This study compares optimization algorithms for efficient estimations of ship's hydrodynamic coefficients. Two constrained algorithms, the interior point and the sequential quadratic programming, are compared for the estimation. Mathematical optimization is designed to get optimal hydrodynamic coefficients for modelling a ship, and benchmark data are collected from sea trials of a training ship. A calibration for environmental influence and a sensitivity analysis for efficiency are carried out prior to implementing the optimization. The optimization is composed of three steps considering correlation between coefficients and manoeuvre characteristics. Manoeuvre characteristics of simulation results for both sets of optimized coefficients are close to each other, and they are also fit to the benchmark data. However, this similarity interferes with the comparison, and it is supposed that optimization conditions, such as designed variables and constraints, are not sufficient to compare them strictly. An enhanced optimization with additional sea trial measurement data should be carried out in future studies.
Despite the accident rate for fishing vessels accounts for 70% of all maritime accidents, few studies on such accidents have been done and most of the them mainly focus on causes and mitigation policies to reduce that accident rate. Thus, this risk analysis on sea accidents is the first to be performed for the successful and efficient implementation of accident reducing measures. In risk analysis, risk is calculated based on the combination of frequency and the consequence of an accident, and is usually expressed as a single number. However, there exists uncertainty in the risk calculation process if one uses a limited number of data for analysis. Therefore, in the study we propose a probabilistic simulation method to forecast risk not as a single number, but in a range of possible risk values. For the capability of the proposed method, using the criteria with the ALARP region, we show the possible risk values spanning across the different risk regions, whereas the single risk value calculated from the existing method lies in one of the risk regions. Therefore, a decision maker could employ appropriate risk mitigation options to handle the risks lying in different regions. For this study, we used fishing vessel accident data from 1988 to 2016.
In accordance with the stipulations of the STCW Convention, simulation training has been enforced in order to develop practical skills so as to prevent accidents by predetermining the risks in special marine environments. Simulation training is a useful way to acquire navigation abilities, and can continuously measure the ability of a trainee by applying an appropriate evaluation. However, the result of training is evaluated by the instructor's subjective judgment without quantitative criteria. Therefore, this study aims to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of simulation training. For this purpose, evaluation items were derived by analyzing legal standards, earlier studies, and the current status of MET institutions. The simulations were then performed three times in the same scenarios and analyzed the results. As a result, it has been shown that the objectively analyzed ability to keep the route and to make safe passage with other vessel, as well as subjectively evaluated ability by the apprentice officer has been improved as training progressed. Through the evaluation of simulation training results, it can be derived that simulation education needs supplementation, and can be provided as a basic form of data to quantify the evaluation results of the simulation training in the future.
The collision problem is one of the design factors that must be carefully considered for the risk of collision occurring during the operation of ships and offshore structures. This paper presents the main results of the ship collision study, and its main goal is to analyze potential crash scenarios that may occur in the FLNG (Floating Liquefied Natural Gas) considering the likelihood and outcome. Consideration being given to vessels visiting the FLNG and surrounding vessels navigating around, such as functionally supported vessels and offloading carriers. The scope includes vessels visiting the FLNG facility such as in-field support vessels and off-loading carriers, as well as third party passing vessels. In this study, based on QRA (quantitative risk assessment), basic research methods and information on collision are provided. Based on the assumptions and methodologies documented in this study, it has been possible to clarify the frequency of collision and the damage category according to the type of visiting ship. Based on these results, the risk assessment results related to the collision have been derived.
This paper deals with the dynamical analysis of a vessel that leads to capsize in regular beam seas. The complete investigation of nonlinear behaviors includes sub-harmonic motion, bifurcation, and chaos under variations of control parameters. The vessel rolling motions can exhibit various undesirable nonlinear phenomena. We have employed a linear-plus-cubic type damping term (LPCD) in a nonlinear rolling equation. Using the fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm with the phase portraits, various dynamical behaviors (limit cycles, bifurcations, and chaos) are presented in beam seas. On increasing the value of control parameter Ω, chaotic behavior interspersed with intermittent periodic windows are clearly observed in the numerical simulations. The chaotic region is widely spread according to system parameter Ω in the range of 0.1 to 0.9. When the value of the control parameter is increased beyond the chaotic region, periodic solutions are dominant in the range of frequency ratio Ω=1.01~1.6. In addition, one more important feature is that different types of stable harmonic motions such as periodicity of 2T, 3T, 4T and 5T exist in the range of Ω=0.34~0.83.
To perform the Maritime Safety Audi Scheme, 10-4 was constantly applied without adjustment when evaluating the proximity of the fairway. The necessity of applying the different aberrancy probabilities from the different proximity of the fairway depending on the shape of the route and the size of the ship was validated using marine simulations. Marine simulation was performed to evaluate the validity of statistical analysis-based aberrancy probability according to the different shapes of routes and ship size presented in the previous study. As results, the validity of the criterion of the statistical analysis-based aberrancy probability was confirmed by comparing with the results of simulation-based aberrancy probabilities. The results support that the aberrancy probabilities by the types of a vessel could be different based on the type and size of vessels. The results motivate that further investigation is required to find the reasonable criteria of the aberrancy probabilities for the maritime traffic safety audit according to the fairway shape and the size of the vessel.
Sunrise and sunset times differ depending on location and date. Previous studies conveniently but monotonously applied day and night times set up. This research defined the daytime and nighttime while considering the time of twilight according to the date and the location of ship collision accidents. Classifying the frequency of ship collision accidents with this standard, we conducted a chi-squared test for the difference between daytime and nighttime. The frequencies of ship collision accidents according to daytime and nighttime was compared by season, month, and time, and all of them showed statistically significant differences. The highest number of daytime ship collisions was 11.6 %, in June, and nighttime collisions peaked at 13.7 %, in December. The most frequent hour for daytime ship collisions was 0700h-0800h, at 10.2 %, and nighttime collisions peaked between 0400h-0500h, at 16.9 %. It is clear that the criteria used in previous studies cited was applied without any theoretical basis and likely only for the convenience of the researchers. It was found that results depend on what criteria are applied to the same research data. This study shows that statistical analyses of marine accidents, traffic volume, and congestion density should be carried out quantitatively while considering daytime and nighttime hours for each particular location and date.
The proportion of collision in the total marine accidents is high. The main causes of collisions are navigation rule violation, safety speed violation, neglected watch-keeping and improper collision avoidance action. There are two main ways of avoiding collision situations during maritime navigation: the method of altering course and reducing ship’s speed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the result of the collision avoidance action of the reserve officer in case of encountering a multiple number of ships using the ship handling simulator. Full-mission ship handling simulator was used to experiment the situation scenarios that encountered multiple ships. After the experiment, the questionnaire about the experiment was investigated. A total of 50 subjects were participated in the experiment. Experimental results showed that the number of the experimenters who used the engine was 11 and the number of the experimenters who did not use the engine was 39. In the case of using the engine, there were 0 collision accident, 1 grounding accident, and 10 no accidents. However, when the engine was not used, there were 28 collision accidents, 2 grounding accidents, and 9 no accidents. The causes of these results can be found in the survey results. 74 % of the non used engine participants said they were hesitate to use the engine. As can be seen from these results, the reserve officer are hesitant to use the engine and need a way to get correct of it. Maritime course subject can emphasize the importance of using ship’s engines and case study also can be it. So, It is considered that various case study scenario will need to developed by various tools in the future.
As a fuel for ship propulsion, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is currently considered a proven and reasonable solution for meeting the IMO emission regulations, with gas engines for the LNG-fueled ship covering a broad range of power outputs. For an LNG-fueled ship, the LNG bunkering process is different from the HFO bunkering process, in the sense that the cryogenic liquid transfer generates a considerable amount of boil-off gas (BOG). This study investigated the effect of the temperature difference on boil-off gas (BOG) production during ship-to-ship (STS) LNG bunkering to the receiving tank of the LNG-fueled ship. A concept design was resumed for the cargo/fuel tanks in the LNG bunkering vessel and the receiving vessel, as well as for LNG handling systems. Subsequently, the storage tank capacities of the LNG were 4,500 m3 for the bunkering vessel and 700 m3 for the receiving vessel. Process dynamic simulations by Aspen HYSYS were performed under several bunkering scenarios, which demonstrated that the boil-off gas and resulting pressure buildup in the receiving vessel were mainly determined by the temperature difference between bunkering and the receiving tank, pressure of the receiving tank, and amount of remaining LNG.
In shipyards hull forming is performed by the line heating method using a gas torch and by cold treatment using a roll-press. However, this forming process has some issues, such as difficulties in controlling and accurately estimating the amount of the heat input, as well as a harsh working environment due to exposure to loud noises and air pollution. The induction heating method, which is introduced in this paper, exhibits good control and allows for the estimation of precise heat input. Also, workers can carry out the induction heating in a comfortable working environment. In this research, the induction heating simulation, which consists of electro-magnetic, heat transfer and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, was developed and modified through induction heating experiments. Finally, the effective heating coil was designed for the automatic hull forming system based on the results of induction heating simulation. For the purposes of a future study, if an algorithm to obtain optimal working conditions is developed, automatic systems for hull forming can then be constructed.
The objective of this paper is to optimize the cross-section of aluminum decking units used in the bass boats under operating conditions, and to verify the optimized model from the results via by ANSYS software. Aluminum decking unit is needed to endure specific loading while leisure activity and sailing. For a stiffer and more cost-neutral aluminum decking unit, optimization is often considered in the naval and marine industries. This optimization of the aluminum decking unit is performed using the ANSYS program, which is based on the topology optimization method. The generation of finite element models and stress evaluations are conducted using the ANSYS Multiphysics module, which is based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). Through such a series of studies, it was possible to determine the most suitable case for satisfying the structural strength found among the phase-optimized aluminum deck units in bass boats. From these optimization results, CASE 1 shows the best solution in comparison with the other cases for this optimization. By linking the topology optimization with the structural strength analysis, the optimal solution can be found in a relatively short amount of time, and these procedures are expected to be applicable to many fields of engineering.
The small coastal vessel registered in Korea, small coastal vessels with a gross tonnage of 10 tons or less account for 94.6 % and among them, aged vessels over 16 years age indicate 40.6 %. In order to reduce GHG emissions from small coast vessels, discussions are underway to replace aging ships' propulsion units with eco - friendly propulsion facilities, and the electric propulsion ship is emerging as one of the measures. The electric propulsion system using the DFE rectifier, which was applied in the conventional large commercial vessel, was effective in reducing the harmonics and improving the DC output voltage of the DC link stage, but it occupied a large volume and caused an increase in the overall system price. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an electric propulsion system using AFE rectifier with a small volume of system that can be applied to a small coastal vessel. In order to analyze the effectiveness of the overall system, the load profile was applied to obtain accurate and rapid speed tracking performance of the propulsion motor affected by the speed load. In addition, the power factor and total harmonic distortion factor of the voltage and current on the improved power output side are derived through simulation.