This study was conducted to select representative agricultural products (4 types of fruits and 4 types of wild vegetables) in Chungju, define their sensual characteristics, derive suitable flavour-pairing and recipes for each ingredient, and use them as a cornerstone in the development of menus. For the experiment, 10 experts were selected to choose 8 representative agricultural products in Chungju, and 18 menus were selected through a flavour-pairing survey. A consumer panel (a total of 413 people, 105 in their 20s, 103 in their 30s, 103 in their 40s, and 102 in their 50s) for evaluating the characteristics of consumer preferences was selected. After the flavour-pairing survey ‘sweet taste’, ‘light flavour’, ‘soft flavour’, ‘savoury flavour’, ‘familiar flavour’, ‘harmonious flavour’, ‘softness’, and ‘harmoniousness with food ingredients’ were determined as drivers of liking, on the other hand, ‘disturbance with food ingredients’ and ‘soybean fishy smell’ were determined as drivers of disliking. The degree of consumer preference and overall acceptance were found to be related to the consumers' familiarity, suggesting that if a menu should be developed using unfamiliar local agricultural products, it should be configured with familiar recipes and seasoning methods.
In this study, non-destructive technologies that can be applied to evaluate the integrity of valve materials, safety against internal pressure caused by corrosion, and the blocking function of large-diameter water valves during operation without requiring specimen collection or manpower entering the inside of the valve were tested to assess the reliability of the technologies and their suitability for field application. The results showed that the condition of the graphite structure inside the valve body can be evaluated directly through the optical microscope in the field without specimen collection for large-diameter water butterfly valves, and the depth of corrosion inside the valve body can be determined by array ultrasound and the tensile strength can be measured by instrumented indentation test. The reliability of each of these non-destructive techniques is high, and they can be widely used to evaluate the condition of steel or cast iron pipes that are significantly smaller in thickness than valves. Evaluation of blocking function of the valves with mixed gas showed that it can be detected even when a very low flow rate of mixed gas passes through the disk along with the water flow. Finally, as a result of evaluating the field applicability of non-destructive technologies for three old butterfly valves installed in the US industrial water pipeline, it was found that it is possible to check the material and determine the suitability of large-diameter water valves without taking samples, and to determine the corrosion state and mechanical strength. In addition, it was possible to evaluate safety through the measurement results, and it is judged that the evaluation of the blocking function using mixed gas will help strengthen preventive response in the event of an accident.
In this study, the physical properties and fracture characteristics according to the tensile load are evaluated on the materials of the polymeric filler and carbon fiber-based composite sleeve technique. The polymeric filler and the composite sleeve technique are applied to areas where the pipe body thickness is reduced due to corrosion in large-diameter water pipes. First, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler was 161.48~240.43 kgf/cm2, and the tensile strength of the polyurea polymeric filler was relatively higher than that of the epoxy. However, the tensile strength of the polymeric filler is relatively very low compared to ductile cast iron pipes(4,300 kgf/cm2<) or steel pipes(4,100 kgf/cm2). Second, the tensile strength of glass fiber, which is mainly used in composite sleeves, is 3,887.0 kgf/cm2, and that of carbon fiber is up to 5,922.5 kgf/cm2. The tensile strengths of glass and carbon fiber are higher than ductile cast iron pipe or steel pipe. Third, when reinforcing the hemispherical simulated corrosion shape of the ductile cast iron pipe and the steel pipe with a polymeric filler, there was an effect of increasing the ultimate tensile load by 1.04 to 1.06 times, but the ultimate load was 37.7 to 53.7% compared to the ductile cast iron or steel specimen without corrosion damage. It was found that the effect on the reinforcement of the corrosion damaged part was insignificant. Fourth, the composite sleeve using carbon fiber showed an ultimate load of 1.10(0.61T, 1,821.0 kgf) and 1.02(0.60T, 2,290.7 kgf) times higher than the ductile cast iron pipe(1,657.83 kgf) and steel pipe(2,236.8 kgf), respectively. When using a composite sleeve such as fiber, the corrosion damage part of large-diameter water pipes can be reinforced with same level as the original pipe, and the supply stability can be secured through accident prevention.
Purpose: This study aimed to explore advanced response policies and psychological and emotional support measures for early infected people in the event of an infectious disease by analyzing the experiences of self-employed women who experienced confirmation in the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic.
Methods: Data were collected through in-depth interviews with six experiences of self-employed women confirmed with COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic selected through the intentional sampling process, and then analyzed and interpreted through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).
Results: Through analyzing the meaningful statement of the study participants, several themes were identified, including “The pressure of dying from an incurable illness”, “The fear of quarantine and the fear of death”, “The difficulty of being a self-employed woman”, “The pain of social stigma”, “The driving force of one’s overcoming”, and “Expansion of perspective due to new experiences”.
Conclusion: The study found that participants experienced anxiety and fear during the transfer process and admission to the facility after confirmation, due to the lack of guidance and face-to-face interactions. The non-face-to-face treatment increased their anxiety, as they could not receive accurate information about their health conditions and care. This highlights the impact of inaccurate information regarding COVID-19 and media reports focusing on severely ill patients and deaths. In addition, the study participants experienced social stigma caused by COVID-19, resulting in changes in their interpersonal relationships and life attitudes. Implications are suggested based on the results of this study.
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in serving frequency of elementary school meal before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Number of menus provided in June and July of 2019 and 2020 were compared for 300 elementary schools in Korea. As a result, the serving frequency of la carte and dessert was increased after COVID-19. In addition, frequencies of main dishes such as pork cutlet, chicken, sweet and sour pork, hamburger steak, and so on using processed food were increased after COVID-19. Because of the longer serving time due to staggered serving, cook's working time for serving meals became longer. Therefore, it was judged that the number of servings of processed food was increased rather than the menu with a large amount of preprocessing work. Moreover, among desserts, fruits showed increased serving frequency. Serving frequencies for juice and dairy products were also increased. However, increased servings of juice and dairy products could increase sugar intake. Thus, a careful plan for menu composition is needed to provide balanced nutrients to students under emergency situations such as an infectious disease.
A beverage was developed using the Abeliophyllum distichum leaf (AL). The beverage was prepared by adding it to apple juice by concentration, and physicochemical quality, antioxidant activities, and sensory evaluation were measured. Soluble solid and reducing sugar content of the control were 12.57 °Brix and 11.40%, respectively, and there was no difference from the group with addition of the AL extract. However, pH was slightly increased upon addition of AL extract. Lightness and yellowness increased when AL extract was added. Verbascoside content was not detected in the control, but it increased as the concentration of AL extract increased. The contents of ascorbic acid and flavonoids were 5.38 and 20.42 mg%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the groups. However, the content of polyphenols increased as the concentration of the AL extract increased. DPPH radical and metal ion scavenging activity were increased by addition of the AL extract, but there was no difference in the ABTS radical scavenging activity. As a result of the sensory evaluation, there was no difference from the control even wihen the AL extract was added; thus, it was considered that there was no problem with the degree of acceptability when added within about 300 ppm.
식용 옥수수 수확기는 수확 시 옥수수 이삭의 손상율을 결정하는 탈과 시스템이 중요하다. 탈과 시스템을 개발하기 위해서는 탈과 시스템의 손상율에 영향을 미치는 주요 설계 변수를 구명해야 하고, 설계 변수의 영향 분석에는 시뮬레이션 기법이 많이 사용되고 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 탈과 시스템의 시뮬레이션 해석에 사용할 옥수수 줄기에 대한 이산요소 모델을 개발하는 것이다. 식용 옥수수의 특성을 고려하기 위하여 옥수수 줄기의 물리적 특성을 분석하였으며, 만능재료시험기를 이용한 압축 시험과 3점 굽힘 시험을 통하여 역학적 특성을 확인하였다. 또한, 옥수수 줄기의 이산요소 모델은 접촉 모델과 결합 모델로 구현하였고, 매개변수 연구를 통해 이산요소 모델의 주요 파라미터를 도출하였으며, 시험 결과와 비교하여 개발된 이산요소 모델을 검증하였다. 본 연구로부터 개발된 옥수수 줄기 모델은 탈과 시스템의 시뮬레이션에 활용된다.
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of enzymatically modified stevia (EMS) on C2C12 cell-based model of dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy to provide baseline data for utilizing EMS in functional health products. C2C12 cells with DEX-induced muscle atrophy were treated with EMS (10, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 24 h. C2C12 cells were treated with EMS and DEX to test their effects on cell viability and myotube formation (myotube diameter and fusion index), and analyze the expression of muscle strengthening or degrading protein markers. Schisandra chinensis Extract, a common functional ingredient, was used as a positive control. EMS did not show any cytotoxic effect at all treatment concentrations. Moreover, it exerted protective effects on C2C12 cell-based model of DEX-induced muscle atrophy at all concentrations. In addition, the positive effect of EMS on myotube formation was confirmed based on the measurement and comparison of the fusion index and myotube diameter when compared with myotubes treated with DEX alone. EMS treatment reduced the expression of muscle cell degradation-related proteins Fbx32 and MuRF1, and increased the expression of muscle strengthening and synthesis related proteins SIRT1 and p- Akt/Akt. Thus, EMS is a potential ingredient for developing functional health foods and should be further evaluated in preclinical models.