, 1997 to spring, 1998 before the operation of MMSTP, and the pollution loads of the inflow and the effluent of MMSTP were also surveyed and estimated from winter, 1998 to spring, 1999 after the operation of MMSTP. The treatment rates of MMSTP were shown to be about 49% in COD, 76% in TSS, 79% in VSS, 3% in T-N, 7% in DIP, 29% in T-P and -32% in DIN. The change rates of pollution loads flowing into the inner harbour of Mokpo due to the operation of MMSTP were shown to be about 56% In COD, 78% in TSS, 84% in VSS, 45% in DIN, 22% in T-N, 34% in T-P and -14% in DIP. The contribution rates of MMSTP operation to the reduction of total pollution loads flowing into the entire Mokpo harbour were found to be about 3% in COD, 3% in 755,5% in VSS,1% in DIP, 3% in T-P and -1% in DIN.
Recently there have been growing disputes between neighboring local governments over jurisdictional rights or property rights of ocean resources in Korean coastal waters. The reasons for the disputes come mainly from the increasing interests by local governments that begin to see the oceans as the source of resources and wealth. The maritime dispute is more complicated and sticky than the inland ones, and requires not only socio-economical but political approach, therefore sometimes demanding a plenty of time and endeavor. Also coastal states that have suffered from maritime boundary problems have different issues under the different environment and historical background. For Korea, as the maritime boundary issue has very recently soared to the surface, though it was latent for the period as long as 20 years, we have just taken steps toward an institutional approach on it, seemingly more to go to reach an agreeable resolutions to the disputes. This paper highlighted the issues surrounding the maritime boundary on the sea surrounding Korean peninsular after addressing the current situation of the boundary disputes. It will help explore and assess the possible solutions to the boundary conflicts over the lateral boundary between local governments.
Marine biotechnology is one of the promising frontier of scientific exploration and commercial utilization for the next century. Compared with the terrestrial environment, the oceans of the world remain largely unexplored and include a major portion of bio-resources. Using the tools of biotechnology, the vast and diverse marine resources can be applied to produce new products and foods. Marine biotechnology has the characteristics of pro-environment, saying energy, and intensive knowledge. Therefore, we can take advantage of the marine biotechnology industry under our situation with the poor natural resources. The study focuses on the current status and administrative supports on marine biotechnology industry for upgrading the economic value of output. The status of our marine biotechnology industry is beginning stage in the economic aspects. Manpower and the level of most technologies are weaker than the ones of the advanced countries. More investment and recruiting skilled specialists are necessary because the improvement of marine biotechnology is depend on the technology and scientists. This study suggests the ways of administrative supports for domestic marine biotechnology: Efficient information network and supporting system for the development of marine biotechnology should be interrelated with other technical and scientific fields; The government should provide sustainable fund for the long-term research project and the infrastructure in the marine biotechnology.
The relatively rapid rising trend of crime rates in marine situations leads to social concerns in Korea. This study reviews some theoretical backgrounds of the economics of crime and applies econometric models to Korean marine crimes. This research finds that there is a negative relationship between marine crime rates and unemployment rates and a positive relationship between the price level and marine crimes in Korea. The other finding results are that unemployment elasticities are higher in the 1980s and price elasticities are higher in th 1990s in comparison with the results of the other periods. This findings are incompatible with the previous theoretical researches in advanced countries. These findings show that In rapidly growing economy, marine crime occurrence is proportional to marine economic activity frequency. This result may reflect that marine crimes are different from land crimes.
For the first Maritime Accident Inquiry System in Korea, Central Marine Accidents Inquiry Committee were founded in Seoul and District Marine Accidents Inquiry Committee in Busan city In 1963 to determine the circumstances of the accidents and causes. At the present day, it was settled as Maritime Safety Tribunal tough several revision of the Law and regulations regarding the Maritime Accident Inquiry System. In Korea, there occurred about m cases of marine accident, and as a result, about 200 people were lost human lives in average per year. In accordance with the change of circumstances such as traffic increasing and being bigger in size, being faster in speed, etc., the causes of the marine accidents become complicated year by year. Accordingly, in this moment, it is meaningful that the introduction of the Research Official who assists the Judges probing the cases fair and square. In this Paper, with the consideration of the several kinds of Research Official System, such as the Research Official of the Korean Supreme Court, the Supreme Public Prosecutors' Office and the Constitutional Court, Japanese Supreme Court, Law Clerk in USA, etc., the selection, numbers, duty of the Research Official were studied. The results of the study are as follows; 1. The Research Official to be appointed among the person having long enough career as a Judge, Investigator engaged in the Maritime Safety Tribunal due to he sho띨d have capability to confirm perfectly logical judgement and to collect enough material for the conclusion of the causes of the case. The one who understands the foreign language is preferred for the study of the foreign cases; 2. It will be logical to post 3 joint Research Officials in Korea Maritime Safety Tribunal in Seoul after due consideration the cases treated a year; 3. It will be logical for the Research Official to perform the collection of material and inspection of the scene for the trial and inquiry of the cases, to attend the cases filed suit to the Supreme Court, to make commentarial papers regarding the judged cases, to collect statistics of marine accidents and to devise a reform measure through in-depth analysis of the accidents frequently occurred, to study for the improvement of the Maritime Accident Inquiry System;
A heating cargo is solidified by several reasons during carriage. This study is to analyse a cargo accident which 811,202 US barrels of Nile Blend crude oil reamined solid In the tanks after discharge. There are some possibilities that low temperature of Beading cargo below cloud point and wax appearance temperature at loading time, heating interruption during voyage or discharging, and prohibition of crude oil washing during discharging might influence the cargo solidified. But we concluded that the defect of heating system would most affect the heating cargo solidified locally, and which blocked drain hole of bottom transverse and web frame and they obstruct flow of heating cargo in the tanks.