The original graphs cannot be made up, they must have something like them. The meaning of a graph is what it looks like and its implication, which belongs to the content word (which carry semantic content). With the need of grammar, when the meaning of a content word does not indicate the meaning of the sentence, but the relationship between other content words in the sentence, the content word becomes a function word or grammatical word. A Shang bone script for god’s will, god said and someone said is dipected as wei隹 ( “eagle”). The consensus amongst the cycle’s scholars is that the word wei 隹 (only, along) is often seen and used as a function word in ancient Chinese classic books. At first, a script was created to describle the represented object and its symbolic meanings. A word in the Oracle Bone Inscriptions is used as a content word in most of the cases, and also used as a function word in a few cases discovered by scholars. Thus the word wei隹(bird pictograph) in the Shang bone texts first should be a content word, is a pictogram of the bird, in which its meanings were expressed iconically as “bird say, angel say, tell angel, talk by the messenger between man and god”. And in the later period of the Oracle bone text the script was added kou 口(oral) to emphasis “say” and became as a new graph wei 唯. The function word wei 隹 (only, along) can be derived from its content meaning “god says”, and the content word wei 隹 (say, tell, allegedly) can be used to read the Oracle bone and the Bronze inscriptions and the classic books in their literal sense and logically, and to give an answer to some puzzling problems in the inscriptions. Through this discussion, we have used many examples of Oracle Bone Inscriptions and Jinwen, in which there are many undeciphered words. The purpose of this paper is to show how to decipher the Oracle bone scripts by using these undeciphered words. The key point is that the meaning of Oracle bone script comes from its shape, not its sound.
Bronze Zhi has few names. The bronze vessels we now call Zhi were classified and named by the Song Dynasty according to the vessel types and rites. However, compared with the literature records, zhi, which often appears in the literature as a drinking ritual vessel, is not the zhi that song people call it. At present, there are only a few bronze zhi with their own names, which can be divided into four kinds. Mr. Xie Mingwen argues that the bronze “Zhi” is “guan”. This paper verifies this view from the perspective of the archaeological unearthed combination and the shape and form of the artifacts. We believe that to discuss the original name of Bronze Zhi, we need to treat it separately according to the shape and structure of the utensils. Daigaizhi and Wugaizhi in the early Western Zhou dynasty were different in shape, size, capacity and system of use. The former is a drinking cup, while the latter is a small wine holder. Daigaizhi and Wugaizhi may be different in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. If the renaming is based on a personal name, we recommend that daigaizhi be renamed as “Guan” only.
Wu Zhenfeng’s Shang and Zhou Bronze Inscriptions and Image Integration III includes three bronze Gui, whose appearances and textures hints that it was made in the Spring and Autumn Period. This article mainly study the self-name “ ” of these Gui, which were made by Noble called Wuji. They are unearthed with a set of four, but only three of them are released. The Modifier is “ ”, in other words “𪔉”, which is commonly seen on inscriptions of bronze Ding and Li. Therefore, it is the first time to see “𪔉” describing Gui. “𪔉”, according to its configuration, refers to cooking grains in Ding, while Ding is normally supposed to cook meat and fish. However, Gui was usually used as cooking grains. This contradiction is worth thinking. Taking another modifier “ ” as an example, “ ”, which is considered to represent cooking grains, it could both be used in insriptions of Ding, Li and Gui, Xu. It indicates that “ ” was no longer an exclusive word for grain-cooking vessels during the long-term use, so it is the same with “𪔉”. The vessel name “ ” completes the puzzle of how the “攴” in “簋” changed. At the same time, along with the “𠥓” it contains, it can explain why “匭” could be the variant character of “簋”.
As the largest written Chinese dictionary in the Joseon Dynasty, “Gujin Shilin” contains a wealth of Korean vulgar words. This paper takes the Korean Kanji Words in “Gujin Shilin” as an example, analyzes the Korean common characters used in the entry, and summarizes the characteristics of the common characters in the inheritance of “Liushu”, such as associative compounds, pictophonetic characters, and phonetic loan characters, as well as the simplification of the form, the symbolization of the components, and the components of the common characters. The variation law of functionalization and reconstruction of pronunciation and meaning is beneficial to the research on the spread and development of popular characters outside the territory.
This paper takes six Chinese Textbooks in the late Korean Dynasty compiled by Wang Weihui and others as the research object, selects and counts the high-frequency words, and analyzes their characteristics from the aspects of syllable number, part of speech, use in modern Chinese, meaning content, dialect background and so on. It is found that only monosyllabic words and disyllabic words appear in the high-frequency words in the late Korean Chinese textbooks, and the parts of speech are mainly verbs and nouns. Modern Chinese uses some words of high-frequency words, and some high-frequency words are no longer used. In terms of meaning and content, high-frequency words are highly related to commercial and trade activities. At the same time, there are some spoken words and a large number of northeast dialect words.
Firstly, since Jaryujuseok was exposed to the world, the Myeoknam edition has been known widely as the original edition. However, the details show that the Myeoknam edition is not the original edition. The most important evidence is that there are remarks from other one and the handwriting is the same. Seconedly, the texts are highly focused while the preface and appendix are ignored. We should pay more attention to them. For example, the auther cited Gaiyucongkao in a wrong way. Lastly, Jeongjo’s name, Seong, is recorded by Jaryujuseok. Jaryujuseok explained Seong in Korean for the first time. According to the explanation, we can make a conclusion that Seong means Review.
Chinese folk characters have appeared in Vietnam for a long time, no later than the 12th century. During the period of independence, Chinese characters were popular in Vietnam. Vietnamese literati often used common words when using Chinese to create works, especially in books such as folk sacrifice and folk novels. However, Vietnam’s research results in this area are very limited. This paper investigates the common characters in the Chinese novels of JinYunqiaoLu, and tries to summarize the structural law and writing habits of common characters of Vietnamese Chinese characters so as to make up for the shortcomings of the study of Vietnamese Chinese characters and enrich the common character library of Chinese characters. At the same time,this paper，from the perspective of Vietnamese people, makes an textual research on the words “de” so as to debate the differences between them and their predecessors.
The study of Chinese vulgar characters is one of the important contents in the study of modern Chinese characters, and it is also one of the important contents in the study of the dissemination of Chinese characters. Based on the 81 poems and more than 300 folk characters in the Vietnamese Chinese document “Giới Hiên Collected Poems”, this paper explores the nature of Chinese vulgar characters and related issues. The nature of Chinese vulgar characters can be characterized from the perspective of Chinese character shape, structure and function: Vulgar characters are used by the civil community, with different forms of different forms, different components of the composition of the word, often used to record and correspond to the orthography of the Chinese character. Clarifying the nature of “vulgar characters” is of great significance to its ontology research, modern Chinese research, and Chinese character dissemination research.
Liushu Jingwei is a dictionary of Chinese characters written by Hong Yang-ho at the end of the Joseon Dynasty. Ji Yun of the Qing Dynasty compared this book with Wang Anshi’s Zishuo in the Northern Song Dynasty in his postscript, and gave a high evaluation. Zishuo had long been lost, and people today have a collection of lost works. After a comparative reading, it can be seen that the two books have similarities and differences. A comparative study of Zishuo and Liushu Jingwei will help to further understand the similarities and differences in the interpretation of Chinese and Korean regular characters, and it is also meaningful for the study of the spread of Chinese characters in Korea.
John Webb’s An Historical Essay Endeavoring a Probability that the Language of the Empire China is the Primitive Language is regarded as the first extensive European treatise on the Chinese language and among the earliest sinological studies. Webb’s argument in Historical Essay is that the Chinese language is the primitive language and Noah in the Genesis is Emperor Yao from the ancient Chinese history. For proof of his hypothesis, he gathered up various intellectual discourses circulating in seventeenth-century England, which inversely allows us to approach the pre-sinological discourses of his time. Through this, we can find to what extent he intervened in the current discourses and deviated from them. Webb enthusiastically responded to the reports from Jesuit missionaries, one of whose main aims were to collect mission fund enough to propagate their religion, which was carried out by first portraying China as an ideal nation to appeal to the Europeans. His idealization of the Chinese language conceals the anxiety of his time as the Europeans first encountered Eastern civilizations in the seventeenth century. We can see the symptoms when Webb wishes to attribute the ideal qualities of China delivered by the Jesuit authors to Noah. While he attempts to prove the primitiveness of the Chinese language, he incorporates Chinese civilization into European discourses by making pious Noah the common ancestor of England and China and by asserting that all the superiorities of Chinese civilization are derived from the figure of Noah in the Genesis.
“Yu (于)” and “Yu (於)” both exist in The History of the Three Kingdoms, while the frequency of usages are different, with same and different usages. This paper takes The History of the Three Kingdoms During Shaoxi Period of Song Dynasty (The Twenty-Four Histories in Collection of Various Editions) as the research material, and investigates the usages of the words “Yu (于)” and “Yu (於)” in it, also referring to the other three editions of The History of the Three Kingdoms and checking each other to clarify the words and usages. In The History of the Three Kingdoms, “Yu (於)” appears 4544 times, “Yu (于)” appears 861 times, and the usage ratio is 5.28:1. “Yu (於)” is more widely and frequently used than “Yu (于)”. These two words are used most abundantly as prepositions. The prepositions “Yu (于)” and “Yu (於)” can both guide the complements of time and place, as well as elicit action objects and express passiveness. Additionally, in the three pairs of common phrases, the usages and meanings of the corresponding words are same. The difference is that the preposition “Yu (於)” has more plentiful usages and fixed usages of “Yushi (於是)” and “Zaiyu (在於)”, moreover, “Yu (於)” is often used after war verbs, and “Yu (于)” is rarely used. Furthermore, “Yu (於)” can be used as an interjection, and “Yu (于)” in proper nouns cannot be written as “Yu (於)”. It can be seen that, different from the pre-Qin period, the grammatical function of “Yu (於)” in The History of the Three Kingdoms is much stronger than that of “Yu (于)”, which reflects the trend that the weakening of the usages of “Yu (于)” in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, while the function of “Yu (於)” is gradually becoming stronger. Besides, there are many usages preserved through “Yu (於)” from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese.
Epitaph is a kind of significant unearthed literature. It provides great values for historical culture and language research. The correct interpretation of epitaphs is the premise and basis of using these literatures to engage in scientific research foundation. In recent years, scholars have made good research achievements by using epitaph materials and solved many difficult problems. However, due to the complexity of the characters system and the need for more classical literature and history knowledge for the interpretation of epitaphs, some interpretation of characters and research of allusions still need to be broken through and improved. Therefore, in order to provide reference for the research of stone inscriptions, the published rubbings and inscriptions are selected to analyze the characters misreading which caused by unknown allusions, and explain several allusion words.
It has been more than 40 years since Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips were unearthed. As the first batch of Qin bamboo slips unearthed, it is close to the truth of the Qing dynasty. Because the unearthed bamboo slips are clear and easily to recognize, most of them are complete, which provides favorable conditions for the in-depth study of Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips. To start with, the aim of this paper is to explore the special words used in the development period of modal particles, to clarify the development context of the evolution of modal particles, and to sort out the internal differences of the evolution of modal particles in Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips. We give a possibility for Yi (殹) and Ye (也), which seems to alternate between Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips. Secondly, we found the factors to these change: dialect, country, written forms and customs. Also, we set many examples to prove Yi (殹) and Ye (也) in Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips truly alternative. The time of Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips was written at about the end of the Warring States period to the early Qin Dynasty, which was the time when the words were not solidified. In this period, the use of words was chaotic, and modal particles showed different use of words because of their distinctive regional characteristics, that is, the diversification of writing forms. Especially, Yi (殹) and Ye (也) were two modal particles in Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips. As a Qin character, commonly seen in Yunmeng Qin bamboo slips, Yi (殹) is often used as a modal particle in the slips of Qing dynasty, which has been discussed by senior scholars such as Li Xueqin and Chen Zhaorong. Mr. Li talked about Yi (殹) and “habitually seen in Qin Bamboo Slips” in his article “an Investigation of Ancient Philology of Qin Bamboo Slips”; When discussing the evolution of Qin characters, Mr Chen interpreted Yi (殹) as a mood auxiliary word with both regional and contemporary characteristics.