Knowledge information structuring is one of the most suitable research topics in the field of semantic search, natural language processing and other digital technology integration. Digital technology can not only access massive amount of ancient materials, shorten data analysis time, but also visualize the analysis results through data visualization function. From these two aspects, the application of digital technology to humanities research is very valuable. However, the fundamental question is “Is it valid to use machines to analyze and structure contemporary human thinking systems in the field of humanities?” and “How many valid and meaningful results can be obtained from such research?” Based on this awareness of the problem, this paper aims to review the research objectives of the topic “Research on structuring the knowledge information of Literary Sinitic texts based on artificial intelligence data processing technology” and use it as an opportunity to reorient the future research of the project. To this end, this paper introduces the current status and shortcomings of the research on ontologies and semantic webs related to Literary Sinitic and Sinographs in Korea and abroad, points out the issues and difficulties that must be solved to construct the semantic web of Literary Sinitic texts, and then looks forward to the possibility of analyzing the vocabulary of Literary Sinitic texts with the help of machine. It is hoped that this paper can raise the attention of the academic community to the study of Literary Sinitic vocabulary and contribute to the development of related research.
In the encyclopedia as the example of the book Gu Jin Shi Lin to record the number of Chinese Characters Vocabulary in Korean at Joseon era which was written by Li Yifeng like a Zhuxi’s scholars. From diachronic perspective, it is of great value in the study of Chinese word form, sound and meaning, spoken Chinese words and the oversea spread of Chinese vocabulary. It cannot be ignored that the Chinese characters and words collected at that time not only reflect the use of spoken words in the time when the book was written, but also provide fresh corpus for the study of modern Chinese characters and words, overseas sinology, overseas transmission of Chinese characters and other studies. By introducing the related content, the hope can cause the attention of academic circles.
James S. Gale (1863-1937), a Protestant missionary to Korea (1888~1927), was well-known for his extensive and profound influence on Korean studies and for his translation of the Cloud Dream of Nine (九雲夢), which was the first Korean classical novel translated into English by a Westerner. However, it is not well-known that Gale published a translation of the Great Learning (Daxue, 1924) and arranged for the publication of the Mean of the Doctrine, the Analects and Mencius. This is because it was known that Gale regarded Chinese characters and Confucian scriptures as obstacles to establishing the Christianity during his early period of mission in Korea. This paper examined the change of Gale’s perspective of Chinese characters and the characteristics of Gale’s Daxue. The analysis compares Gale and James Legg in their translations of the Chinese characters ‘命,’ ‘天,’ ‘明’ and ‘君子’ He employed the pure Korean word ‘Hananim’ for ‘God’ from a traditional Korean religion and its Korean etymology, while he rejected the use of Sino-Korean ‘Sangje上帝’, or ‘Chunju天主’ in the Korean Bible. Gale subsequently translated Daxue from a Korean point of view. However, his Korean perspective is mingled with Christianized concepts, which are illustrated in his translation of ‘命’ as ‘God’s command’ ‘天’ as ‘God’ ‘明’ as ‘glory,’ and ‘君子’ as ‘good man’ and ‘godly man.’
This article investigates several examples of “Japanese Popular Characters (倭俗字)” in the four works of Zheng Kai Lu (正楷錄), Wo Kai Zheng E (倭楷正訛), Tong wen Tong Kao (同文通考), and Sheng Wen Zuan Kao (省文纂考) in the Edo Period of Japan, and finds that the judgment of Edo scholars is not completely accurate. “ (樂)” can be found in Japanese and Korean literature. “ (圖)” can be seen in Japanese and Vietnamese literature. The symbol “ ” can be found in Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese literature instead of vulgar characters. The character “豊 (豐)” can be found throughout the Chinese character sphere in East Asia. And “釈(釋)”, “訳 (譯)”, “円 (圓)”, “囲 (圍)”, though not in contemporary Chinese literature, but modern visible. It is necessary to study the Popular Characters from the perspective of Chinese character sphere in East Asia.
In this paper, we study the word of Luolü (覼縷) in several aspects of forms, sounds and meanings. Luo has three forms: 覶/覼/ . They have a same component 見 means seeing and they have different components /爾/繭which have the same meaning: reeling silk from cocoons. So the meaning of Luo (覶/覼/ ) is combing silk thread. Luo (覶/覼/ ) and Lü (縷) are cognate words with the same initials. They are synonyms that have the same meaning of putting things in order. The two words Luo (覶/覼/ ) and Lü (縷) are used together to form a synonymic compound. In case of Luo (覶/覼/ ) is not a commonly used word and Lü (縷) is normally used as a noun, thier early way of verb-using has been neglected. In that case, the synonymic compound Luolü (覼縷) has been regarded as an unanalyzable continuous word for long. As a conclusion, like Luolü (覼縷), the synonym compounding of cognate words is an important way to form binding words.
This paper integrates the rubbings of the stone scriptures handed down in Han Dynasty and the newly unearthed stone scriptures in modern times, and compares them with the current version of The Analects of Confucius from the perspectives of Philology and Textual Criticism. A total of 54 groups and 72 articles of variants have been obtained. On the basis of classifying and sorting out the variants, this paper sums up the characteristics of the Analects of Confucius in the Classic on the stone in the Han dynasty, such as many differences between the characters used in the Analects and the current version, close literary meaning to the current version, more interchangeable words, more changes in mood words. This paper summarizes the language features reflected by these characteristics. Furthermore, this paper makes a preliminary exploration and reflection on the causes of the formation of these variants, and affirms the value of these variants in the understanding of the Analects of Confucius and the study of ancient linguistics.
The differentiation of Chinese characters is accompanied by the development of Chinese writing and is one of the manifestations of the adaptation of Chinese characters to record Chinese language. There are not only macroscopic and microscopic reasons, but also textual factors and linguistic factors for the differentiation of Chinese characters. To record Chinese accurately and clearly is the radical cause of character differentiation. The emergence of specific differentiated characters has its own influencing factors. It is particularly important to investigate the lexical items and their properties recorded by the mother characters to uncover the specific causes of the differentiation. In terms of lexical items, the degree of meaning clarity, semantic alienation and that of prominence and emphasis are the important factors that affect whether the lexical items represented by the mother character can obtain graphic marks independently, which is helpful to explore the internal motivation of Chinese character differentiation.
Kōyōshō and Yakushushō, written by a Buddhist monk of the Shingon school in the late Heian period, Jian Yi, which are used for sacrificial ceremony in Esoteric Buddhism. They are extracted from Chong Guang Bu Zhu Ben Cao, Reading―book for Emperor in XiuWenDian and various buddhist sutras, and copied by Guan You and other monks, truly reflecting stylistic features at that time and having significant research value in literature, language and character. In the process of copying books, sometimes, the content will mutate. These mutations are’t isolated cases, and tend to be systemic. This article discusses the inter-character relationship about 12 groups of regular characters of Kōyōshō and Yakushushō in the Heian period in Japan, and clears out the hidden laws of writing and use of Chinese characters.
Yi Qie Jing Yin Yi written by Xuan Ying of the Tang Dynasty is a model work of the sound and meaning of Buddhist sutras. At present, two collated editions have been published, but there are still many errors that have not been corrected. These errors can be divided into three types: primary errors, secondary version errors and other kinds of errors. Primary errors are annotation errors caused by the limitations of the author’s own knowledge; The secondary version errors refer to the errors added in the spreading of the book. Other kinds of errors are the errors that we can not determine whether they belong to the primary errors or secondary version errors according to the existing materials. Based on this classification, this paper lists several errors that were not reached by predecessors in the previous practice, in order to seek advice from others.