결과 내 재검색





        검색결과 119

        2023.12 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        Industrial complex areas are an important factor that contributes to economic development. However, these areas also produce a significant amount of noxious air pollutants. In particular, PM10 emitted from industrial complex areas can lead to detrimental effects on human health. This study was conducted to survey environmental conditions and measure the concentration of PM10 in indoor and outdoor living spaces in Yeosu and Gwangyang. In Yeosu, the level of PM10 concentration in indoor living spaces was measured at 49.38 μg/m3, while the outdoor level was measured at 43.60 μg/m3. In Gwangyang, the PM10 concentration in indoor living spaces was measured at 20.08 μg/m3 while the outdoor measurement came to 18.14 μg/m3. When analyzing the percentage of those who were highly concerned with environmental pollution among a survey group of 200 people, Yeosu City had a rate of 76.5%, while Gwangyang City had a comparable rate of 73%. When looking at the time-activity patterns of residents in both locations, Yeosu residents spend more than 80.0% of their time inside their living spaces, while Gwangyang residents spend more than 70.0% of time inside their living spaces. These high rates are largely due to the fact that most of the residents of these areas are elderly. In both Yeosu and Gwangyang, it was found that 40% of residents use TV and radio rather than newspapers or handouts to obtain information about environmental pollution problems in their area.
        2023.08 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        환경오염에 의한 미세먼지의 증가로 피부는 산화적 손상과 노화가 가속화된다. 본 연구에서는 선발된 한약재 추출물의 항산화, hyaluronic acid, filaggrin, MMP-1, ROS 항목을 평가함으로써 PM10으 로 부터의 각질형성세포 보호 효능을 확인하였다. 그 결과 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS), FRAP assay에서 농도의존적으로 항산화능 이 증가하는 것을 확인하였다. 각질형성세포에 PM10 300 ㎍/㎖을 단독으로 처리한 군에서는 hyaluronic acid 및 filaggrin이 50% 이상 감소하였으며, 고량강, 유백피, 토복령 추출물을 처리한 군에서는 증가하였 다. MMP-1의 경우 PM10 단독처리군에는 55% 이상 증가하였으나, 추출물을 처리한 경우 감소하여 콜라 겐, 엘라스틴의 분해를 저해하는 것으로 평가된다. 또한 제브라피쉬 배아를 이용한 ROS 측정의 경우 추출 물을 처리하였을 때 감소되는 것을 확인하였다. 특히 토복령 추출물의 25 μg/ml에서 음성대조군과 유사 한 형광의 세기를 나타내어 ROS의 생성이 유의적으로 감소한 것을 확인하였다. 본 연구를 통하여 선별된 한약재 소재인 고량강, 유백피, 토복령은 미세먼지로부터 피부를 보호하거나 개선할 수 있는 소재로서 피 부 개선을 위한 안티에이징 제품으로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.
        2023.08 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), or Pricky Pear Cactus, is effective in cough, fever, pain and anti-inflammatory action, and asthma. This study aims to investigate the effect of OFI stem extract on the respiratory system of animal models induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and fine dust (PM10) and to analyze the indicator substances of OFI stem extract. In the OFI stem 50% ethanol extract (OFI-50E) administration group, the number of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and BAL decreased to a similar level to the positive control group administered with dexamethasone. In addition, OVA-specific IgE and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) were significantly reduced. Also, the deposition of PM10 observed through staining of lung tissue was clearly reduced in the OFI-50E 200 mg/kg administration group. The anti-inflammatory mechanism in the lung was found to obstruct the production of inflammatory cytokines by impeding the NF-kB and MAPK pathways through the inhibition of IRAK-1 active cells. The main component of OFI stem 50% ethanol extract was identified to be narcissin. According to the study results, OFI is expected to be a respiratory health functional food.
        2023.06 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        PURPOSES : This study predicts the concentration of suspended road dust (PM10) by analyzing meteorological, traffic, and atmospheric environmental data acquired at various angles, and attains a comprehensive understanding of the influencing factors of suspended road dust. METHODS : Experimental field methods were applied and statistical analyses were conducted. Field experiments were conducted using a vehicle-based measurement of suspended dust (PM10) to measure its concentration at the measurement site while maintaining a constant driving vehicular speed. Statistical analysis demonstrated the effects of the concentration of suspended dust on changes in meteorological and environmental factors and lanes per traffic volume at the time of measurement. Finally, a multiple linear regression model was applied to identify the factors which affected the generation of suspended dust. RESULTS : The analysis of suspended road dust concentrations according to the lanes per traffic volume and environmental factors showed that suspended dust concentrations increased at increasing driving speeds. In addition, the background concentration at the monitoring station was higher at high-wind speeds (>3.0 m/s) than at low-wind speeds (<1.6 m/s), but the suspended dust concentrations were higher at low-wind speeds. During the temperature inversion period from evening to morning, the suspended effects of traffic and meteorological factors were greater than the background concentration at the station. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that excluding yellow-dust days, which are known to affect atmospheric pollution levels, the accuracy of the model improved and resulted in increases in background PM10, vapor pressure, sea-level pressure, visibility, after-rainfall time, and in decreases in insolation and precipitation during low-wind speed conditions. CONCLUSIONS : At low-wind speeds, 5 days after rain, and when the relative humidity was higher than 72%, suspended dust was found to be higher than atmospheric PM10 concentration and may increase at increasing driving speeds and section lane traffic volumes. However, the volume of measured data in this study is limited to determining the patterns of suspended dust, as the silt loading of the operational road or the effects of prominent variables were not considered in this study. However, we identified prominent factors related to road-suspended dust for real-time road-dust predictions.
        2022.04 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        2020년 1월 23일 이후 중국에서 신종 코로나바이러스 감염증(COVID-19)으로 인한 봉쇄 조치가 전국으로 확대 되고 있었다. 그러나, 한국에서는 2020년 2월 1-2일에 PM10 질량농도 일평균 최대 88-98 μg m−3의 고농도 연무가 발생하였다. 이 기간에 동아시아 지역은 850 hPa 기온 아노말리가 양(+), 동서류 아노말리는 음(-)으로 온난하고 정체적인 기단의 영향을 받고 있었다. 동아시아 지역의 인위적 배출량 감소에 따른 한국의 PM10 장거리 수송의 영향을 분석하기 위하여 WRF-Chem을 활용하였다. WRF-Chem에 인위적 배출량을 변화 없이 적용한 BASE와 인위적 배출량을 50%로 감소시켜 적용한 CTL의 PM10을 한국의 지상 측정값과 민감도 분석을 수행하였다. CTL에서 PM10의 IOA는 0.71로 BASE의 0.67보다 높게 나타났다. 이것은 중국의 COVID-19 봉쇄 조치로 인해 인위적 배출량이 감소한 것으로 분석된 다. 또한, 한국 이외의 지역 배출량을 0으로 설정한 BASE_ZEOK와 CTL_ZEOK를 모의하여 BASE와 CTL에서의 장 거리 수송 기여도의 변동을 분석하였다. CTL은 BASE와 비교하여 배출량이 50%로 감소하였지만 PM10 장거리 수송 기여도는 10-20% 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 동아시아 지역의 배출량 감소에 따라 풍하측 한국의 PM10 장거리 수송 기 여도 변동이 선형적으로 반응하지 않는 것은 종관 기상 변동이 영향을 주는 것으로 보인다. 2월 1-2일 한국의 고농도 PM10 연무 사례에 대한 CTL에서 PM10 에어로졸 성분의 장거리 수송 기여도는 기타 무기물이 80-90%로 가장 높았고, 질산염은 30-60%, 황산염은 0-20%, 암모늄은 30-60%를 나타내고 있었다. 중국의 봉쇄 조치로 인하여 교통 및 물류 수 송이 감소하면서 2차 에어로졸이 감소한 것으로 보인다.
        2022.04 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        본 연구에서는 중국 북동지역에서 발생하는 산불에 의한 생체연소 배출물이 장거리 수송으로 한국의 미세먼지 질량농도에 미치는 영향을 WRF-Chem 모델을 활용하여 분석하였다. 2020년 4월 4-7일에 한국은 중국 북동지역의 생체 연소 배출물과 더불어 중국 동부지역의 인위적 배출과 중국 북부와 몽골에서 발생한 황사의 영향을 함께 받고 있었다. 인위적 배출과 황사가 혼재된 대기오염 상황에서 zero-out 방법을 활용하여 생체연소 배출물을 분류하고 미세먼지 장거 리 수송 기여도를 분석하였다. 또한, 광역적인 생체연소 배출물의 분포에 따라 한반도 주변의 육지와 해양에 대한 복사 에너지 수지를 분석하였다. 2020년 4월 5-6일에는 한국의 하루평균 미세먼지 질량농도에 대한 생체연소 배출물의 장거리 수송 기여도가 60%로 산출되었다. 더불어 한반도 주변에 광역적으로 분포하는 생체연소 배출물의 영향으로 육지와 해양의 순 복사 플럭스는 음의 값을 나타내었다. 그러나 2020년 4월 7-8일에는 중국 동부지역에서 발생한 인위적 오염 물질이 생체연소 배출물에 더해지면서 한국의 미세먼지 질량농도는 4월 5-6일보다 증가하였으나 생체연소 배출물의 기 여도는 45% 이하로 감소하였다. 또한, 생체연소 배출물의 영향이 줄어들면서 순 복사 플럭스는 양의 값을 나타내었다.
        2022.03 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        In this study, we investigated the Indoor and Outdoor concentrations of PM10 in Y area, Jeollanam-do. We conducted personal exposure concentration estimates, and Exposure and Risk Assessments using the Time-weighted Average Model. The concentration of Indoor PM10 was 49.38 μg/m3 and that of Outdoor PM10 was 48.02 μg/m3, with the Indoor/ Outdoor Ratio value being 1 or more, and it was found that there was an indoor source of pollution. The Indoor/Outdoor Cr ratio value was 1 or more, and the source of Cr was confirmed to be indoor. Based on our analysis, there was a positive correlation between heavy metals Ni, Cr, and Mn (p<0.05). Using the Time-Weighted Average model, we determined the PM10 personal exposure concentration to be 49.36 μg/m3 and confirmed the feasibility of this model in utilizing the PM10 personal exposure concentrations. In this study, the findings are likely to provide useful data that can be used to determine the concentration of indoor pollutants that are not easy to survey. However, to accurately evaluate indoor air quality, more factors need to be considered and evaluated.
        2022.02 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        최근 동아시아 지역에서 인위적 배출량의 감소에도 불구하고, 봄철에 한국에서는 잦은 연무 사례가 발생하고 있 다. 북동 태평양에서 자주 발생하는 대기 블로킹은 지구 규모 대기 변동과 동아시아 지역의 서풍 기류를 정체시키기도 한다. 2019년 3월 동아시아 지역의 온난하고 정체적인 종관 기상 특성이 알래스카 대기 블로킹이 발생한 6-7일 후에 일어나고 있었다. 특히, 2019년 3월 18-24일에 발생한 알래스카 대기 블로킹은 3월 25-28일 동안 한국에서 일평균 미 세먼지(particulate matter; PM10) 질량농도가 50 μg m−3을 넘는 고농도 PM10 연무 사례가 발생하는 데 영향을 미치고 있 었다. 한편, WRF-Chem 모델을 활용하여 한국의 고농도 PM10 연무 사례에 대한 인위적 배출의 장거리 수송 기여도는 30-40%를 나타내고 있었다. PM10 에어로졸 구성 성분인 황산염, 질산염, 암모늄, 블랙 카본, 유기 탄소, 기타 무기물의 장거리 수송 기여도는 각각 10-15, 20-25, 5-10, 5-10, 5-10, 15-20%를 나타내었다. 질소 산화물이 온난하고 정체적인 대기에서 암모늄과의 광화학 반응으로 형성된 질산암모늄은 한국의 고농도 PM10 연무 사례에 대한 장거리 수송 기여도 가 PM10 에어로졸 중 가장 큰 비중을 나타내고 있었다.
        2021.09 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        Subway trains with air cleaners have been newly deployed in the Seoul Metro system. The purpose of this study was to determine differences regarding in-cabin particulate matter with respect to concentrations less than 10 um (PM10) and 2.5 um (PM2.5) through the operation of air cleaners in subway trains. One subway train newly installed with in-cabin air cleaners on Seoul Metro Line number 2 was chosen monitoring in 2020. In-cabin air cleaners were turned-on at both front and back areas while those in the middle area were turned-off while the train was running. In-cabin PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured in each area using a real-time aerosol monitor. Average in-cabin PM10 concentrations were statistically significantly lower (by 15%) in areas with air cleaners turned-on (43.8±12.1 μg/m3) compared to those areas where the air cleaners were turned-off (51.4±15.0 μg/m3). Average incabin PM2.5 concentrations were significantly lower (by 14%) in areas with air cleaners turned on (33.7±12.2 μg/m3) compared to those areas where air cleaners were turned-off (39.2± 14.4 μg/m3). In-cabin PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations ratios were similar regardless of area with air cleaners turned-on or turned-off. The in-cabin PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were not associated with commute time. Use of air cleaners in subway trains effected reductions in in-cabin PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations.
        2021.06 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        2020년 중국의 COVID-19 폐쇄는 한국의 풍상측에 위치한 중국의 대기오염 배출량을 감소시켰다. 몽골 북부로 부터 중국 동부를 거쳐 한반도에 이르는 지역에서는 2020년 1~2월에 기온 아노말리가 양(+)으로 온난하였고, 2020년 1월에는 동서류 아노말리가 음(−)으로 정체적인 특징을 보였다. 2019년 12월~2020년 3월에 한국 중부 서쪽의 석모리와 파도리에서 중국 배출량 감소의 영향에 따라 PM10, NO2, O3 농도 변동이 나타났다. 파도리에서 PM10, O3 월평균 농도와 최근 4년의 월평균 농도의 비는 2019년 12월과 비교하여 중국의 COVID-19 폐쇄 이후인 2020년 1~3월에 각각 0.7~4.7%, 9.2~22.8%로 감소하였다. 2020년 1월 중국의 춘절 기간에는 석모리와 파도리에서 PM10, NO2, O3 농도가 최근 4년의 춘절 기간과 마찬가지로 감소하였다. 그러나 2020년 1월 평균 농도가 최근 4년 1월과 비교하여 감소한 것은 중국 춘절 전후의 기간에도 배출량이 감소하였던 것과 관련 있다. 2020년 1~3월 석모리의 PM10, NO2, O3 농도의 비 ( /M)는 각각 70.8~89.7%, 70.5~87.1%, 72.5~97.1%이었고, 파도리에서도 각각 79.6~93.5%, 67.7~84.9%, 83.7~94.6% 로 추정 월평균(M)보다 월평균(Os)이 감소하였다. 2020년 1월에 몽골 북부로부터 중국 동부와 한반도에 이르는 지역의 온난화로 인한 광화학 반응으로 최근 4년과 비교하여 AOD가 높게 나타났으나 2020년 3월에는 풍상측인 중국에서 2차 에어로졸을 생성하는 전구물질 배출 감소로 최근 4년과 비교하여 낮은 AOD 분포를 보였던 것으로 분석되었다.
        2021.03 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        This study obtained the following conclusions using the measurement results of indoor and outdoor PM10 with regard to cardiovascular disease patients in Cheongju-area in November 2020. Most of the PM10 has an I/O ratio of less than 1, which is an outdoor source. Since we measured once and twice time, Without the air purifier device’s working status, there were no concentration changes of PM10 in the first and second indoor areas. As for the concentration of PM10 according to the living environment, the distribution of PM10 is higher indoors than outdoors when the residential area is 30 m2 or more, and the outdoor PM10 concentration tends to be high when the distance to the road is within 50 m. The more time spent indoors, the higher the indoor PM10 concentration. The smaller the ventilation time and frequency, the longer the cooking time was, and the higher the number of cooking times, the higher the concentration of PM10 could be. The indoor PM10 contribution ratio through multiple regression analysis showed the possibility of increasing indoor PM10 as β = 28.590 when the time spent indoors was longer than 16 hours (p<0.05). The result regarding PM10 exposure reveals that PM10 can be inhaled not only indoors but also outdoors, and the subjects of this study appear to have lived indoors for about 16 hours or longer on a daily basis, which may affect their health regardless of gender.
        2020.12 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        This study investigated 180 students’ indoor environmental awareness of rest spaces and measured the indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO in 8 rest spaces from October 2019. 89.4% of the students responded that they use rest spaces at least once a day and most of the respondents are using rest spaces in the university. The largest number of students responded to the tight space as the main cause of air pollution in rest spaces. 62.1% of the students answered they experienced health symptoms from using rest spaces. Among them, 32.5% said they experienced irritation symptoms of eyes, neck, nose, and 12.1% answered that they experienced headaches. Indoor PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO levels did not exceed indoor air quality recommendations nor the maintenance standard for multi-use facilities. Indoor PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO levels did not exceed indoor air quality recommendations nor the maintenance standard for multi-use facilities. According to the type of rest space, concentrations of PM10, TVOCs, and HCHO were higher among the closed-type than open-type rest space. Even if the concentration of pollutants is less than the environmental standard, continuous exposure may cause negative health effects. In addition, considering that 62.1% of the respondents experienced health symptoms, it is deemed necessary to take measures to manage indoor environments in rest spaces and to develop measures to reduce pollutants.
        2020.10 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        본 연구에서는 K-means 군집 분석을 통하여 최근 5년간(2014-2018) 한반도 남동 지역의 고농도 미세먼지 발생에 영향을 미치는 주요 종관 기상 패턴을 분류하였다. 또한 고농도 미세먼지 사례일의 발생과 관련된 지역적 차이를 살펴보기 위하여 NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction)/FNL (Final Operational Global Analysis) 재해석 기상자료를 이용하여 부산, 울산, 경남 지역의 미세먼지 발생 특성과 관련된 종관 규모 기상의 특성에 대한 비교 연구도 수행하였다. 한반도 남동 지역의 고농도 미세먼지 사례일과 관련된 종관 기상 패턴은 총 5개(C1-C5)로 분류된다. 각 군집의 발생빈도는 24.8% (C1), 21.3% (C2), 20.4% (C3), 17.3% (C4), 16.2% (C5)이다. 기상 패턴 분석을 통하여 제시된 남동 지역의 고농도 미세먼지를 유발하는 요인에는 지역 외부에서 장·단거리 수송(C1, C3, C5)에 의한 영향과 지역내 배출(C2, C4)에 의한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 또한 고농도 미세먼지 발생일에 대해 부산, 울산, 경남 세 지역의 기상장을 분석하였을 때, 500 hPa 지위 고도 및 풍속 등의 기상학적 특성이 지역별로 다르게 나타났다. 그리고 고기압 의 작은 위치 변화가 각 지역의 미세먼지 발원과 장거리 이동 경향성에 영향을 미치고 있었다.
        2020.09 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        Since 1974, the urban subway has been used as a major form of public transportation in Seoul, Korea. The air quality in the subway environment depends on the introduction of air pollutants from roadway air and its generation is caused by subway operation in the tunnel. In the subway tunnel, PM10 concentration was monitored from March 8 to 15, 2018 and from March 26 to 28, 2018, and compared with concentrations that are routinely monitored at the subway concourse and the nearest roadside air quality monitoring station (RAQMS). Overall PM10 concentration at the concourse was similar to that of the RAQMS. However, PM10 concentration in the tunnel was significantly higher than those of the subway concourse and RAQMS, and showed distinct diurnal variation caused by train operation. The dominant peak concentrations were highly correlated with the number of train operations per hour. The minimum PM10 concentration was observed between 2 am to 5 am when the train was not operated. This was similar to that of the RAQMS. Although the diurnal variation of the PM10 concentration at the concourse is not significant, the overall trend is similar to that in the tunnel.
        2020.03 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        This study was conducted as a part of the research for the “Development of Big Data Analysis Techniques and AI-based Integrated Support System for Energy-Environment Management.” We collected research results on characterization of distribution of fine dust and re-analyzed using meta-analysis techniques to build “big data” with high potential for school environments. The results of prior studies on the characteristics of fine dust concentration distribution in a school environment conducted in Korea were collected and re-analyzed the results using the metaanalysis technique. In this manner, the variables that could be used to derive the independent variables needed to produce the e-coding book prior to the big data collection, were first derived. The possibility of using the data as independent variables was then evaluated. In this study, three variables: “elementary school vs. middle school vs. high school,” “general classroom vs. special classroom,” and “new classroom vs. old classroom” were evaluated for their application as major classification variables with priority. The necessity of being derived as a major classification variable was examined by testing the difference in fine dust concentration distribution in the school environment by each variable case. Results showed that “elementary school vs. middle school vs high school” and “general classroom vs. special classroom” could be used as independent variables, while “new classroom vs. old classroom” was less likely to be used as an independent variable.
        2019.12 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        The goal of this study was to measure the indoor and outdoor fine and ultrafine particulate matter concentrations (PM10, PM1.0) of some houses in Yeosu and in S university in Asan from March to September 2018. PM10 concentration in indoor air in Yeosu area was 18.25 μg/m3, while for outdoor air it was 14.53 μg/m3. PM1.0 concentration in indoor air in the Asan area was 1.70 μg/m3, while for outdoor air it was 1.76 μg/m3, showing a similar trend. Heavy metal concentrations in the Yeosu region were the highest, at Mn 2.81 μg/m3, Cr 1.30 μg/ m3, and Ni 1.11 μg/m3 indoors. Outside, similar concentrations were found, at Cr 3.44 μg/m3, Mn, 2.60 μg/m3, and Ni 1.71 μg/m3. Our analysis of indoor and outdoor PM concentrations in the Asan region, which was carried out using the MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) technique, found that PM concentration is related to each particle size concentration, as the concentration of 18 μm and 18-10 μm inside tends to increase by 3.2- 1.8 μm and 0.56-0.32 μm.
        2019.10 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        This study examines the controlling role of synoptic disturbances on PM10 spring variability in the Korean Peninsula by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and back trajectory analyses. Three leading EOF modes are identified, and a lead-lag analysis suggests that PM10 variabilities be closely related to the synoptic weather systems. The first EOF shows the spatially homogeneous distribution of PM10, which is influenced by travelling anticyclonic disturbance with negative precipitation and descending motion. The second and third modes exhibit the dipole structures of PM10, being associated with propagating cyclones. Furthermore, the back-trajectory analysis suggests that the transport of pollutants by anomalous winds associated with synoptic disturbances also contribute to the altered PM10 concentration. Hence, a substantial synoptic control should be considered in order to fully understand the PM10 spatiotemporal variability.
        2019.03 KCI 등재 구독 인증기관 무료, 개인회원 유료
        To reduce subway passengers’ exposure to PM 10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers), management of PM 10 concentration in underground stations is critical. In this study, we attempted to investigate the distribution of airflow PM 10 concentration in an underground station. The numerical simulations were performed using computational fluid dynamics. In order to apply to CFD, measurement of air volume (supplied and exhausted air) and PM 10 concentration were conducted at the concourse and platform areas of the underground station. The results of the simulation agreed with the actual PM 10 concentration, and we confirmed the distribution of PM 10 concentration depending on air volume conditions. This result will be helpful to reduce the PM 10 in an underground station when using ventilation system.
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