When Wan Zhang 萬章 asked Mencius about how Yi Yin sought an introduction to Tang, Mencius replied that he had done so by “plowing the wilderness of the Youxin’s Clan, delighting in the principles of Yao and Shun.” (孟子曰: “否不然, 伊尹耕於有莘之野, 而樂堯舜之道焉.”《孟子•萬章上》) When King Hui of Liang asked Mencius about “royal government,” Mencius began his response by emphasizing the way King Wen of Zhou ruled at Qi, focusing again on plowing: “昔者文王之治岐也, 耕者九一, 仕者世祿, 關市譏而不征, 澤梁無禁, 罪人不孥. (《孟子•梁惠王下》). Mencius responded to Zhou Xiao’s 周霄 question whether superior men of old took office (古之君子仕乎?) by quoting a lost passage from the Book of Rites which reads: “A prince ploughs himself, and is assisted by the people, to supply the millet for sacrifice. His wife keeps silkworms, and unwinds their cocoons, to make the garments for sacrifice.” (禮曰: 諸侯耕助, 以供粢盛; 夫人蠶繅, 以爲衣服.《孟子•滕文公下》) Later still in discussion with Zhou Xiao, Mencius also draws a direct parallel between plowing and governing: “An officer’s being in office is like the ploughing of a husbandman.” (“士之仕也, 猶農夫之耕也.”《孟子•滕文公下》) Shun was noticed by Yao because of his work with the common people who modeled themselves on him, leading to the formation of polities: “When Shun ploughed on Li mountain, the inhabitants yielded the boundaries; when he fished in Thunder lake, the men on the lake yielded to him the best place; and when he made pots on the bank of the river, his vessels had no holes or flaws in them. If he dwelt in a place for a year he formed an assemblage, in two years it became a town, and in three years a metropolis.” (舜耕歷山, 歷山之人皆讓畔, 漁雷澤, 雷澤上人皆讓居; 陶河濱，河濱器皆不苦窳. 一年而所居成聚, 二年成邑, 三年成都.《史記•五帝本紀》). Moreover, famous figures such as Sima Qian 司馬遷, Wu Zixu 伍子胥, and Chen She 陳涉 all began their careers behind a plow. This paper will therefore attempt to examine the use of the motif of plowing in early Chinese texts, examining the scenario of “plowing in the wilds” (耕於野) and other tropes, and stressing especially the close relationship between plowing and ruling.
Extensive researches into the meaning of the famous Tang poem On Mission to the Frontier have achieved success for years, but it still remains several questions. On the one hand, On Mission to the Frontier has been selected for different poetry anthologies from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. And it brings four different texts, which are “銜命辭天闕”, “向”, “鴻” and “吏”, and the reason why they come into being should be figured out. On the other hand, the interpretation of “屬國” and “孤煙” and the main idea of On Mission to the Frontier are not clear and definite, so they also need to be differentiated and analysed.
Chinese characters treated as the science and art of calligraphy is one in two and inseparable, whose interactions are the basis of the existence and development. The self-sufficiency and richness of Chinese characters makes Chinese calligraphy become an important cornerstone of specialized art, especially to help Chinese calligraphy solve the problem of the “artistic image” of art. The cultural status and development of Chinese calligraphy. Chinese characters also plays a decisive role. China calligraphy is the calligraphy existence and living inheritance of Chinese characters, which makes an important contribution to make it be the oldest surviving global rare survival and live thousands of years without failure. originated from China calligraphy, Japan calligraphy and Korean calligraphy are still thriving untill today, even after the abolition of Chinese characters in their country, Which is also reflects the irreplaceable status and function of Chinese calligraphy in the development of Chinese characters.
This study is focused on the variant form which created and broke the character components by stroke change. This variant form is made through add and reduction and change the stroke, as a result that is produced another new graph.This study reserches for these type variant forms which is how to made and there are how many types and what is the characteristic.
Based on the bamboo texts of the early Western Han dynasty excavated at Zhangjiashan, this thesis investigates the evolution of Han characters by tracing the origin of form mélange of radicals and components in Han characters. In this thesis, “mélange” refers to the phenomenon of miswriting characters and radicals of different forms, pronunciations and meanings, or components of irrelevant forms and meanings as those of the same form, without limiting to the mélange of characters of similar forms. First, the author set the prototypes of different sets of mixed radicals or components in the Zhangjiashan Han Bamboo Texts in order to restore their original appearances. Then, the author traced if the writing of particular mixed radicals or components are found in the survived bronzeware script of the Western Zhou dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period, the characters of the six countries in the Warring Period or the characters of the Qin dynasty. The author also examined the influence on form mélange of the “clerical script transformation” where “contours” were transformed into “strokes” in Han characters, to elucidate the radical or component mélange of the Zhangjiashan Han Bamboo Texts.
Taboo is an ancient custom in China. The taboo system was applied to the names of emperors had a long history in China. Beginning from Zhou Dynasty, until to Qing Dynasty. It is true that taboo system has caused confusion of the recording of ancient Chinese books and inconvenience to the study of historical materials, but one will be able to apply its principle to appraise the authenticity of those books and materials of one has a good grasp of it. Taboo studies also have a long history. According to Chen Yuan’s陳垣 Shi hui ju li史諱舉例，there are different ways to avoid the forbidden words, such as change the character, blank character, omit a stroke, change the pronunciation, etc. This paper claimed that besides change the forbidden word to a synonym, other ways to achieve taboos were occurred in Han Dynasty, such as “missing one stroke of a Chinese character”, “change the formation of a Chinese character”, “change the shape of a Chinese character”, etc. That means the old conclusion of Chen Yuan and other scholars may be not true. However, philologists argued that those changes are the result of the variant form of a Chinese character異體字. Scholars stated that the way to avoid a tabooed word in Han dynasty was to change the forbidden word to a synonym. In this paper, according to Louji’s 婁機 Hanliziyuan漢隸字源, Hongkuo’s洪适 Lishi隸釋, Zhou Guangye’s周廣業 Jing shi bi ming hui kao經史避名彙考, we examine the relationship between tabooed character and variant form of a Chinese character. Finally, discuss the importance of variant form of a Chinese character in the aspect of taboo studies.
In the “Zi Yi”子儀chapter of the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips清華簡 (six), the character “Zhi” appears twice. For the first time, it is written “ ” and the second time is written “ ”, which has the component “Si”糸 in the left and the component “Ma”馬 is omitted. The editor of this text has indicated that the character “Zhi” should be the character “Zhi”馽 in the Shuo Wen 說文. According to the character “Ji”𦌭 is written variously as “Ji” , this paper adds conclusive evidence which proves the character “Zhi” should be the character “Zhi”馽. In the Warring States Qin Zongyiwashu宗邑瓦書, the character “Ji” is written as which is the variant character of “Ji”𦌭. This shows the character “Zhi”馽 which is the Xiaozhuan小篆 writing is simplified by the components “Si”糸written on the horse’s foot. The character “Ji”𦌭 in the “Mati”馬蹄 chapter of the “Zhuangzi”莊子 is written variously as the character “Xu”𦄼. There is no reasonable explanation about the relationship between the two characters. This paper argues that the writing of the character “Xu”𦄼 should be changed from the writing of the character “Zhi” . The reason is the character “Xu”須 has a very similar writing with the word “Ma”馬 which appears in the ancient writing of the Qin Dynasty. Therefore, both the variant writing of the character “Zhi”馽and “Xu”𦄼 should be changed from the writing of the character “Zhi” . This situation may occur in Qin Dynasty or during the change of Qin Dynasty and Han Dynasty.
The research aims to explore the Chinese character “jì (既)” in pre-Qin period. The research focuses on the font change of jì (既) in pre-Qin period. Throughout the discussion, the understanding of jì (既), including of different fonts, such as , , can be known. We can know that the pronunciation of jì (既) has a close relationship with qì (氣), according to the use of related characters, for example, ài (㤅), jì (䊠), xì (餼) and so on. Talking about the meaning, there are seven meanings of jì (既), such as finish eating, end, whole, already, since, jì ér (既而, soon afterwards), jì yǐ (既以, farther), xì (餼, foodstuff). The results will be beneficial to facilitate understanding of academic writing materials and expand Warring States research in other aspects.
Through the description, and inscriptions tool books, the Yin Ruins Oracle was edited by Wang Shaodong and Wang Yuxin, there are at least four aspects of the following problems: First, the interpretations is not new. secondly, the notes are uncertainty. and thirdly, The translation is out of order. Finally, some punctuations are wrong. As an exact textbook for the introduction of ancient Chinese characters in the cultural relics press, we can not fully trust and should use it carefully when using it.
Some of the “False Reading” which mentioned by Jin Zailu in “San Yun Sheng Hui”, are derived from people’s analogy of homophonic radicals, and the others are misread because of the similar pronunciations of the words. Maybe, at the beginning of creation, these pronunciations which do not comply with the rules of the dictionary were errors. But they were accepted by the public later and they also became the oral pronunciations at that time.
ZECUNTANG YUPIAN was edited by Zhang Shi-jun. It is usually called the Song YUPIAN. Actually the Song YUPIAN had largely changed the features of YUPIAN inscribing in the Song Dynasty, including characters change, errors correction, means addition, head characters addition or amalgamation, etc. So it has lower philology value than the SONGBAN YUPIAN and the Song Subsection YUPIAN, even lower than Cao Yin Edition. The Song Subsection YUPIAN can emendate the SONGBAN YUPIAN, and it has special significance in document system of YUPIAN as a bridge connecting the SONGBAN YUPIAN style with the Subsection style.
Despite numerous errors already revealed in Shuo Wen Jie Zi by Xu Shen in Eastern Han dynasty, it is still considered to be an important literature in Chinese character studies. This study utilizes tools, such as mathematical functions, set and logic, to look into Shuo Wen Jie Zi from a new perspective. Through this approach, one can get a macro-scale tendency or trend. At the same time, one can pin-point numerous micro-scale errors. This study firstly defines functions that constitute the framework, and then processes the entire data set within Shuo Wen Jie Zi, addressing the topics associated with it.
Shirakawa Shizuka’s viewpoint about the Chinese Characters before the Warring States Period is a system theory. The theory includes several kinds of content as followed: First, the causes of Chinese Characters’ birth. Shirakawa Shizuka thought that characters’ creation is to express something sacred. Second, the resources of Chinese Character symbols. Shirakawa Shizuka thought, Chinese Characters are etiquette reflections, developing from the symbols which have the sacred nature. Third, Chinese Characters’ functions. Shirakawa Shizuka thought that to the ancient Chinese people, Chinese Character was a character with extraordinary power before the Warring States periods. Fourth, the usage of Chinese Characters. Shirakawa Shizuka thought, Chinese Characters were mainly using in activities of offering sacrifices and casting inscriptions. The last, the essence of Chinese Pictographic Characters. Shirakawa Shizuka didn’t believe Chinese Pictographic Characters as pictograph characters, but as symbolic characters. However, based on the facts and the logic, we can prove the five points have some mistakes.
Integration of Jinshi Inscriptions in Korea (《韓國金石文集成》) is the latest and the most huge academic achievement in Korea in recent years. The authors are Im Segwon and Yi Youngtae. The compilation style is very logical. And the textual research include annotations and translations correspond with the rubbing, It’s also practical and easy to handle. However, lots of mistakes exist in the book. The article divides the mistakes into three groups: mistakes of the figures of characters (mistakes of recognition, non-recognition and lack of characters), mistakes of punctuations and technical operation mistakes. The article cites 14 supports. Finally, the basic research is able to be helpful for future studies of stone inscription.
Korean official documents use Chinese characters in a long term, but how to ensure the physical accuracy of Chinese characters and the consistency with Qing Dynasty, these problems have always troubled the North Korea manners. Moreover, the Chinese characters imported into Korea produced variant forms (different from the Chinese characters which in the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in the process of development and dissemination. Among them, most of them is Korean character. This paper through the comparative study between Chinese characters and Korean characters, preliminary explore the forming reasons of Korean folk characters, and based on these studies to analyze the Korean “quality profile”, to provide research materials which help to explore the problems about the development and the existence of characters during them are sowing outside.