In this study, the proximate composition of Pyropia dentata was compared by the analysis of minerals and amino acids that were produced at Seocheon, Chungcheongnam-do and at Wando and Jangheung, Jeollanam-do. Moisture, ash and crude proteins were analyzed using the AOAC method, and crude lipid was analyzed using the Soxhlet method, and inorganic analysis was performed using ICP-OES. Amino acid was used for the amino acid analyzer. The proximate composition analysis, moisture content, maximum values were displayed in Wando while the maximum content of ash appeared at Jangheung's Pyropia. Crude proteins was appeared at Seocheon's Pyropia and the maximum amount of crude lipid, carbohydrate was appeared in Wando's Pyropia. Inorganic analysis, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc were analyzed from the Seocheon's Pyropia, however, cobalt, chromium, and nickel was not detected in Wando's Pyropia. For amino acid analysis, a total of 17 amino acids were detected: leucine, valine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and the amount of alanine accounted for about 57 % of total amino acids(26.1-28.7 %). The proximate composition, minerals, and amino acid of Pyropia dentata were different depending on the coastal ecological habitats.
To examine the relationship between competition and environmental factors, the germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis and Fucus vesiculosus L. were cultured in monocultures and mixtures of the two species under two different exposure and nutrient levels. Both intra- and inter-specific competition were examined in comparison of the mortality and growth of germlings in monocultures and mixtures of the two species. The mortality of germlings increased with increasing density and emergence periods both in the monoculture and mixtures of the two species, and the mortality of Ascophyllum was significantly higher than that of Fucus both in submerged and emerged treatments. The growth of germlings of both species reduced with increasing density but F. vesiculosus always grew faster than Ascophyllum. The values of log output ratio were more than 0.1, indicating that Fucus 'won' in the competitive battles with Ascophyllum under two nutrient- and air-exposure levels. Log output ratio was greater in high than in low nutrients, indicating that the growth of Fucus is more enhanced than that of Ascophyllum in high nutrients. In the present study, the outcome of inter specific competition between germlings of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum was slightly altered by duration of emergence and nutrient concentration, but not to such an extent as to change the outcome.
We created species richness maps of mammals, birds and plants using "Nnational Ecosystem Survey" data and identified correlations between species richness maps of each taxa. We examine the distribution of species richness of each taxa and calculated conservation priority rank through plotting species-area curves using an additive benefit function in Zonation. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, plant showed high species richness in Gangwon province and Baekdudaegan, and mammals showed high species richness at eastern slope of Baekdudaegan in Gangwon province unusually and the species richness of mammals distributed equally except Gyeonggi and Chungnam province. However, birds showed high species richness in the west costal because the area is the major route of winter migratory birds. Second, correlation of each taxa’s distribution is not significant. Correlation between mammals and birds is positive but correlations between birds and others are negative. Because mammals inhabit in forest but birds mostly live in coastal wetlands and rivers. Therefore, bird’s habitats are not shared with other habitats. Third, the probability of mammals occurrence is very low under 25% in species-area curve, others increase proportionally to area. Birds increase dramatically richness at 10% because bird's habitat is concentrated in coastal wetlands and rivers. Plants increased gently species richness due to large forest in Gangwon province. We can calculate the predicted number of species in curves and plan various conservation strategies using the marginal number of species. Finally, high priority ranks for conservation distributed mainly in Gangwon province and Baekdudaegan. When we compared with priority map and terrestrial national parks, the parks were evaluated as high priority ranks. However, the rank of parks away from Baekdudaegan was low. This study has the meaning of selecting conservation priority area using National Ecosystem Survey. In spite of the omission of survey data in national parks and Baekdudaegan, the results were good. Therefore, the priority rank method using species distribution models is useful to selecting protected areas and improving conservation plans. However, it is needed to select protected areas considering various evaluation factors, such as rarity, connectivity, representativeness, focal species and so on because there is a limit to select protected area only using species richness.
This study examined the habitat status of wild birds at closed-trails and the control group of opened-trails in the national park of the Baekdudaegan mountains. After evaluating each area based on this, it's aimed at being utilized as basic data for future national park management and opening of trails. Upon field investigations and analyzing existing literary materials, it was found that there were a total of 76 bird species living around the trails. Among them, it was confirmed that 60 species can breeding and 10 species are protected by law. Upon assessing the scores of each area according to the evaluation standards of this study, Area I had 7 scores, area II had 13 scores, area III had 5 scores, and area IV had 16 scores, showing that the control group open-trail area IV between Jeongryeongchi and Seongsamjae had the highest score, and that area III of Wolyeongdae~Chotdaebong~Daeyasan~Miljae~Wolyeongdae had the lowest score. Evaluation of closed-trail according to wild bird species (Avifauna) was attempted in this study, but there were more bird species living in open-trails, while also having higher evaluation scores. Therefore, if opening trail is needed in the future due to excessive desires of visitors or inevitable social demands, it is judged that various environmental factors including mammals highly affected by people should be evaluated to open up the sector with the lowest score. Also, it is judged that through methods such as reservation systems, the number of visitors should be controlled or night-time hikes should be prohibited so that nocturnal wildlife can freely use the trails.
Water chemistry and fish community, based on fish compositions and ecological characteristics(trophic/tolerance guilds and condition factor), were compared in Gucheon Reservoir(GcR) and Yeoncho Reservoir(YcR). Chemical parameters of water quality such as BOD, COD, nutrient(N, P) and suspended solids indicated that water quality was better in the YcR than GcR, and the temporal variability in seasonal and interannual patterns were greater in the YcR. The greater variability was mainly attributed to intense dilutions of reservoir water by Asian monsoon rain during July–August. Fish guild analysis indicated that species diversity was higher in the GcR than the YcR, and that the proportion of tolerant and omnivore species were greater in the YcR. Regression analysis of body weight-total length showed that the regression coefficient(b value) was lower in the GcR(2.15 ~ 2.40) than the YcR(2.59 ~ 3.14). Condition factor(K) of fish against the total length showed negative slope of Zacco temminckii, Carassius auratus, Pseudorasbora parva and Rhinogobius brunneus population in the GcR, and a positive slope of Carassius auratus and Rhinogobius brunneus population in YcR. Overall, our data suggest that the growth of the fish populations, based on the length-weight relations and condition factor, reflected the trophic regime of nutrients and organic matter.
The purpose of this study is to investigate a vegetation structure around Tongdosa temple forest and provincial park and to provide preliminary data. In order to look over the vegetation status, an actual vegetation map was drawn around study area. Vegetation structure survey was carried out for 6 representative communities of actual vegetation which were Quercus variavilis community, Carpinus tschonoskii community, Pinus densiflora community, P. densiflora-Broadleaf deciduous Forest community, Q. mongolica community and Broadleaf deciduous Forest community. The area of the Tongdosa district measured 29,202,262 ㎡. Actual vegetation type were divided into 35 types, and the ratio of Q. variavilis community was 32.35 % (9,447,932 ㎡). To investigate the structure of 6 representative communities, 58 plots were set up and unit area plots measured 100 ㎡. The estimated age of the forest is 50~100-years-old and the oldest tree P. densiflora is 113-years-old.
In order to get basic data for flood plain restoration, we surveyed the woody vegetation in Korean natural rivers and analyzed the species' characteristics with regards to patterns of richness and diversity. These characteristics were higher in hard wood forests than those in soft wood forests, such as Salix spp. community. Futhermore, they were the highest in the Prunus sargentii-Pinus densiflora community(H' 1.095), and the lowest in the Carpinus laxiflora community(H' 0.118) among the hard wood forests. Species' richness diversity were the highest in the Salix gracilistyla community, but the lowest in the S. koriyangi community or S. koreensis community among the soft wood forests. With regards to the dominant index, just one community is over 0.9, 13 communities are between 0.3-0.7 and 15 communities are less than 0.3. The Salix koreensis community was the highest at 0.931, and Prunus sargentii-Pinus densiflora community was the lowest at 0.13. Species' richness and diversity was significantly correlated with tree layer coverages and degree of slope. These results mean that in order to increase plant species diversity in flood plains planted hard woody trees, such as oaks and fir, are needed to suit environmental conditions with steeper slope and lower canopy coverage.
Studies on Trapa of Korean, Japanese, and Chinese origins have been generally limited to currently living Trapa, thereby demonstrating the lack of phylogenetic approaches. In the present study, we conducted a numerical taxonomic study on 34 Korean origin Trapa species newly discovered in peat deposits. By using the numerical taxonomy as well as geological data, we created an appearance map based on the periods and taxonomic groups of the Korean Trapa. Further, by using this appearance map, we reviewed the limitations that exist in the taxa and simultaneously discussed the adaptational environment of Trapa in each period. Although other studies have discussed new variants of Trapa worldwide, including T. litwinowii V. vassil. var. chihuensis S.F.Guan & Q.Lang of China (Guan and Lang, 1987), the present study is significant because it provides data on the origin of Korean Trapa species. The availability of such data is essential in determining the adaptational environment of the presently living Trapa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of approximately 10 newly discovered and other presently living species of Trapa. Further, the appearance map in the present study allows the use of the 10 newly discovered species and variants of 34 Trapa species indigenous to South Korea for over 1000 years, for a comparison with the currently living Trapa species. Thus, the present study results could serve as important basic data to understand the adaptational environment of the genus Trapa. from the past to the present in Korea.
This study was carried out in the peatland for estimating the paleoenvironment based on the analysis from its fossils plant and radiocarbon at the Hwayang-ri, Hyeondeok-myeon, Pyeongtaek-city, South Korea. Variety of fossil was collected from the peatland which could discriminated with naked eye and sorted into seeds, leaves, stems from four-stage of standard sieve. During analysis for the large plant fossil within the peatland, the dead plants were largely divided into 3 fossil zones according to its peatland. In the fossil zone Ⅲ(the oldest layer; 6,970~6,070 yr C14 B.P.), the observation of leaves of hydrophyte such as Trapa sp. and stems of Alnus japonica which appeared in wetland means that the environment was influenced by the climate changes such as rainfall increasing and sea level rise. In the fossil zone Ⅱ(the middle layer; 6,070~5,800 yr C14 B.P.), the occurrence of Gramineae, Cyperaceae and Fagaceae indicate that the environmental condition might be more or less dry by decreasing rainfall and drop in sea level. The fossil zone Ⅰ(the recent layer; 5,800~4,540 yr C14 B.P.) where lots of herbaceous plants, increasing of Fagaceae, decreasing of A. japonica. and distribution of Pinaceae were showed, was inferred to be repeated both dry and wet environment due to human disturbance.
An investigation was conducted on the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus etunicatum on the formation of soil aggregate and mycorhizal development in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings in coal mine tailings and forest soil. G. etunicatum formed mycorrhizas by 35.1 % in coal mine tailings and by 48.9 % in forest soil. Its infection was the typical Arum-type forming inter-cellular hyphae and intra-cellular arbuscules. Ergosterol contents were 3.20 ppm in forest soil and 1.92 ppm in coal mine tailings. The formation of soil aggregate per 50 g pot soil was 19.6 g and 9.5 g in inoculated and noninoculated forest soil and 16.5 g and 11.0 g in inoculated and non-inoculated coal min tailings, respectively. In conclusion, G. etunicatum inoculation increased the formation of soil aggregate both in forest soil and coal mine tailings, but was less effective in the latter.