Ship reporting systems are used to exchange information between ship and shore. To realize the digital ship reporting concept, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) recently developed revised guidelines and descriptions of Maritime Service for ship reporting systems in the context of e-navigation. To improve the existing ship reporting system, each Administration should follow the IMO guidelines for ship reporting system. The purpose of this paper is to identify follow-up measures to be taken by the Korean Government as a member State according to the recently developed IMO guidelines in the context of e-navigation, and to present the considerations for the implementation of follow-up measures in Korea. In this study, a ship reporting system in Korea was investigated to identify the considerations for the digital ship reporting system. Consequently, a digital reporting system and digital traffic clearance were proposed and considerations for ship reporting system are presented. This paper is expected to be helpful for the safe operation of ships by presenting the considerations necessary for the implementation of an automated and standardized ship reporting system.
Shipping companies are key components of the logistics industry, which is extremely significant in enhancing the country's comprehensive national power and promoting global trade development. In the context of the implementation of the new development pattern strategy in China and the impact of the global novel coronavirus (COVID-19), this paper takes 22 Chinese shipping listed companies as the research object and analyses the operational efficiency of them from 2011 to 2020 based on the Super-SBM DEA Model and Window DEA Model. Factors affecting the efficiency are further analyzed with the Tobit model. The research conclude that the operational efficiency of Chinese shipping companies as a whole shows a steady increase from 2011 to 2020. Although most of them are in a relatively effective operation state, fewer are absolutely effective companies. Besides efficiency among companies differs obviously, which indicates the potential of further improvement and promotion. What’s more, factors such as current economic development level, enterprise size, human resources quality and enterprise turnover speed have significant positive correlation to the operation efficiency of Chinese shipping listed companies, which is significant to improve the operation efficiency of Chinese shipping companies.
The introduction of autonomous underwater gliders (AUGs) specifically addresses the reduction of operational costs that were previously prohibited with conventional autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) using a "scaling-down" design philosophy by utilizing the characteristics of autonomous drifters to far extend operation duration and coverage. Long-duration, wide-area missions raise the cost and complexity of in-water testing for novel approaches to autonomous mission planning. As a result, a simulator that supports the rapid design, development, and testing of autonomy solutions across a wide range using software-in-the-loop simulation at faster-than-real-time speeds becomes critical. This paper describes a faster-than-real-time AUG simulator that can support high-resolution bathymetry for a wide variety of ocean environments, including ocean currents, various sensors, and vehicle dynamics. On top of the de facto standard ROS-Gazebo framework and open-sourced underwater vehicle simulation packages, features specific to AUGs for ocean mapping are developed. For vehicle dynamics, the next-generation hybrid autonomous underwater gliders (Hybrid-AUGs) operate with both the buoyancy engine and the thrusters to improve navigation for bathymetry mappings, e.g., line trajectory, are is implemented since because it can also describe conventional AUGs without the thrusters. The simulation results are validated with experiments while operating at 120 times faster than the real-time.
In Korea, five major ports have been designated as sulfur oxide emission control areas to reduce air pollutant emissions, in accordance with Article 10 of the “Special Act on Port Air Quality” and Article 32 of the “Ship Pollution Prevention Regulations”. As regulations against vesseloriginated air pollutants (such as PM, CO2, NOx, and SOx) have been strengthened, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries(MOF) enacted rules that newly built public ships should adopt eco-friendly propulsion systems. However, particularly in diesel–electric hybrid propulsion systems,the demand for precise control schemes continues to grow as the fuel saving rate significantly varies depending on the control strategy applied. The conventional Power Take In–Power Take Off(PTI–PTO) mode control adopts a rule-based strategy, but this strategy is applied only in the low-load range and PTI mode; thus, an additional method is required to determine the optimal fuel consumption point. The proposed control method is designed to optimize fuel consumption by applying the equivalent consumption minimization strategy(ECMS) to the PTI–PTO mode by considering the characteristics of the specific fuel oil consumption(SFOC) of the engine in a diesel–electric hybrid propulsion system. To apply this method, a specific fishing vessel model operating on the Korean coast was selected to simulate the load operation environment of the ship. In this study, a 10.2% reduction was achieved in the MATLAB/SimDrive and SimElectric simulation by comparing the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the ship to which the conventional rule-based strategy was applied and that to which the ECMS was applied.