Our close observation of the debates among Pauline scholars in the west on the issue of mission-relationship between Paul and the church provides some points to be borne in mind for a fresh approach in our further discussion. The dichotomy between scholars’ approach to the issue of mission-relation between Paul and the church either in terms of mission-continuity or mission-discontinuity needs to be remedied by appreciating the possibility to see the issue afresh, namely, continuity ‘and’ discontinuity. Therefore, our further discussion is to begin with assuming a certain ‘mission-continuity’ between Paul and the church or at least Paul’s missio-ecclesial understanding vis-à-vis his understanding of his own mission. This again means that the unsettled exegetical question is not about such a mission-continuity or mission-discontinuity between Paul and the church but about the nature of such a continuity. On a more fundamental level, the current debate has more to do with a more plausible description of Paul’s conceptuality regarding what Pauline scholars have generally called ‘mission’ than simply to explain away the relation between Paul and the church under a given popular definition of mission. As the modern notion of ‘missio-Dei’ and “missional ecclesiology’ do, a more plausible description of Paul’s conceptuality regarding the current issue requires to see ‘mission’ not ‘pattern-analytically’ but ‘purpose-analytically’. However, this should not be done anachronistically by projecting these modern notions to Paul’s texts, but in a way in which we can provide a more biblical and historical basis for a better understanding about our mission today.
The diaspora mission is one of the major issues in global mission work, which has arisen as one of the tasks to be carried out by cross-cultural diaspora groups that have global networks
traditionally such as Chinese speaking people, Indian and Filipinos diaspora, and also Koreans who now have finances and skills. Taking this historical opportunity, this author will try to define
the concepts of the diaspora and the diaspora mission based on the sense of calling, outline the current status of Korean diaspora mission network, and present the direction of Korean diaspora
mission. The missional meaning of the history of the Korean diaspora can be summarized as follows. Firstly, it is commonly held that the Korean emigration started from the middle of the 19th century, which is late compared to other nations. Secondly, the history of Korean emigrants is the
history of Korean diaspora mission. Thirdly, the Korean diaspora mission spread very rapidly and widely. Fourthly, the history of Korean diaspora is the history of the overseas Korean churches. Fifthly, the history of Korean diaspora becomes more meaningful when it is reviewed in relation to the current global mission of the Korean Church. The Korean Church Mission implies two concepts, mission of the Korean Church, and mission for the Korean Church. Likewise, diaspora mission has dual meanings, mission for diaspora and mission by diaspora. Moreover, as the word ‘diaspora’ is used as a complex concept, diaspora mission could be expanded in three ways for Korean situation today: first, the mission of the Korean Church through Korean diaspora (or ‘toward’); second, the mission of the Korean Church for (or ‘through’) the immigrants in Korea; third, the mission of the Korean Church for (or ‘through’) cross-cultural diaspora in other regions other than Korea. The history of Korean diaspora is the history of the Korean diaspora mission. The Expansion of Korean diaspora expanded the overseas mission of the Korean Church. The mission movement for Korean diaspora started from North America and extended to the world. This has been a driving force of calling out Korean diaspora to mission field, and presented a new direction for global mission of the Korean Church. In the process, Korean diaspora produced various mission networks. This is a good model for the world mission, which should be promoted through union and agreement with one another. The future global mission of the Korean Church should be carried out through cooperative networks with global churches. Also, the Korean diaspora mission will be a foundation that will expand to the global mission of the Korean Church through cooperation with cross-cultural diaspora and the Global Church.
Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary to the late Ming China, translated of Epictetus’ Enchiridion into Twenty-Five Sayings in Chinese for the purpose of Christian mission. His selection of the representative book in the Western stoic philosophy had specific purpose: Introducing one of religious semantic meaning in the Western Christianity, Stoic ethics and its religious similarities with Buddhist frameworks. By doing so, Ricci tried to demonstrate the Western Christianity was same in relation to ethical framework but different in regard to religious implications. He tried to find the point of contact and the point of difference at the same time by comparing Christianity’s stoic characters and China’s Buddhist ethics, which was different from traditional Confucian framework. The Chinese responses, however, show different outcomes. The Chinese intellectuals, who responded Ricci’s missiological intention, read his book with different perspectives. They showed their surprising interests in the newly translated book on the Western stoic philosophy in relation to promote and uphold their traditional Confucian values. The author claims that both missionaries and the responders of the new religious teaching tend to be confused by semantic values in the early period of cultural and religious contact. Without this awareness, both sides of cultural and religious contact would be confused in the proper understanding of the true religious meanings.
한국교회의 성장이 멈추고 사회 속에서 교회에 대한 부정적 견해가 많아지는 오늘날과 같은 때에 한국교회에 새로운 전도법이 강력하게 요청된다. 본 논문은 한국교회의 새로운 전도방법으로서, 선교적 교회론에서 언급되는 성육신적 전도의 한국교회안에서의 적용가능성을 모색하고자 한다. 본 연구는 변화된 상황 속에서 복음의 소통을 위한 변화된 전도법을 제시하고자 시작되었다. 선교적 교회론은 유명한 선교학자 네슬레 뉴비긴의 통찰력에서부터 시작되었다. 그의 통찰력이 더 많은 선교학자들의 관심을 받게 됨으로써, 최근 들어와서 가장 유명한 선교학적 주제가 되었다. 이 논문에서는 선교적 교회론의 시작과 그 주요내용이 무엇인지를 살펴보고, 이에 근거하여, 선교적 교회론이 제공하는 새로운 전도법에 대하여 논한다. 과거의 전통적 교회들이 사람을 불러모으는 전도를 “끌어 들이는 모델”로 이해하는 반면, 선교적 교회론은 전도의 새로운 패러다임을 “성육신적 모델”로 제시한다. 선교적 교회론의 성육신적 전도는 더이상 사람들을 교회로 불러모으는 행위가 아니다. 오히려 전도는 교회로 하여금 그리스도인들을 세상 속으로 보내는 행위이다. 이 교회론에서 전도는 그리스도인으로 하여금 세상에 남아서 소금과 빛이 되는 것 이지, 세상으로부터 떠나는 것이 아니다. 필자는 새로운 전도법이 서구화되어가는 한국사회안에서 진정으로 복음을 소통할 수 있는 방법이라고 확신한다. 이 논문은 새로운 전도법을 개발하기 위하여 새로운 전도의 신학이 필요함을 인식한다. 과거 전도에 대한 논의가 지나치게 방법과 기술에 집중한 나머지, 신학적 근거가 부족한 것이 사실이다. 따라서 본 연구는 성육신적 전도법이 근거가 되는 전도의 신학을 제공하고, 선교적 교회론에 기초한 전도법을 제안하였다. 이어서 본 연구는 지역교회에서 실제적으로 성육신적 전도를 실천하기 위한 구체적 사례를 제시하였다. 부산 근교의 신도시 중 하나인 장유지역에 소재한 장유대성교회는 성육신적 전도를 보여주는 대표적인 사례이다. 이 교회의 모델이 전적으로 성육신적 모델만을 제공하는 것은 아니지만, 기존의 일반교회들이 지나치게 끌어모으는 모델로 전도방법에 집중하는 반면 성육신적 전도모델을 적극 실행함으로써, 성육신적 모델과 끌어모으는 모델의 보다 균형적 접근을 보여준다. 그 결과 반기독교적 정서가 날로 높아지는 오늘날의 한국사회 안에서의 보다 효과적인 새로운 전도법의 단초를 제공하고 있다.
India had been opened to Protestant missionary activity by a decree of the British Parliament in 1813. In 1832/1833, non-British missionary agencies were allowed to enter and launch their mission work in British India. The Protestant (mostly British) missionaries were very eager to preach the gospel message and disseminate gospel tracts on the market place. Inevitably, missionaries had clashed with local Muslims. There arose a fear that the beginning of Christian preaching and proselytizing activity in Agra was a threat to the center of Islam on the uneducated Muslims of the city and the surrounding region. Protestant missionary activity was a new phenomenon to the Muslims of north India. Encounters between Indian Muslims and Protestant missionaries in the years following British expansion into the old Mughal heartlands of north India brought about a mode of interaction and conflict between the two parties. This study examines the obstacles in reaching out to the Muslims with a special emphasis on the debate held in Agra, India on April 10-11, 1854. I will attempt to analyze the significance of this Muslim-Christian debate in India and its effects on future Muslim apologetical works. One of the missionaries, Karl Pfander, who was already experienced in Georgia, was circulating Persian and Urdu gospel tracts which criticize Islam and their prophet Muhammad. Kairânawî, together with some of the local Muslims, thought that it was the high time to challenge the aggressive mission activity. The Agra debates marked a turning point in Christian-Muslim apologetics, for it was the first time that Muslim theologians utilized European critical methods to disprove Christian doctrines. Why is the 1854 Agra debate of such significance? Although the Agra debates took place nearly 160 years ago, their impact is still felt today. Both disputants are still well remembered in the Muslim world and have influenced not only the form of modern apologetics, but the modern Muslim view of Christianity as well. Although the debates had been planned to address the topics of the deviation of the Bible, the Trinity, the Quran as the word of God, and the sending of the prophet Muhammad, the debate did not proceed further than the deviation of the Bible. The Islamic polemicists insisted that the Bible had been corrupted and tried to prove this with evidence taken out of the Bible itself and works from Christian authors who most fellow Christian would regard as skeptics or outright unbelievers. The timing of this counterattack was significant because Pfander, with a Pietist background, was either unfamiliar with or extremely hostile to the works of the aforementioned Biblical liberals. By utilizing such findings to undermine Pfander from within the Christian fold, the Muslims were able to declare an easy victory. Interestingly, the Muslims still employ such tactics today to attack Christian beliefs as they did 160 years ago. Therefore, missionaries who are working among Muslims should know the issues of the Agra debate and be prepared to answer the Muslims.
It is Thanksgiving day on the third Sunday of November celebrated in most Korean Churches. But they have raised questions of the meaning of Thanksgiving day because of incongruent time, losing the meaning of service and so on. The purpose of this thesis is what Thanksgiving day is appropriate in Korean context. Appropriate contextualization is balanced between the text and the social context. First, we think if Korean Thanksgiving is based on the Biblical text, Korean Thanksgiving is the response of Koreans who God gave grace the same way as Israelites. Having a thankful mind is as biblical as Israel people in the Bible. Second, they wonder if Korean Thanksgiving is appropriative in Korean context. The Korean Thanksgiving is less appropriate. Charles Kraft explained the appropriate contextualization in three crucial dimensions; Relationship, understanding, and freedom. The relationship dimension is that Korean Thanksgiving has cultivated the relationship with God, however, it is less developed than the relationship of neighborhood. The understanding dimension is that Korean Thanksgiving must be established by Korean knowledge through North American’s missiology. The freedom dimension is that Korean Thanksgiving is not enough to show spiritual power as healing and witness. Korean Thanksgiving has had a history of 100 years so it indicates that it is time to move forward to a new direction. We think about Missional works through Korean Thanksgiving. We will respond to God and share with our neighbors in relationship dimension. They will establish Korean Thanksgiving Theology in the understanding dimension; foreign missionaries work, liberation from Japan colonization and economic development after the Korean war. We should expand thankful power for the sick people and societies in the freedom dimension. The history of Korean Christianity is very short compared with Western history. Western mission work has been giving negative effects in Asian context because of forcing western culture and thoughts. In spite of lacking understanding the Korean cultural aspect, western missionaries devoted Korean evangelism. Korean Christianity has developed wonderfully. Koreans worship the creator God and the saver God. I suggest that Korean Thanksgiving should be more appropriate in the Korean context and also establish thanksgiving missiology and develop methodology for Korean Protestant.
The ‘Yahweh's Warfare’ theory is the one that has emerged as a important issue in modern missiology. It is a theory first claimed by the church growth theorists from Fuller theological
seminary by C. Peter Wagner and accepted mostly in Asia, Africa, and South America. This theory has a strength that it makes the supernatural events of the Bible a real experience and brings the expansion of the Evangelism. On the other hand, I think it lacks the Biblical base and focuses only on overcoming Satan and demons, hence it weakens the main points of the Bible such as the proclamation of the Truth and the salvation of souls. Therefore, it is necessary to put this movement on a sheer balance so that it can be helpful to bearing positive fruits to Christian ministry, based fully on the Bible. This issue was addressed during the Lausanne Covenant and then focused on as main contents at the Manila Covenant in 1989, and at Capetown covenant in 2010. However, the dispute over the issue is not completely solved and is still demanding the full Biblical base. In the same line, in order to understand the spiritual warfare through the Biblical base, the present paper investigates the ‘Yahweh's Warfare’ theory that the Old Testament scholars presented and argues, and that is helpful to basing the spiritual warfare theory to sublimate it spiritually in Christ. Thus, the present paper proposes to present the principles of the spiritual warfare by studying the ‘Holy Warfare’ theory argued by G. Von Rad in 1940’s, the writings of the ‘Yahweh Warfare’ theory and consulting the Old Testament texts regarding the ‘Yahweh Warfare.’ The main points of the Yahweh Warfare theme are: (1) Jehovah is the warrior who wages wars and orders in them; (2) the Christians who participate in the wars should be holy and belong to God fully; (3) the enemy of the spiritual warfare is Satan; and (4) the aim of the Yahweh Warfare is the establishment of the divine kingdom while the spiritual warfare aims to build the kingdom of God. The present paper does not deal fully with the Biblical base for the spiritual warfare, but confines itself to presenting the Biblical base for the spiritual warfare simply through the Old Testament texts on the Yahweh warfare.
The article focuses on mission strategy and direction toward France immigrant as Marseille region. The France completed culture revival through transforming time of culture, religion, economic, and political. After cultural revival, the France experienced period of reason, French Revolution and Napoleon Empire, and hardship of republic. And then enormous France controlled colony to North Africa through World War. They moved from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco peoples to France for their quality of life. The Algeria moved to build up their culture in South France. As result, they got conflict between the government of France and peoples. The immigrant inpour process and what do cause of against-immigrant policy evaluated to need of missional perspective. And conflict of immigrant in France should be understand conflict of between religion and language problem, trends of conservative swing in France. The mission method of solution channels strategy of re-evangelism of Europe. The conflict solution and mission method of immigrant in France encourages their ethnicity and identity formation, and recognized each difference for contact point of gospel, and then reject individual and will accept life of immigrant culture. The mission method applies gospel proclaim for France’s immigrant through understanding of mutual culture. This based on re-evangelization toward Europe. Therefore, the mission of church filled their needs what do desire and hometown culture for trouble and conflict of immigrant.
This study is to grasp the understandings behind the work of Donald A. McGavran, who left a significant mark on evangelical mission in the 20th century since his birth in the late 19th century,
and to criticize his thoughts of mission. He began his missionary works when after the colonial era, evangelical missions were contracted by the ecumenical camp emphasizing social service
and social action. From the biblical perspective, he stressed the importance of evangelism, church planting, and the church as a significant means to realize God’s mission. In his missiology, mission involves communicating the Gospel to unbelievers, persuading them to accept Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior, and helping them become responsible members of the church and grow into more mature Christians. Although somewhat criticized, his two terms, discipling and perfecting, represent his thought of mission. The concept of church growth around conversion also supports his beliefs. Despite his great exploits, however, his understanding of mission was controversial in some ways. Theologically, his attitude was very determined and conservative. For this reason, many arguments and criticisms were arisen around his ideas. He stressed evangelism, church planting, and church-centric mission, whereas he had a negative attitude towards social service and social action, which were supported by the ecumenical camp. From the perspective of wholistic mission, it is natural that his thoughts be criticized in that he seems to lean towards one side. In other words, he lost his sense of balance. If possible, however, it should be considered that McGavran’s thoughts arose from concrete mission fields. His opinions were brought up to argue against the distorted ways of mission that spread in those days.
This study aims to study factors affecting level of Korean language proficiency for North Korean Refugee Adolescents dwelling in Korea. 30 North Korean Refugee Adolescents were asked to answer three different questionnaires designated to investigate Korean language proficiency, Acculturative Stress and demographic background. This study adopts altered TOPIK for the evaluation of Korean language proficiency, and focuses on finding out the relationship of Korean language proficiency with sexuality, age, years of Korean study, and duration of dwelling in China. The SPSS for windows 15 was used for the statistical analysis. Acculturative Stress Scale was measured with the ASIS that was developed by Sandhuand Asrabadi(1994) and Proficiency Test that was selected by TOPIK (Test of Proficiency in Korea) session 22, 23. Cronbach for Acculturative Stress Scale was 0.898. Internal consistency reliability for Korean proficiency test was 0.897. The result shows that learning methods(Korean friends or books), duration of stay in China, Korean use, learning period, age, and gender have significant relationship with level of Korean proficiency, especially periods living in China has more significant relationship with the proficiency. The result from this study helps to recognize factors affecting level of Korean language proficiency. Specifically, the Korean proficiency of North Korean Refugee Adolescents who live in Korea has a close relationship with Acculturative Stress Scale. These facts indicate that not only the Korean education are required to effectively increase the Korean education itself, but also developing the competency of Cultural Acculturation are needed to be followed up as well for North Korean Mission.
This paper focused on the Celtic Christian Community and their mission. In the centuries BC, the northern neighbours of ancient Greece and Rome were known by the description KELTOI means that strangers or hidden ones. The word CEILT is ‘an act of concealing’ from which the word Kilt, the short male skirt of traditional Celtic dress comes and we all know what a kilt conceals under it! They were rural, tribal, always on the move people, as such they were different to the Roman church which identified with the dominant power of the cities. The Roman church was unsure how to respond to these people as they were relational rather than rational, inspirational rather than institutional. Ireland (unlike Britain and Gaul) was untouched by the Roman Empire, thus it was from Ireland that Celtic Christian community had its roots and passion and expansion. The primary missionary movement across Britain which became a hinge in history as much of Europe was evangelised e.g. Patrick to Ireland 432, Columba 560 Ireland to Iona, Aidan 635 to Lindisfarne. Columbanus 591 to France, Italy and so it goes on. There are ancient sites, crosses all across Europe of Irish and Northumbrian saints bearing witness to the mission. The Celtic Mission is life mission or community mission. In the Celtic Christian world every ‘church’ was monastic. So when we talk about the Celtic church it is synonymous with the monastery, with people living in Community. The monastery was a monastic school where the seeking of God was ‘the one thing necessary’ – the very foundation of life. A commitment to Mission, meaning ‘being sent or obedience to the task’ as connecting with people, community on the road, building relationships, exploring spirituality; living in the story and living out the story. For the Community it is engaging in mission out of a context of being in the monastery. Moving into the unknown as well as the known, wandering for the love of Christ. There life may involve pilgrimage and peregrinati in a physical sense and this is certainly part of celtic Christinity’s vision. Mission is a mixture of going, staying, moving on, doing, being, excitement, mundane in the home and market place. Finding God at work in the everyday ordinariness of life as it is. The Celtic Mission is spiritual mission. They love of nature. An awareness of the unity of creation. Columbanus ‘If you wish to understand the Creator, first understand His creation.’ They were aware of the Cross over Creation. That God was to redeem the whole created order. The Celtic Mission is contextualization mission. A deep love of the Scriptures as God’s memory book of relationships and encounter. To listening & learning from the Scriptures, with both the prayerful reading of Lectio divina and studied research of the Bible encouraged. They had a great love of learning but it was a yearning for wisdom not necessarily knowledge. They had a wonderful balance and were known as Saints and Scholars. They wanted to learn how to live, how to follow Jesus as Lord as a way of life. and they concern about combination with their community's life. The Celtics were vigorous, energetic, and passionate. The Celtic missionaries were committed to scripture, to challenge, and to loving those whom they sought to win. May this celtic tradition lead to similar mission today.