In this paper, the author studied dictionaries that was named as Yupian in the Joseon Dynasty and modern times. and also studied the versions and characteristics of these dictionaries. The results show that the Chinese dictionaries in Korean development process from early to mature stage.
With the help of literature analysis, the development and evolution of “ping (垪)”,“di (俤)”,“zhen (鋴)” and “ba (紦)” were sorted out ,which makes up and corrects errors in universal language dictionaries. Character research follows the principle of “practical and realistic”. Basing on literature, we can study changes and developments of Chinese characters and avoid circulating erroneous reports in deciding originality.
Chinese characters are materials of Chinese poems in Vietnam, including three main factors: configuration, sound, and meaning. Among those factors, generally configuration and meaning were borrowed from the Chinese while the Sino-Vietnamese sound has been developed since the linguistic acculturation of Vietnamese to Chinese language. Chinese configuration with cultural insides shown in non-numerical configuration has contributed hidden values to the works. Ideograph characteristic of this writing system generates emblems with deep cultural dimension. Analyzing Chinese character configuration is to get more understanding on the meaning of the word and to understand different hidden meanings of the word. The expressions shown on character configuration become a tightly connected system, increasing expressional value for the work and creating artistic messages. Sino-Vietnamese sound of the Chinese works in Vietnam still preserves the characteristics of similarity, prosody, and rules of ancient poetry. Comparing Sino-Vietnamese sound and Vernacular Chinese sound, we will see that, in many cases, Sino-Vietnamese sound (related to audio-track) preserves the characteristics of similarity, prosody, and rules of ancient poetry but the Vernacular Chinese sound may not. Rules on tone bring up beautiful poetry feelings of an era with distinct features. In understanding the meaning of non-numerical scripts, we care about the synonyms with slightly different meanings, which create specific values for poetry works. Chinese words with the same radical can be connected as far as their meanings go, transferring values that readers can discover based on those connections. Multiple meaning words directly contribute to the multi layers of the different layer of meaning in literature works. In general, readers need to be aware of configuration, sound, and meaning of Chinese characters in order to understand the values of Chinese poems in Vietnam.
Among the Vietnamese customs of early 20th century, besides the documentation written in Sino, there were also not a small number of documentation written in Nôm. To use Nôm script was with a clear purpose for “the ease of the people’s reading and understanding”. Nevertheless, there was a fact that in these documentation written by Nôm, Sinowas also appeared quite a lot. Sino script was used in many levels: word, Phrase, Sentence,Paragraph. Why Sino still appeared in Nôm documentation, while the editors themselves wanted to use Nôm for the readers’ easy understanding, and furthermore in the history context of Vietnamese society, it was the period of Sino declining? In addition to the too great impact of Sino language in Vietnamese language, were there any other reasons for that? Through the studying, the writer has found that the 4 said above levels were not used randomly, instead each level was used in one or some specified cases. The use of Sino in here was formed by 2 reasons: Habit; The fact that Sino was still psychologically more respected than Nôm, this was not erased in the conception of the editors.
The widely accepted understanding that a Chinese character has three factors, i.e., form, sound and meaning, takes sound and meaning into the account of the Chinese Graphology; this has too broad a scope. On the other hand, the view that “Chinese Graphology is in essence the study of the graphic shape” is too narrow. From my observation, Chinese characters have three properties of their own: shape, constitution and function. To start from here may in necessity attain three branches of it, that is, the study of Chinese graphic constitution and the study of Chinese graphic functions, each forming a system of its own. These three systems do not stand in parallel, nor in layers, but three independent and not severed planes of the noumenon of Chinese characters. In other words, they constitute what the Chinese Graphology should concern. This may be termed “the Three-Plane Theory of Chinese Graphology”. A dozen years of researches of ours have proved that this theory, and the study of Chinese graphic function in particular, have both important theoretical and wide-reaching practical values.
The study of Chinese characters structure has always been one of the basic problem of Chinese philology. Because of the limitations of information and methods, previous scholars mostly rests on the static analysis of individual or stage Chinese characters. Therefore, they can’t overall research the development of ideogram. On the basis of full possession of ancient texts, and through the dynamic analysis of the way that ideograms are constructed, we can find that the ideogram has always been in dynamic development. In the early stage of ancient writing, most ideograms are combinations of imageries. However, after Qin dynasty characters, the pictographic feature of Chinese characters are greatly reduced, and most of the ideograms are linguistic type. Beginning with the oracle inscriptions in Shang Dynasty, ideograms had tended to be semantic-plus-phonetic. And there were varied ways to achieve this transformation. This trend was gradually strengthened by Zhou dynasty, and it reached the peak in the Qin and Han dynasties.
The debate and struggle on traditional and simplified Chinese characters cannot be ignored in the context of Chinese international education. Standing on which Chinese Character teaching position should be considered on the features of this two characters systems and learner’s personal experience. Different positions will have different effects on Chinese teaching difficulties, the difficulty of Chinese teaching is the Chinese character, on this premise, the effects of traditional and simplified Chinese character to Chinese learning cannot be ignored especially. Based on the analysis of 3000 traditional and simplified Chinese characters, we draw the conclusion that the significantly decrease of simplified characters’ strokes is far priors the negative effects on characters’ motivation. Furthermore, we suggest that simplified Chinese characters should be chosen at the primary stage of TCSL globally.
The article indicates that usually there exists no correspondence between the term and its conception illustrated by the case of loangraph and its related term orthograph. Different conceptions of contemporary Loangraph, namely, “diachronic usage relation”, “relation of form and meaning”, “prevailing usage in an era”, have inherited some views produced in the academic history, which includes Xu Shen’s loangraph of “benwuqizi”, Wang Yun’s “shengjie”, Duan Yucai’s “three changes” of loangraph, and Zhu Junsheng’s “three sources” of loangraph. By listing examples of misunderstanding and obscure caused by the different comprehension of the loangraph term, the article analyzes its objective linguistic foundation, stating that in the use of the term, the same conceptual meaning of the term should be taken as the criterion, otherwise it will constitute exchange barriers and cause unnecessary contradictions and arguments.
“ ” “ ” are two onomatopoetic words, most of the dictionaries are not collected, some are them, but their notes are wrong. Some dictionaries state that “ ” “ ” are“乒” “乓”. Actually, they're not quite the same. The notes of“ ” “ ” can be determined, but the pronunciation of these words are difficult to determine and can only be suspected.
Shang Shu, the historical document in Chinese history, complied many aspects of academic problems which derived from history, geography, philology and phonology, etc. There are four main aspects: firstly, how to appraise pseudograph correctly; secondly, the contents of Jiwen and Guwen should be discriminated carefully; thirdly, explanations or interpretations of scholaships varied a lot; fourthly, textual critisim could be too complicated. Thus, from such a long academic tradition, scholars have viewed the second and third aspects as the key parts, while the philology study played the vital role. In short, as the explanations presented by scholars on 19 parts of Zhou Shu varied a lot, the paper held the case study based on 13 main parts of this book to research the variant characters.
The paper focuses on the using of causative markers “教 (jiao)” and “交 (jiao)” from the view of the using of word variants, which is to reveal the standardization of words in the Ming Dynasty. This paper uses Jinpingmei (two versions), Shuihuzhuan (three versions), Qingping Shan Tanghua Ben, Gujin Xiaoshuo, Zhongyi Zhiyan, Xunshi Pinghua as references. This paper finds that: Using as causative markers, the standardized writing form “教 (jiao)” and the variant writing form “交 (jiao)” are mixed more frequently in Jinpingmei Cihua Ben, Shuihuzhuan Rongyutang Ben and Tianqi Keben and Qingping Shan Tanghua Ben than in Jinpingmei Chongzhen Ben, Shuihuzhuan Guanhuatang Ben and Gujin Xiaoshuo. This reveals the standardization of words in the Ming Dynasty. Both the internal factors of language and the external factors influence the disappearing of “ 交 (jiao)”.“教 (jiao)” are completely dominant in both Zhongyi Zhiyan and Xunshi Pinghua, which is closely related to the characteristic of this two documents.
With the spread of Chinese culture, Chinese characters are becoming more and more popular among non-Chinese native speakers, who often use some characters inaccurately. This may cause funny misunderstanding. In this article we examine the production mechanism of Chinese humour and the semantic opposition in language jokes. It is claimed that the language ambiguity triggerd by homophones, homographs and polesemies could be one of the main sources for Chinese humour. We successflully used Raskin's linguistic theory (1985) to analyse the Chinese jokes and confirmed Lin Yutang's opinions on Chinese humour: It is more an understanding smile than a big exploding laughter (Lin 1924).
Application of Chinese character humour in second-language teaching is also presented. We argue that the Chinese characters are a carrier not only of Chinese culture, but also of Chinese humor. By learning Chinese characters, learners should get more familiar with the different forms of language ambiguity and become more sensitive to the strokes, radicals and pronunciation of Chinese characters, and they should learn more about the origin and the development of the characters.