The Chinese and English Instructor, compiled by T‘ong Ting-kü and published in Canton in 1862, is an English teaching material that utilized many newly-created Chinese characters to phonetically express the pronunciations of English words which were difficult to express with pre-existing Cantonese sounds. These characters featured an existing glyph and a pseudo radical ‘mouth’ 口, such as, 呷, composed of 甲 and 口. The explanatory notes at the beginning of this book listed many such characters. This study investigates the phonological effects of the addition of this component, focusing on the newly-created characters with the mid front unrounded vowel /e/ as their main vowel. The results showed that the values of certain parts of the syllable changed by regularly adding the pseudo radical ‘mouth’ to the existing glyph. It was observed that besides the vowel shift occurring in the main vowel in almost all groups, tone alternation occurred in most groups as well.
The famous Korean monster Shizishan cited many documents to annotate “Shichaoshi”, which included ten seven-character Octaves written by the famous Tang poet Wen Tingyun. This paper tries to compare it to “The chronicle of Tang Poetry”, “Youxuan Anthology”, “Tang Poetry Guchui”, “Appreciation of Tang Poetry”, “Tang Poetry” and finds some dissimilarities among them. This paper aims to make a textual study on it and argue the merits and demerits of the dissimilarities. The quotations in “Shichaoshi” involved many ancient classics, but were given too simple explanation. For example, it didn’t annotate the well-known “Huanzi Xinlun”. What’s more, it abbreviated the book names, “Yu” for “Lunyu”, “Xuan” for “Wenxuan”, but it didn’t give an appendix of short forms. This will bring difficulty for the offspring to collect and edit the lost ancient books. It is the modern people’s responsibility to correct the mistakes made to the ancient classics in passing from generation to generation.
The Original Characters of Hakka Dialect is a work of Qing Dynasty scholar Yang Gonghuan who researched the original characters of the Hakka dialect and explained the words and expressions of the Jiaying Hakka dialect. At present, no scholar has conducted research on Hakka Benzi from the perspective of pronunciation annotation and textual research. The article uses Hakka monosyllabic words in Hakka Benzi as the research object to explore the general rules of phonetic annotation, and the phonetic interpretation of individual terms exists. Analyze and summarize these problems, and verify them from three perspectives: overview of phonetic and meaning annotations, phonetic annotations, and phonetic annotations supplements and corrections.
“Zhe” in the structure of “V1 zhe V2” in the Chinese translation of Qingwen Zhiyao is a counter translation of the Manchu adverb affix “- me” “- fi” “- hai, - hei, - hoi”. There are some special uses of this structure in Chinese translation, such as the combination of the tentative state and the continuous marker “zhe”, and the non continuous verb enters the “V1 zhe V2” structure as V1. The reason is that it is influenced by Manchu. The interference characteristics of Manchu language are weakened in the adaptation of Qingwen Zhiyao. By investigating the literature of the Qing Dynasty, it is found that the usage influenced by Manchu such as “Xiang zhe qiao” and “Zhuo liang zhe” once entered Chinese in the Qing Dynasty, and disappeared in modern Chinese with the decline of Manchu. The Chinese version has traces of Southern Mandarin, and the adapted version reflects the characteristics of Beijing Mandarin. The principle of iconicity has different constraints on the word order of verb conjunction in Manchu and Chinese. The text adaptation follows the law of sentence pattern development and reflects the prescriptive direction of Chinese sentence pattern development. Language contact affects the development of relevant sentence patterns to a certain extent, but it is ultimately restricted by the law of Chinese itself.
The pronunciation and meaning of “𩲟” is unknown in the big dictionary of chinese. It appeared in the Ming Dynasty. There are four variants of “𩲟”, but they don’t play a role of exegesis. We Look for clues to shape from various aspects, and find “欠” was usually written by “彡”, and then find that cursive of “𩲟” was usually written “鬽”, “鬽” and “魅” are variant; and then textual researching from the meaning of character, the meaning of sentence and article, the position of grammar, Synonym chains and so on, we think “𩲟” is “鬽”, on the other hand its pronunciation is “mèi” which means ghost.
Quda (渠答) is an ancient military literature word, many military books and dictionaries of past dynasties interpreted Quda (渠答) as Tiejili (铁蒺藜). Some scholars have raised objections to this, believing that Quda (渠答) and Tiejili (铁蒺藜) are not the same thing. However, the specific shape of Quda (渠答) has always been controversial. The paper argues that Qu (渠) and Da (答) are two kinds of city guard instruments, Qu (渠) is a large wooden shield, Da (答) is also written Da (荅), which is a protective curtain made with straw and bamboo. Da (答) covers the Qu (渠), so Qu (渠) and Da (答) are often associated, the words Qu (渠) and Da (答) in the literature have evolved into a polysyllabic word, which refers to the facilities of guarding the city against the enemy. Quchan (渠幨) is also written Quzhan (渠譫), Chan (幨) is a protective curtain made of cloth. Quzhan (渠幨) and Quda (渠答) are made of different materials, however, after generalization, the two meanings are close to each other.
Chinese characters spread to the Korean peninsula, forming a huge Chinese character document, unearthed inscriptions, handwritten copies and manuscripts in volume. Investigating the changes in the use of characters in their documents, most of them inherited the normal and popular characters in China. Until the Li Dynasty of Korea, regional popular characters gradually became characteristics. Especially in pen-based and block-printed editions, there are many variants of folk characters, and the types include province variants, understanding variants, symbol variants, cursive variants, and vulgar variants. The article examines the regional variations of “邊” “懷” “竄” “儒” “滅” “釋” “辭” “聲” “樂” in Korean historical documents.
The southwest region has been a place where many ethnic groups live since ancient times. In addition to the Miao and Dong people in Qingshuijiang, Guizhou, there are also Maonan, Zhuang, Mulao and Bai people in Guangxi and Yunnan. Minority contract documents. Most of the contract documents in these minority areas are derived from the reference and transformation of the mature documents of the Han. This article attempts to use collating methods such as collation, field investigation, etc., to examine the relative terms “X” “血X” “品㙮肥磽” “薅修管業” “坐屋” and “前廈”. One is to supplement the missing words in the "Chinese Dictionary", and the other is to reveal the national and folk characteristics of contract documents in the southwest region, hoping to provide a reference for the correct interpretation of the documents.
“Thien tu van” is one of the most classic books about learning Chinese in the primary stage in China. Since Chinese was promulgated through neighborhood including Vietnam, “Thien tu van” was popularized and became one of the important learning Chinese books for Vietnamese in the ancient times. From the view of writing identity, the writing is about initially researching and finding out popularization situation and “Thien tu van” usage in Vietnam by analyzing writing quantity and writing form popularization in order to reflect aspect of learning Chinese situation of Vietnamese in ancient times as well as contribute reference value for learning Chinese approach of Vietnamese in modern times.
The Tay people are the ethnic minorities with the largest population in Viet Nam, mainly distributed in the Northern Uplands and Midlands, mostly concentrated in the provinces of Cao Bang, Lang Son, Tuyen Quang and Ha Giang. Over the long history of development, along with the development and improvement of their language, the Tay people have gradually created a type of writing system using the graphic, phonetic, and meaning elements of Chinese characters in combination with indigenous phonetic and linguistic elements, to create the system that is called the Nom-Tay scripts or the Nom script of the Tay ethnic group. Traditional Tay literature is mainly recorded in this Nom - Tay script. The article reliesupon the texts that belong to the genre of narrative poetry (in this genre, a story is written as a long poem) written in Nom - Tay- the most significant part of the written classical folk literature of the Tay ethnic group. Materials from the texts, currently stored at the Institute of Sino - Nom Studies (Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences), will be used to conduct an analysis of the usage and the method of writing of the Chinese characters in these texts. Thereby, the article strives to confirm the important role and the ample appearance of the Chinese characters in VietnameseNom- Tay texts.