Global concerns have grown regarding emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by previously unknown pathogens. Considering that strengthening surveillance capacity for unknown diseases is one of the core capacities for preparedness and early response to EIDs, identifying areas with poor capacity could be beneficial to prioritize regions for the improvement of surveillance. In this regard, we aimed to develop prediction models to identify high risk areas for low surveillance capacity for unknown diseases in a global scale. Unexplained death events reported between 2015 and 2019 were collected from two internet-based surveillance systems, ProMED-mail and Global Public Health Intelligence Network. From the reports, the number of reported unexplained deaths at the first report and the time gap between death and report were extracted as measures for sensitivity and timeliness of surveillance capacity, respectively. Using geographical locations of the reports and published global scale spatial data, including demographic, socioeconomic, public health and geographical variables, we fitted two boosted regression tree models to predict regions with the low sensitivity and timeliness. The performance of prediction model for the low sensitivity showed moderate validity, but in terms of the model for timeliness, the performance was unreliable. Therefore, we provided predicted risk only for low sensitivity. The mean predicted risks of low sensitivity were, respectively, 45.2%, 37.4%, 12.5%, and 3.0% in low-income, lower middle-income, upper middle-income, and high-income countries. Enhancing surveillance capacity in low-income countries is highly required, given the predicted low level of sensitivity despite the importance of early response.
Non-face-to-face lectures have become a necessity rather than an option since COVID-19, and in order to improve the quality of university education, it is necessary to explore the properties of non-face-to-face lectures and make active efforts to improve them. This study, focusing on this, aims to provide basic data necessary for decision-making for non-face-to-face lecture design by analyzing the relative importance and execution satisfaction of non-face-to-face lecture attributes for professors and students. Based on previous research, a questionnaire was constructed by deriving 4 factors from 1st layer and 17 from 2nd layer attributes of non-face-to-face lectures. A total of 180 valid samples were used for analysis, including 60 professors and 120 students. The importance of the non-face-to-face lecture properties was calculated by obtaining the weights for each stratified element through AHP(Analytic Hierachy Process) analysis, and performance satisfaction was calculated through statistical analysis based on the Likert 5-point scale. As a result of the AHP analysis, both the professor group and the student group had the same priority for the first tier factors, but there was a difference in the priorities between the second tier factors, so it seems necessary to discuss this. As a result of the IPA(Importance Performance Analysis) analysis, the professor group selected the level of interaction as an area to focus on, and it was confirmed that research and investment in teaching methods for smooth interaction are necessary. The student group was able to confirm that it is urgent to improve and invest in the current situation so that the system can be operated stably by selecting the system stability. This study uses AHP analysis for professors and students groups to derive relative importance and priority, and calculates the IPA matrix using IPA analysis to establish the basis for decision-making on future face-to-face and non-face-to-face lecture design and revision. It is meaningful that it was presented.
With the development of technology, innovations are taking place in the education field, with smart device-based Chinese educational applications drawing attention. This study examines the current status of Chinese educational applications in Korea, China, and the U.S., and explores possible directions to design effective applications for Korean young learners. A total of 179 applications from three countries were investigated and classified based on educational application criteria. Among them, the top five applications were selected from each country using ratings and reviews. Each application was then evaluated and analyzed according to the evaluation criteria. The results demonstrated that applications from the U.S. were the highest scoring overall and highest in terms of content, with applications from China highest in terms of function. The result also presented three common problems, which are limited types of applications, the absence of camera function utilization, and the lack of learning activities to experience Chinese culture. This study recommends further discussions on Chinese educational applications with the broadened scope of application types and target learners.
The aim of present study was to investigate regulatory mechanism of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes. Basically, immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were incubated for 22 h in IVM-I to which hormone was added, and then further incubated for 22 h in IVM-II without hormone. As a result, relative cumulus expansion was increased at 22 h after IVM and it was enhanced by treatment of ALA compared with control group (p < 0.05). During IVM process within 22 h, cAMP level in oocytes was decreased at 6 h (p < 0.05) and it was recovered at 12 h in ALA-treated group, while oocytes in control group recovered cAMP level at 22 h. In cumulus cells, it was reduced in all time point (p < 0.05) and ALA did not affect. Treatment of ALA enhanced metaphase-I (MI) and MII population of oocytes compared with oocytes in control group at 22 and 44 h, respectively (p < 0.05). Intracellular GSH levels in ALA group was increased at 22 and 44 h after IVM (p < 0.05), whereas it was increased in control group at 44 h after IVM (p < 0.05). In particular, the GSH in ALA-treated oocytes during 22 h of IVM was higher than control group at 22 h (p < 0.05). Lipid amount in oocytes from ALA group was higher than control group (p < 0.05). Treatment of ALA did not influence to absorption of glucose from medium. Cleavage and blastocyst formation of ALA-treated oocytes were enhanced compared with control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that supplementation of ALA could improve oocyte maturation and development competence through increasing GSH synthesis, lipid storage, and regulation of cAMP accumulation during early 22 h of IVM, and these might be mediated by cumulus expansion.
본 연구는 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물을 가지고 제작된 임 상시험용제품(CNTM)이 3T3-L1 지방세포 및 고지방식이 로 유도된 비만 쥐에 미치는 항비만 효능 관찰을 통하여 체지방 개선 기능성식품을 개발하기위하여 인체적용시험 시료를 제작한 후, 인체적용시험전에 그 효력이 유지됨을 확인하기위해 수행되었다. 본 연구에 사용된 시료 CNTM 은 80~320 μg/mL 농도에서 세포독성이 관찰되지 않았 며, 지방 축적억제 효능 및 지방세포 분화, 지질대사 관련 유전인자들을 유의적으로 변화시키는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 동물실험에서 CNTM 처리에 의하여 체중의 감소를 확인하였으며 혈중지질 성분 가운데 HDL-C/TC의 비율은 유의적으로 증가하며 LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)과 nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA)의 비율은 유의적으로 감소하 여 혈중 유리지방산 농도를 감소시키며 혈중 콜레스테롤 상승을 억제시키고 혈당을 감소시키는 효과가 있는 것으로 평가되었다. 따라서 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물이 함유된 인체적용시험시료(CNTM)는 체지방 개선에 우수한 효과가 있는 것으로 확인되었다.
Different strategies are studied to incorporate lipid-soluble bioactive molecules into water-based food systems. However, these systems solely cannot protect the core compound through the storage period, especially when the core is exposed to environmental stress factors. Water soluble fraction of the crude extract from Enteromorpha prolifera was analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics including chemical composition, structure, rheological and thermal properties. The extract was added to O/W emulsion system containing retinol and stabilized with Tween 20, WPI and sodium caseinate to improve storage stability through different modes of action; as a chelator of metal ions and as a scavenger of radicals. Storage stability was mainly determined by zeta potential, particle size distribution, and retinol retention.
The water-soluble extract of E.prolifera mainly consisted of anionic polysaccharide, while impurities of protein, mineral and other pigments were present. Mode of action analysis showed that the extracts had both ferrous ion chelating ability(EC50=0.67%) and free radical scavenging ability(EC50=0.23%), indicating a multifunctioning mechanism of the heterogeneous extract. Addition of extract (0.1%~1% in total emulsion) did not affect the physical stability during 1 week storage.
Protective materials are often added to food systems to improve the stability of core materials but excessive use of additives may be repulsive to consumers. In contrast, the optimum concentration range of E.prolifera extract is much lower compared to that of conventional usage of other materials and has lower toxicity to that of strong chelators while providing effective protection.
O/W emulsion is usually adopted to incorporate lipid-soluble bioactive molecules into water-based food systems. However, the emulsion system solely cannot protect the core compound through the storage period, especially in cases when the core is unstable to environmental stress factors. Wall materials such as maltodexrin and chelators such as EDTA-Na are added to improve the stability of core materials but excessive use of additives may be repulsive to consumers. In this study, water soluble fraction of the crude polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera, a type of green algae commonly found in the southern coast of Korean sea, was added to an O/W emulsion system containing retinol to improve storage stability through different modes of action; as a chelator of metal ions, as a scavenger of free radicals and as a wall material. The radical scavenging ability and chelating ability of E.prolifera polysaccharide were determined in solution state. Particle size, zeta potential and retinol retention rate were measured as stability markers in emulsion. Emulsion stability increased and then decreased as the amount of polysaccharide increased from 1 to 5 mg. This optimum concentration is much lower compared to that of conventional usage of wall materials, therefore less affecting the physical characteristics of emulsion while providing effective protection.
본 연구에서는 국내산 고려엉겅퀴를 건강기능식품 소재로 활용 시 기초자료 제공하고자 수확시기에 따른 고려엉 겅퀴의 항산화활성 및 항비만 활성의 차이를 구명하고자 수행 하였다. 2016년 6월, 7월 그리고 8월에 수확한 고려 엉겅퀴를 이용하여 지표성분 분석, 총 플라보노이드 함량, DPPH 라디칼 소거활성, ORAC assay 및 지방축적과 ROS 생성 억제효과를 관찰하였다. 지표성분 pectolinarin 함량은 수확시기별로 43.13 ± 0.22 ~ 95.65 ± 0.34 mg/g 로 수확 시기 가운데 2016년 8월에 수확한 고려엉겅퀴에서 가장 높은 함량을 보였으며 총 플라보노이드 함량의 경우 2016 년 8월에 수확한 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물에서 40.43 ± 0.35 mg RE/g로 수확시기 가운데 가장 높은 함량을 나타냈다. DPPH 라디칼 소거활성은 수확시기에 따른 활성 차이를 보이지 않았지만 ORAC 지수의 경우 총 플라보노이드 및 지표성분 함량의 결과와 유사하게 2016년 8월에 수확한 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물에서 6월 수확시기보다 2.4배가량 높은 ORAC 지수를 나타내었다. 수확시기별 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물은 50~200 μg/mL의 농도에서 지방세포에 대한 세포독성을 나타내지 않았으며 지방세포 분화 중 세포 내 지방축적 및 ROS 생성량을 비교한 결과, 수확시기별 고 려엉겅퀴 주정추출물을 처리한 지방세포의 경우 지방축적 량과 ROS 생성량 모두 유의적으로 억제되는 것으로 나타 났다. 따라서 고려엉겅퀴는 비만 등 대사증후군 관련 질환의 개선을 위한 건강기능식품 소재로의 활용이 기대된다.
This study was carried out to extract ginsenosides in by-products from honeyed red ginseng. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Based on D-optimal design, independent variables were ethanol (extraction solvent) concentration (30-90%, v/v), extraction temperature (25-70oC), and extraction time (5-11 h). Extraction yield (Y1) and total ginsenosides (Y2) in the extract were analyzed as dependent variables. Results found that extraction yield increased with increasing extraction temperature and time, whereas it was decreased with increasing ethanol concentration. Similar trends were found for the content of ginsenosides in the extracts, except for ethanol concentration, which was increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Regression equations derived from RSM were suggested to coincide well with the results from the experiments. The optimal extraction conditions for extraction yield and total ginsenosides were an extraction temperature of 56.94oC, ethanol concentration of 57.90%, and extraction time of 11 h. Under these conditions, extraction yield and total ginsenoside contents were predicted to be 84.52% and 9.54 mg/g, respectively.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of the bread containing a honeyed red ginseng by-product (HRG). HRG was added to bread dough at various concentration ranging from 10-30%, after which physicochemical properties of dough and bread containing HRG were determined. The pH, loaf volume, specific loaf volume, volume and baking loss decreased with increasing amount of HRG in bread, whereas loaf weight and hardness were increased. In particular, hardness appeared to be 2.18 times higher in the control without HRG compared to the bread containing 30% HRG. For color, increasing the amount of HRG reduced a and b values, whereas L value was increased. In sensory evaluation, the highest overall preference score was observed in containing 20% HRG, whereas the lowest score was observed in bread with 10% HRG. From a honeyed red ginseng by-product bread with good acceptability has an optimum HRG concentration of 20%.
본 연구에서는 고려엉겅퀴 추출물에 대한 열안정성, pH 안정성을 조사하고자 고려엉겅퀴 주정추출물은 온도별(4,25 및 50℃), pH별(4.0, 7.0, 및 10.0)로 저장하면서 추출물의 pectolinarin 함량, 총 페놀 함량, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) 라디칼 소거능 및 FRAP assay를 분석하였다. 고려엉겅퀴 추출물의 pectolinarin 함량은 저장기간이 증가함에 따라 다소 감소하는 경향을 보였으며, 온도에 의한 영향보다 pH에 의한 영향이 큰 것으로 나타났다. 총 페놀 함량도 pectolinarin 함량과 저장기간이 증가함에 따라 같이 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 저온(4℃)에서 보다 높은 온도인 25℃와 50℃에서 큰 감소치를 보였고 산성(pH 4.0)과 중성(pH 7.0)에서는 비교적 변화가 적었다. 항산화 활성은 저장기간이 증가함에 따라 DPPH 라디칼 소거능은 감소하는 경향을 보였으나 FRAP은 온도 별, pH별 저장조건에 따른 큰 변화를 보이지 않았다. 이상의 결과를 고려해 볼 때, 고려엉겅퀴 주정 추출물은 산성(pH 4.0)과 중성(pH 7.0)조건에서 저온(4℃) 저장 시 추출물의 안정성을 최적화 할 수 있을 것으로 판단되었다.
본 연구에서는 국내산 고려엉겅퀴를 건강기능식품 소재로 활용시 기초자료 제공하고자 주요 산지별 pectolinarin함량, 총 플라보노이드 함량, DPPH라디칼 소거능 및 ORAC 지수 등을 분석하였다. 산지별 고려엉겅퀴의 pectolinarin함량은 3.95 ± 0.05 ~ 7.29 ± 0.07 mg/g로 강원도 D농장(GW-D)에서 가장 높은 함량을 보였다. 총 플라보노이드 함량은 산지별로 40.42 ± 0.91 ~ 76.70 ± 2.24 mg PNE/g 수준으로 전라남도 A농장(JN-A) 추출물에서 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었고 강원도 A농장(GW-A) 추출물에서(40.42 ± 0.91 mg PNE/g)로 가장 낮은 함량을 보였다. DPPH 라디칼 소거능의 경우, 산지별로 31.25% ~ 81.93%의 활성을 보였고, ORAC 지수는 산지별로 179.62~514.49 μM TE/g로 강원도 D농장(GW-D)과 강원도 E농장(GW-E)에서 각각 514.49, 501.73 μM TE/g 으로 가장 높은 ORAC 수치를 나타내었다. 결론적으로 고려엉겅퀴 추출물은 pectolinarin과 유용성분을 함유하고 DPPH 라디칼 소거능 및 ORAC 활성 등의 항산화활성을 갖는 것으로 나타났다.
어장관리해역으로 지정된 옹진군의 수질 및 퇴적물 환경 특성을 파악하기 위하여 2011년에 4개 도서(장봉도, 자월도, 영흥도, 백령도)를 대상으로 조사를 실시하였다. 수온은 9.49~24.14 로 계절변동 특성을 잘 나타내었고, 염분(23.19~31.49)과 용존산소(5.48~9.36 mg/L)는 수온과 역상관성을 보였으며, 화학적산소요구량(COD)은 평균 1.57 mg/L로 전체적으로 양호한 수준이었다. DIN과 DIP는 각각 0.111~0.666 mg/L, 0.002~0.043 mg/L의 범위로 전 정점에서 낮은 분포를 보였고, 엽록소 a의 농도는 0.02~8.07 μg/L 범위로 서해의 다른 해역보다 낮았다. 퇴적물의 입도 분포는 모래와 실트가 각각 56.7 %, 34.6 %로 우세하였고, 분급은 불량하였다. 퇴적물의 화학적산소요구량과 강열감량은 각각 1.00~11.03 mg/g·dry, 0.72~5.29 %의 범위로 시·공간적으로 유사한 경향을 보였다. 총유기탄소와 총질소의 C/N ratio는 8.17~17.97 범위로 하계에 육상기원과 해양기원에 의한 영향이 혼재하는 것으로 나타났다. 표층퇴적물의 미량금속 오염도 평가를 위해 농집지수(Igeo)를 계산한 결과, Cr과 As를 제외한 나머지 금속원소에 의한 오염은 없는 것으로 판단된다. 이러한 연구 결과는 본 연구지역이 전체적으로 양호한 수질을 보이며, 유기물과 금속원소에 의한 표층퇴적물의 오염이 없다는 것을 보여준다.
Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, one of the pests occurring in apple do damages on the branch and bastard slip nearby ground roots by sucking sap. Recently, seasonal population of this pest steadily increased but has scarcity the basic data relating to its ecology. This study was conducted to investigate the infested orchard ratio, environmental analysis of occurred orchard, seasonal population and parasite rate by Aphelinus mali, a natural enemy for woolly apple aphid, from 30 to 34 apple orchards, at 11 to 13 major apple producing areas in Gyeongsang-namdo and Gyeongsang-bukdo, Geolla-bukdo, and Chungchung-bukdo, during 2012 to 2013. It showed infested orchard ratio as about 35% and population density started to increase from mid-May, with its optimal density in late-June and increased again in late-September. This pest found in various rootstocks where infested orchards and could not found any significant pattern. The damage appeared in 9 to 35 year-old trees, severed rather old trees than younger trees. Also, orchards that did not eliminate bastard slip were showed high occurrence pattern. Parasite rates of Aphelinus mali showed the difference among investigated orchards but the rates showed generally increased pattern since early- July.
온도가 수확율과 수확기간에 미치는 영향은 방임과 솎음 공히 온도가 낮을수록 발이소요일이 길었고, 수학소요일도 같은 경향을 보였다. 수확률에 있어서 13℃에서는 91%, 17℃에서는 90.3%, 15℃에서는 95.8%로 가장 좋은 결과를 보였다. 온도가 낮은 것은 발이가 불량하여 수확률이 떨어진 것이고, 17℃ 조건에서는 갈반병이 발생하여 수확률이 떨어졌다. 솎음처리구에서 품질은 생육온도가 13, 15, 17℃일때 각각 7.5, 8.1, 7.7로 15℃ 처리가 가장 우수하였고, 수확량에 있어서는 17℃ 처리에서 100.0g으로 가장 많았다. 방임처리구에서의 온도의 영향은 솎음처리구와 마찬가지 경향으로 13, 15, 17℃일때 품질은 각각 4.6, 5.9, 5.1로 15℃가 가장 우수하였다. 무게에 있어서는 15℃처리에서 107.2g으로 가장 수량이 많았다. 생육시기별 온도를 달리 적용하였을 경우, Ⅱ조건(17℃ 발이기(뒤집기전, 7~8일)→16℃원기신장기(솎기전, 4~5일)→15℃ 신장기(솎기이후))가 생육소요일수가 16일로 가장 짧았으며, 수확량도 방임의 경우 다른 처리에 비해 22.4, 9.0% 증수되었다. 솎기구의 경우 품질이 8.1로 다른 처리구 7.1과 7.9보다 우수하였다. 총생산량에 있어서는 17.4, 4.0% 많았다.
This study has a purpose of suggesting the basic data to achieve customer satisfaction by understanding the preference of each type of restaurant industry for the taste of customers in 20’s referring to 8 images. In the preference for style of image in dining space, the participants responded that they prefer natural, modern and romantic image, and both male and female participants preferred natural image. Participants responded that they prefer natural, romantic and modern in sequence as their general preference for style of image in dining space, and male participants preferred modern and natural but female participants preferred romantic and natural. The survey that was conducted for different menus has suggested that the reasonable image for fast food is casual, hard casual and classic for hotel restaurant, casual for school restaurant, romantic for cafe, casual for western restaurant, simple for Japanese restaurant, classic and elegance for Chinese restaurant and natural for Korean restaurant. According to the result of the analysis of dining space image, factor 1 are called ‘cold image (CI)’ as they have simple and modern image, factor 2 are called ‘soft image (SI)’ as they have natural and romantic image, factor 3 are called ‘warm image (WI)’ as they have casual and elegance image and factor 4 are called ‘hard image (HI)’ as they have classic image.