Shirakawa Shizuka believes that there is a tattoo custom in the Yin culture of the Chinese Shang Dynasty: people in accordance with certain etiquette, respectively, on the forehead, breasts, chest and other body parts to apply tattoos, he proved that this view is mainly based on the Chinese characters at that time. He believes that “text” is the Chinese character that represents the tattoo, “Chan (產), Yan (彥), Yan (顏)” and other words are the Chinese characters that represent people tattooed on the forehead, “Er (爾), Shuang (爽), Shi(奭)” and other words are Chinese characters that represent the tattoo in the breast, and also believe that “Xiong (凶), Xiong (兇), Xiong (匈), Xiong (胸)” are the words that mean the chest tattoo (for the convenience of the writing, the following aunt called “the chest tattoo series”). Shirakawa believes that the Chinese Shang Dynasty Yin culture there is a literary custom of the view is wrong, for this, the author has written a special article to refute, is now intercepting part of it, his release of the bra series of words wrong to start the argument. The author tracks the research process of Shirakawa’s, analyzes the glyphs, contacts the word use, and draws on the relevant research results, proving that he is wrong about the composition of the bra series, the meaning of the expression and the relationship between each other.
In the pre-Qin period in China, the monosyllable expression of death had been a stable word system. Until the mid-ancient period, the related words presented bisyllablization, and the range of the pragmatics was also enlarged. The epitaph corpora in the Sui and Tang dynasty is abundant and believable. The words reflect six ways of burial: generally buried words, words buried to the ancestral grave, temporarily buried words, reinter words, and multi-burial words. Among them, there are three words which were needed to be distinguished in the reinter words. ‘Gai Zang’ meaning the burial site has to be changed for objective reasons. ‘Gai Bin’ must be done so as well because of the canonization. Meanings of ‘Gai Bian’ range simply from the morgue to the cemetery. In addition, three of multi-burial ones, ‘He Bian’ and ‘Tong Xue’ mean buried with one’s husband or wife, but ‘He Zang’ can be used to point to bury to the ancestral grave. To sum up, investigating words related to the burial and its ways, compared with the word examples in the handed-down documents, help us observe the disyllabic development of medieval words, explain the relevant funeral vicissitudes issues, supplement Chinese dictionary, and add missing senses from early examples.
There are universal misreads on the generation and parent-word of the classifier “Ke(顆)” in Chinese. We hold that the Classifier “Ke(顆)” born in the period between Qin and Han dynasties, its parent-word should be the word Guo(果)。The word Guo(果) figured fruit, expands to a measuring unit of small round thing. People start borrowing the Chinese character “Ke(顆)” to record the Classifier “Ke(顆).” Under the influence of Chu dialect, people borrowed the Chinese character “Ke(顆 )” to share responsibility for the Chinese character “Kuai(塊)” in the Han &Wei six dynasties.
There are two interpretations of the idiom “日逑月相” in No.11 scripts of “Minzhifumu” in Chu Bamboo Slips of the Shanghai Museum. They are “日就月將” and “日聚月扶”. “日就月將” means to make progress every day and every month. “日聚月扶” means to gather every day and every month. These interpretations are not completely convincible. According to their shapes, syntactic structure and context, it is suggested in this article that “日逑月相” means to be compared to the sun and the moon. The second part of this paper mainly discusses the word “𣳠”. Seas were mainly written as “𣳠” instead of “海” in the characters of Chu Kingdom during the Warring States Period. When the word “海” became popular, the word “𣳠” disappeared.
This paper summarizes the current research situation of the characters used in Chinese dialects. It is considered that the research features of the characters used in Chinese dialects are mainly manifested in three aspects: the universality of the subjects, the diversity of materials, and the long time and space. Furthermore, future research on the characters used in Chinese dialects prospects from the materials, theories, methods, and perspectives of the research.
Micro-Blade (Stone knife) and its manufacturing techniques or flaking methods, considered by many scholars as the marker of modern humans, are used popularly back from 20 000 years ago Lower Old Stone Age until to 2 500 years ago Zhou Dynasty. Visible technological processes map invisible thinking patterns. The thinking model of Genesis, create a pioneering work, hurt your skin and bruise in Oracle Bone Script all are derived from Stone knife flaking process model. Comparing a common thing or process to a concept, especially abstract concepts, are a common means for the expression of thought in ancient, like a parable in the Bible and proverb in public. OB Script uses a scene of a common process, a parable or proverb to expressing ideas. An Oracle character does not have to record language, first is an ideograph used for alluding. The other sample of Dongba (Mo-so) pictographic glyphs is largely a mnemonic system, and cannot by itself represent the Naxi (Mo-so) language. Tab.2 is a sample of Mo-so Genesis can be read as a long story for hours and hours by the priest. A popular and most academic understanding of the Oracle characters as logograph or phonograph hinders the deciphering of many Oracle characters. The character刅 (Tab.3 CH1, now write as創. 倉 is add-on sound, 刀 is刂 idea) imitated to K” (transcription),「K」set as a Knife, 「”」as like debris from broken scars. K” suggests a third scene of flaking a stone knife from a stone core by percussion (Fig.1), this is Scene-parable telling 說象 . The scene of Blade flaking suggests skin hit or trauma 創傷肌膚 , enemy hitting or attacking 重創對手 , pioneering tool by hitting or innovation and creation創 造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創造全新 工具或創(a knife is a pioneering tool when comparing to Chopping tool that perhaps in nature), analogy of an egg hatch by mom percussion can be stretched a genesis by god percussion創世紀 , this is sense reading解意 . The scene is rich in symbolisms above that are depicted the word meanings as much as possible; this can be called as Self Deriving. For English example, a scene of hive is depicted meanings of a school of bees, gather into a hive, a place full of people who are busy as bees, hive off [divide up family property and live apart], store (like bees). A scene of hand (of head, of bow, of moon, so on) may be another example. The character刀 (Tab.4) is imitated to K (transcription), pictograph of Micro-Blade (Stone knife, Fig.3). The character勿(Tab.4) is imitated to C: (transcription), 「C」as bow, 「:」as no string, 「C:」suggest a third scene of an unstringing bow. The scene of the archery removed bowstring suggests no-shoot arrow or hunting, no attack, 勿 use as No, Do not in OB Script.
The “Hu Yingji” tripod is a new-found implement of Hu state. The experts have a variety of explanations on “ci 辭” and “幺(玄)布二乙”. In my idea, “ci” should be written as “騂”. “騂” means the red horse. “幺(玄)布二乙” should be read as “幺(玄)布二乙”. When Hu Yingji has an audience with Zhou Zhaowang, she pays the tribute of a precious horse to her monarch. So, the monarch awards her “貝十朋” and “幺(玄)布二乙”.
The phenomenon of incomplete correspondence between writing and language units is widespread in the Dongba Scripture The White Bat’s Search for Sacred Books. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis and investigation of the incomplete correspondence in the Scripture, and then summarizes several common types and gives examples. This paper hopes to provide a reference for scholars to understand Chinese characters and other mature hieroglyphs in the early stage.
This paper makes a comprehensive investigation of the New Edition of Copying and Interpretation of Yin Ruins Characters, and finds that there are still some problems in it, such as the unreliability of the character interpretation, the lack of interpretation, the errors in sentence breaks and inaccuracy of annotation. The publication of this book is of great value in the field of oracle bones, and although it has some minor flaws, it does not prevent it from becoming an authoritative work.
Wu Wu dialect; late Qing Dynasty; interpretation on The Sacred Edict; function words; colloquial words dialect translation of The Sacred Edict was written in colloquial and dialectal Chinese. Function words in the book reflected the lexical and grammatical features in Wu dialect during late Qing Dynasty, including prepositions (ex. Da), modal particles (Lao), negative words (Fu, Wu), etc. This article explores these features through the comparative analysis of the other two editions. Based on the depictions and discussions of function words, the paper provides evidence and supplements for studies on the function words of Wu dialect in the late Qing period.
This article discusses the nature of Korean classical Chinese texts, or Sino-Korean texts and pays attention to the need for compiling various reference works in pre-modern Korean studies. And it suggests that the introduction of Digital Humanities to the field is necessary and discusses the conditions for successful Digital Humanities in the field. Due to the ambiguity and complexity of Sino-Korean texts, students of the field need various reference works to refer to for a clear understanding of the texts. It is recently and widely accepted as an urgent task to compile various reference works for Korean studies, ranging from linguistic and term dictionaries to encyclopedias. However, since the number of people who want to use paper dictionaries and reference books continues to reduce, reference work projects for Korean studies need to consider changing the direction. Adopting the Digital Humanities methods in the whole process of the projects can bring promptness, accuracy, and up-to-date-ness to the projects, and enable the field to extend the territory and maximize versatility. In doing so, the projects of reference work for Korean studies can continue to contribute to the development of Korean studies. It can also be used as a useful cultural content on the Internet. There are two issues to take into consideration regarding adopting Digital Humanities for reference work making for Korean studies. One is fostering editors and project managers of Digital Humanities projects for Korean studies; the other is to establish a standard for reference work making projects for effective communication, project planning & evaluation, and manpower training, etc.
In the early First Millennium AD, Vietnam imported Chinese language and culture, which had a lasting influence ever since. Chinese influence on Vietnamese written and spoken language is notable in particular. Despite this, due to the fact the two languages belong to two distinct families and differences in the number and structure of syllables available in each language, the borrowed Chinese language cannot transcribe all of Vietnamese personal and local names properly. This is the reason for the formation of the Nom script. From the 17th century onwards, Western missionaries used the Nom script for religious purposes, which led to the formation of the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet. It would not be an overstatement to say that, 17th century Catholic documents written in Nom are of indispensable value to researchers who wish to study the history of the Vietnamese language and the Latin-based Vietnamese alphabet. Based on the materials from Kinh nhung le mua phuc sinh (Scriptures on Easter Rituals), this paper will focus on the Nom transcription of foreign Saints' names, which will show the differences in syllabic structure between Western languages (Portuguese and France) and Vietnamese, as well as give an overall idea of Nom transcribing rules.
Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations are the way Vietnamese people read Chinese characters. Going through the process of formation and development, they have become an important part of the Vietnamese language. In the field of literature, Sino-Vietnamese sounds are closely related to Tang poetry in China and Tang poetry in Vietnam. Tang poetry is a Chinese literary achievement consisting of systems of authors and works with strong influences on Sinosphere countries in medieval time such as Vietnam, Japan, and Korea. In Vietnam, Tang poems are read by Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations, which ensure tonal harmony. Scholars in China, Vietnam, and other countries have studied Tang poetry in terms of phases, authors, styles, and ideologies. However, there has been no attempt to investigate the characteristics and functions of Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations in Tang poetry. In this paper, we study the characteristics and functions of Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations in Tang poetry in China and Vietnam based on the comparison of similarities and differences of reading Tang poems by Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations and by contemporary Chinese by means of surveying 133 poems in Three hundred Tang poems. Comparative data on the ability to keep Tang poetry’s same tone rules and Tang poetry’s rules of Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations and contemporary Chinese show that both types of reading can either remain or break the rules of this poetry type, but their proportions are different. 54% of poems by Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations keep Tang poetry’s same tone rules and Tang poetry’s rules while the rate of poems by contemporary Chinese reading is 34%. The number of poems in which Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations can keep the rules while contemporary Chinese cannot is 28 (accounting for 21%). The number of poems in which contemporary Chinese can keep the rules while Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations cannot is 1 (accounting for 1%). The survey results show the remarkable advantages of Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations regarding the ability to keep Tang poetry’s same tone rules and Tang poetry’s rules compared to the contemporary language used by Chinese people. This is attributed to the fact that Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations are close to the sounds of Tang poetry and still preserve the tone patterns. With such a characteristic, in the process of cultural adaptation, Vietnamese people use Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations to compose, translate, as well as appreciate and study Tang poems. There were thousands of authors, and there were poetry collections of thousands of Tang poems written in Sino-Chinese in medieval time. The similarities and differences between Sino-Vietnamese pronunciations and contemporary Chinese in Tang poems prove cultural adaptation among nations, contributing to preserving the diverse beauty of valuable literary works of humankind.
Buddhist Texts written in Chinese are important data not only for studies of Buddhist texts but also for studies regarding the history of the Chinese language. Seonmun Yeomsongjip (hereafter SMYSJ), a book compiled by monk Hyesim during the Goryeo era, is the oldest and largest Buddhist scriptures in the nation and has always been one of the must-reads in the Buddhist community. This Zen dialogue-type SMYSJ which details quotations by founders of religious sects has many interrogative sentences. From such an aspect, this book is highly valued as precious data for studying colloquial words during the Song Dynasty. However, there have not been many linguistic studies with regard to this text. Considering that there are plenty of interrogative sentences in SMYSJ, for this study, efforts were made to understand the patterns of development of interrogative sentences based on an analysis of the kinds, types, and frequency of interrogative sentences that appear in the book. Based on this kind of analysis, interrogative sentences appearing in SMYSJ can be divided into six categories. The ‘何’ category, which has the largest number of lower types and is used the most frequently, has been used in the forms of 如何, 云何, 若何, 何物, 何者, 何等, 何处, 何方, 何所, 何在, 何人, 何故, 何以故, 因何, 何以, 以何, 作何, 何似生, 何时, and 如何 has enjoyed the highest frequency of use. The ‘什么’ category of the second-highest frequency of use contains the forms of 什麼, 什麼生, 什麼处, 什处, 什麼人, 什麼时, 什摩时节, 作什麼, followed by the ‘怎么’ category to which the forms of 作麼, 作麼生, 作生, 怎生 belong. An interrogative pronoun of the fourth-highest frequency of use is the ‘怎么’ category to which the forms of 作麼, 作麼生, 作生, 怎生 belong, followed by the ‘那’ category with just three forms of 那箇, 阿那箇, 阿那个, and the ‘几’ category with 幾箇, 幾何, 多小, 大小. In the ‘几’ category, 大小 appeared most. Regarding the study on the usage of interrogatives, those interrogatives for asking men, things and places were connected by type and their semantic functions were analyzed. According to the analysis, each type had very different forms of expression, but there were significant differences in terms of frequency. Regardless of types, most of the interrogatives appearing in SMYSJ were used in interrogative sentences. A considerable proportion of them, of course, were used for rhetorical questions but some of them were used for directing. In conclusion, regarding interrogatives appearing in SMYSJ, expressions used for colloquial words during the Song Dynasty appeared, but some types of usage during this period did not appear. Considering these aspects, interrogatives appearing in SMYSJ did not have the complete features of the modern version of the spoken language.