PURPOSES: Analysis and design of asphalt concrete (AC) and continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) composite pavements. METHODS: In this study, the service life of the AC/CRC composite pavements was determined based on the probabilistic method in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide(MEPDG). Typical pavement design was provided with respect to heavy truck traffic volume of highways. RESULTS: The service life of the composite pavements based on IRI was shorter than that based on rutting at lower traffic volume, but this trend was switched at higher traffic volume. CONCLUSIONS : It is concluded that the main distress affecting the service life of the composite pavements was longitudinal roughness and rutting. Roughness became lower, but rut depth became greater as the stiffness of the CRC increased.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to assess removal efficiency of non-point pollutants and applicability for non-point pollutant reduction facilities by conducting the demonstration project operation. METHODS : In order to analyze removal efficiency of non-point pollutants for facilities such as a grassed swale, a small constructed wetland, a free water surface wetland, a horizontal sub-surface flow wetland, and a sand filtration, the field data including specifications of facilities, rainfall, inflow and runoff rainfall effluent etc. was acquired after occurring rainfall events, and the acquired data was analyzed for removal efficiency rate to assess road non-point pollutants facilities using event mean concentration (EMC) and summation of load (SOL) methods. RESULTS: The results of analyzing rainfall effluent, non-point pollutant sources showed that total suspended solid (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chrome (Cr), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) can be removed through non-point pollutant reduction facilities by 60.3% ~ 100%. Especially removal efficiency of TSS, COD and BOD is relatively higher than removal efficiency of other non-point pollutant sources in all kind of non-point pollutant facilities. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the result of this study, even though natural type of non-point pollutant reduction facilities for roads occupy small areas comparing with drainage basin areas, most of non-point pollutant sources would be removed through the facilities.
PURPOSES : This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) as a testing method that can predict cracking on pavement. METHODS: Three asphalt binders and one kind of aggregate were used in this study, and all asphalt mixtures were produced using Gyratory Compactor followed asphalt mix design. The ITS test was performed for the mixture which are artificially short-term aged using the oven. The ITS properties were analyzed by air void, compaction temperature, asphalt content, and asphalt binder. RESULTS: The results of this study indicated that (1) the compaction temperature did not show relationship with the ITS test; (2) there was no specific trend between the asphalt content and the ITS test; (3) the ITS could reveal the property of kinds of asphalt binders; (4) the asphalt mixture that were produced at optimum temperature suggested by manufacturer did not exhibit optimum result for all asphalt binder. CONCLUSIONS : The possibility of ITS was confirmed from this study for replacement of the Marshall Stability method. However, it needs to perform in further studies of aggregate and compaction property to suggest a new ITS standard value.
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to verify the causes of surface scaling at L-shoulder concrete structure. METHODS : From the literature reviews, mechanisms of frost damage were studied and material properties including strength, air void, spacing factor and scaling resistance of L-shoulder concrete structure were analyzed using core specimens taken by real fields. RESULTS : The spacing factor of air void has relatively high correlation of surface conditions : lower spacing factor at good surfacing condition and vice versa. If the compressive strength is high, even thought spacing factor does not reach the threshold value of reasonable durability, the surface scaling resistance shows higher value. Based on these test results, the compressive strength also provide positive effect on the surface scaling resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The main causes of surface scaling of L-shoulder could be summarized as unsuitable aid void amount and poor quality of air void structure. Secondly, although the compressive strength is not the governing factor of durability, but it shows the positive effect on the surface scaling resistance.
PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to evaluate the curing and adhesive behavior of asphalt emulsions including polymer-modified emulsions for chip seals and fog seals. METHODS : For the laboratory testing, the evaporation test, the bitumen bond strength (BBS) test, and the Vialit test are used. Also, the rolling ball test and the damping test are employed to evaluate the curing properties of the fog seal emulsions. In order to conduct all the tests in controled condition, all test procedures are performed in the environmental chamber. The CRS-2L and the SBS CRS-2P emulsions are used as a polymer-modified emulsion, and then unmodified emulsion, the CRS-2, is compared for the evaluation of chip seal performance. For the fog seal performance evaluation, two types of polymer-modified emulsions (FPME-1 and FPME-2) and one of unmodified emulsion, the CSS-1H, are employed. All the tests are performed at different curing times and temperatures. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS : Overall, PMEs show better curing and adhesive behavior than non-PMEs regardless of treatments types. Especially, the curing and adhesive behavior of PMEs is much better than non-PMEs before 120 minutes of curing time. Since all the test results indicate that after 120 minutes of curing time the curing adhesive behavior of emulsions, the early curing time, i.e., 120 minutes, plays an important role in the performance of chip seals and fog seals.
PURPOSES: An conventional method for electric power generation is converting thermal energy into mechanical energy then to electrical energy. Due to environmental issues such as global warming related with CO2 emission etc., were the limiting factor for the energy resources which resulting in extensive research and novel technologies are required to generate electric power. Thermal energy harvesting using thermoelectric generator is one of energy harvesting technologies due to diverse advantages for new green technology. This paper presents a possibility of application of the thermoelectric generator、s application in the direct exchange of waste solar energy into electrical power in road space. METHODS : To measure generated electric power of the thermoelectric generator, data logger was adopted as function of experimental factors such as using cooling sink, connection methods etc. Also, the thermoelectric generator、s behavior at low ambient temperature was investigated as measurement of output voltage vs. elapsed times. RESULTS: A few temperature difference between top an bottom of the thermoelectric generator is generated electric voltage. Components of an electrical circuit can be connected in various ways. The two simplest of these are called series and parallel and occur so open. Series shows slightly better performance in this study. An installation of cooling sink in the thermoelectric generator system was enhanced the output of power voltage. CONCLUSIONS : In this paper, a basic concepts of thermoelectric power generation is presented and applications of the thermoelectric generator to waste solar energy in road is estimated for green energy harvesting technology. The possibility of usage of thermoelectric technology for road facilities was found under the ambient thermal gradient between two surfaces of the thermoelectric module. An experiment results provide a testimony of the feasibility of the proposed environmental energy harvesting technology on the road facilities.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to analyse the longitudinal steel strain and stress of continuously reinforced concrete pavement(CRCP) with longitudinal and transverse direction at early age using stress dependent strain analysis method. METHODS : To measure the longitudinal steel strain, 9-electrical resistance and self-temperature compensation gauges were installed to CRCP test section (thickness = 250mm, steel ratio = 0.7%) and continuously measured 10min. intervals during 30days. In order to properly analyze the steel stress first, temperature compensation process has been conducted. Secondly, measured steel strains were divided into stress dependent strain (elastic strain) and stress independent strain (thermal strain) and then stress dependent strain was applied to stress calculation of longitudinal steels. RESULTS: Steel strains were successfully measured during 30days. To verify the accuracy of temperature compensation process, measured coefficient of thermal expansion(COTE,11.46×10-6m/m/℃) of longitudinal steel before paving was compared with that of unrestrained steel. Max. steel stress in the transverse direction shows about 266MPa at 23days after placement. CONCLUSIONS: Steel stresses in the longitudinal and transverse direction have been evaluated. In longitudinal direction, steel stress from the crack was rapidly reduced from 183MPa at crack to 18MPa from 600mm apart the crack. From this observation, stress effective length can be identified as within 600mm apart from the crack. In transverse direction, max. stress point was located near the center of pavement width and stress level(266MPa) is about 66% of yield stress of steel
PURPOSES: The purpose of this paper is showing that the state of pavement sublayers can be evaluated differently according to direction of FWD. METHODS: The concrete pavement slabs above subgrade without anything, subgrade with cavity, and box culvert were modeled by finite element method(FEM). The modeled pavements were analyzed by changing the direction of falling weight deflectometer(FWD). The deflection results obtained from FEM were used to calculate radius of relative stiffness and composite modulus of subgrade reaction using AREA method. Then, the analyzed results were compared to the results of the test performed at the Korea Expressway Corporation(KEC) test road. RESULTS : The composite modulus of subgrade reaction increased with subgrade elastic modulus, while radius of relative stiffness decreased. The pavement sections of pure earth showed the consistent results regardless of FWD direction. In case there was cavity, the radius of relative stiffness was larger and composite modulus of subgrade reaction was smaller when FWD was leaving the cavity than when approaching the cavity. This pattern became clear when the cavity got larger. In case of the section with box culvert, the pattern was opposite to the case of cavity. When the soil cover depth increased, the effect of box culvert got smaller. When the load was applied far from the cavity and box culvert, the effect was also declined. The test performed at the KEC test road showed identical results to those of finite element analysis. CONCLUSIONS : The direction of FWD should be considered in evaluation of the state of pavement sublayers because it can be evaluated differently even under identical condition.
PURPOSES : In this study, wasted vinyl aggregate, which possesses better thermal properties than natural aggregate, was used in cement concrete mixture to develop more economical concrete with thermal insulation and freeze prevention effects. METHODS : Slump and air content of the fresh concrete, which substituted its 0%, 5%, and 10% of coarse aggregate with wasted vinyl aggregate, were measured. Compressive strength, Poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, and splitting tensile strength of hardened concrete were measured by laboratory tests. Thermal properties of concrete such as coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and specific heat were also measured according to replacement ratio of wasted vinyl aggregate. Finally, the thermal insulation and freeze prevention effectiveness of the concrete mixed with wasted vinyl aggregate was confirmed through finite element analysis of road pavement crossing above concrete box culvert made from wasted vinyl aggregate. RESULTS: Even though the physical properties of wasted-vinyl-aggregate concrete such as compressive strength, Poisson°Øs ratio, elastic modulus, and splitting tensile strength were inferior to those of ordinary concrete, they met requirements for structural concrete. The thermal properties of concrete were improved by wasted vinyl aggregate because it decreased thermal conductivity and increased specific heat of the concrete. According to the result of finite element analysis, temperature variation in pavement subgrade was mitigated by box culvert made from wasted-vinyl-aggregate concrete. CONCLUSIONS: Through the laboratory test and finite element analysis of this study, it was concluded that the concrete structures made from wasted vinyl aggregate showed thermal insulation and freeze prevention effects.
PURPOSES: To evaluate the feasibility of cut waste fishing net as a reinforced fiber for concrete. METHODS: Strength characteristics of fiber reinforced concrete using waste fishing net were investigated. The cut waste fishing nets with 4~5cm length were putted into the soil-cement and cement concrete for pavement slab. RESULTS: Compression and tensile strength of fiber reinforced concrete using waste fishing net were increased. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that cut waste fishing net can be used as a reinforced fiber for cement concrete. However, sometimes using cut waste fishing net leads to decrease the strength; therefore, further researches are needed for real project.
PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of restraint (DOR) of longitudinal steel at continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) against environmental loadings. METHODS : To measure the longitudinal steel strain, 3-electrical resistance and self-temperature compensation gauges were installed to CRCP test section (thickness = 250mm, steel ratio = 0.7%) and continuously measured 10 min. intervals during 259 days. In order to properly analyze the steel strains first, temperature compensation process has been conducted. Secondly, measured steel strains were divided into 12 phases with different events such as before paving, during concrete hardening, and after first cracking, etc. RESULTS : Thermal strain rate (TSR) concept is defined as the linear strain variations with temperature changes and restraints rate of longitudinal steel against environmental loadings (especially thermal loading) with different cases is defined as degree of restraint(DOR). New concept of DOR could be indirect indicator of crack width behaviors of CRCP. CONCLUSIONS: Before paving, DOR of longitudinal steel is almost same at the coefficient of thermal expansion of steel (12.44m/m/℃) because of no restraint boundary condition. After concrete pouring, DOR is gradually changed into -1 due to concrete stiffness developing with hydration. After first cracking at crack induced area, values of DOR are around -3~-5. The negative DOR stands for the crack width behavior instead of steel strain behavior. During winter season, DOR reached to -5.77 as the highest, but spring this values gradually reduced as -1.7 as the lowest. Based on this observation, we can presume crack width decreased over time within the time frame of this study. This finding is not consistent with the current theory on crack width variations over time, so further study is necessary to identify the causes of crack width reducing. One of the reasons could be related to concrete stress re-distribution and stress relaxation.
PURPOSES: The objective of this paper is to select the confidential intervals by utilizing the second moment reliability index(Hasofer and Lind; 1974) related to the number of load applications to failure which explains the fatigue failure and rut depth that it indicates the permanent deformation. By using Finite Element Method (FEM) Program, we can easily confirm the rut depth and number of load repetitions without Pavement Design Procedures for generally designing pavement depths. METHODS : In this study, the predictive models for the rut depth and the number of load repetitions to fatigue failure were used for determining the second moment reliability index ( ). From the case study results using KICTPAVE, the results of the rut depth and the number of load repetitions to fatigue failure were deducted by calculating the empirical predictive equations. Also, the confidential intervals for rut depth and number of load repetitions were selected from the results of the predictive models. To determine the second moment reliability index, the spreadsheet method using Excel’s Solver was used. RESULTS : From the case studies about pavement conditions, the results of stress, displacement and strain were different with depth conditions of layers and layer properties. In the clay soil conditions, the values of strain and stresses in the directly loaded sections are relatively greater than other conditions. It indicates that the second moment reliability index is small and confidential intervals for rut depth and the number of load applications are narrow when we apply the clay soil conditions comparing to the applications of other soil conditions. CONCLUSIONS : According to the results of the second moment reliability index and the confidential intervals, the minimum and maximum values of reliability index indicate approximately 1.79 at Case 9 and 2.19 at Case 22. The broadest widths of confidential intervals for rut depth and the number of load repetitions are respectively occurred in Case 9 and Case 7.
PURPOSES : This research describes how to predict the life cycles of fatigue cracking based on NCHRP Report 704 as well as modified harmony search (MHS) algorithm. METHODS : The fatigue cracking regression model of NCHRP Report 704 was used in order to calculate the ESAL (Equivalent Single Axle Load) numbers up to pavement failure, based on using material parameters, composite modulus, and surface pavement thickness. Furthermore, the MHS algorithm was implemented to find appropriate material parameters and other structural conditions given the number of ESALs, which is related to pavement service life. RESULTS: The case studies show that the material and structural parameters can be obtained, resulting in satisfying the failure endurance of asphalt concrete structure, given the number of ESALs. For example, the required ESALs such as one or two millions are targeted to satisfy the service performance of asphalt concrete pavements in this study. CONCLUSIONS : According to the case studies, It can be concluded that the MHS algorithm provides a good tool of optimization problems in terms of minimizing the difference between the required service cycles, which is a given value, and the calculated service cycles, which is obtained from the fatigue cracking regression model.
PURPOSES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the tack-coating material’s properties using the bitumen bond strength(BBS) test and damping test as function of changed curing times. In this study, bonding strength tests were performed according to the curing time of tack coating materials. METHODS : In order to investigate bonding characteristic of tack coating materials, the Pneumatic Adhesion tensile Testing Instrument(PATTI) device is used to measure the bond strength between the tack coating materials and aggregate substrate based on the AASHTO TP-91. Also, damping test as in situ test was used to determine an appropriate traffic openting time for construction vehicle. Four different tack-coating materials were used in this study. The BBS tests were performed a one hour curing and testing temperatures of 5℃, 15℃, and 25℃. Damping test was conducted at 30min, 60min, 90min, and 120 min of curing times with temperatures of 20℃ and 30℃. RESULTS and CONCLUSIONS : The BBS test results show various bond strength as function of tack coat materials. At the same testing condition, A tack coat material shows almost two times higher than D tack coat materials although both materials are satisfied the criteria of material’s physical properties. Also, Dampting test results shows similar trend with BBS test result. The damping test result was significantly changed as function of tack coat materials. Based on this study, the tack coating material’s curing time is very important. Therefore, both curing time and the bond strength’s characteristic has to be considered in standard specification.
PURPOSES: This study devotes its energies to estimate greenhouse gas emissions for types of horizontal highway designs. METHODS: This paper suggested two types of road scenarios, scenario 1 is made by the lack of road design consistency. Beside scenario 1, scenario 2 is made by good road design. For comparisons of greenhouse gas emissions, driving simulator was used. RESULTS: Emission rates of road scenario 1 are 1.4 times higher than scenario 2 in the driving simulator. CONCLUSIONS : This study may have important implications for contributing to the application of road alignment technology for reduction of greenhouse gases as quantifying the correlations between greenhouse emissions and various road alignments. Consequently, this study will help road designers determine which roads are best alternatives in the process of choosing the roads in the future in terms of environmental benefits.
PURPOSES: Daejeon is basically divided into an old downtown and a new downtown, and the recent relocation of the Chungcheongnam-do Provincial Government of Republic of Korea from the old downtown and the opening of governmental buildings in the new downtown as well have made this new downtown only densely populated with industrial and business facilities. Such changes in the downtowns have promoted the conditions of the new downtown while, consequently, dragging down the old downtown. Out of concern for those unbalanced developments of the two downtowns, Daejeon is now carrying out several city projects to revive the old downtown. In the light of that, as a part of the project to promote the old downtown, this study aims to conduct an evaluation on landscape of the culture and arts street in Daeheungdong which was built upon those ideas of a theme street project by Daejeon. METHODS: Based on the findings from the questionnaire not only on the components that would design the streetscape of the culture and arts street but also on the public satisfaction with the streetscape, the study defined how those changes in the components affect emotional factors of the pedestrians. In order to achieve the research goal, the study made changes in D/H ratio of the street structural components as well as the roadside trees. In terms of the questionnaire method, the study used the SD scale, and proceeded with its investigation through the frequency analysis, the principal component analysis (the factor analysis) and the structural equation model. RESULTS : According to the results from the factor analysis and the regression analysis, of those three factors, such as the openness, the comfortable sensation and the safety, the openness followed by the comfortable sensation and the safety was determined to have the most positive influence on the total satisfaction. The structural model analysis reported that the D/H and the structural components of the roadside trees and planting have a positive effect on the emotional image, and this emotional image also appeared to be positively related to the total satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS : This study looked into how the changes in the street structural components of the culture and arts street in Daeheungdong would affect the satisfaction with the streetscape, and finally confirmed that the D/H and the planting are what would have a positive effect on this satisfaction. What has been learned from this study will be the basic data to figure out how to promote and improve the culture and arts street in Daeheung-dong as this data will also help designing and developing of those specialized streets in other regions.
PURPOSES : The bridge section of the expressway has a worse driving environment than the general section. However, traffic safety countermeasures are focused only on the bridge section. Traffic safety countermeasures on the section before entry to the bridge and the section after exit from the bridge are applied only when the bridge has a long-span section. Accordingly, this study will verify the necessity of extending the application of traffic safety countermeasures to areas that are affected by the bridge. METHODS: This study determines the areas that are affected by the bridge as well as the areas that are affected by locations with frequent traffic accidents and suggests the risk factors by affected areas through canonical discriminant analysis. For the analysis, traffic accident data for 3 years, which occurred on bridge sections in six major expressway lines, were used. RESULTS: The numbers of traffic accidents were 469 before the bridge, 281 on the bridge, and 468 after the bridge. The variables that have impact on the seriousness of accidents are as follows: speeding, excess manipulation of the steering wheel, and failure to secure safety distance for accidents that occurred before the bridge section; speeding, excess manipulation of the steering wheel, and dozing off for accidents that occurred on the bridge; and speeding and failure to secure safety distance for accidents that occurred after the bridge section. CONCLUSIONS : Areas affected by the bridge show higher accident rates than the bridge section; therefore, imposing traffic safety countermeasures on the integrated section of the bridge and the affected areas is required. It is believed that the results suggested in this study could be effectively used in the prevention of traffic accidents by imposing custom-made safety countermeasures for each section.
PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to analyze the requirements of the road traffic safety moderator robot when road repairing. The road traffic safety moderator robot is road traffic safety equipment and to conversions mechanical engineering and IT when road repairing. METHODS: The study used AHP based on the survey from road repair related expert that field engineers, design engineers, public officials and professors. The survey used paired comparison. The survey items were safety, convenience and economics. The safety is classified as visibility or efficiency, the convenience is classified as utility or mobility and the economics is classified as initial investment cost or maintenance $ management cost. The survey alternatives were the road traffic safety moderator robot, traffic regulation by human, traffic regulation by mannequin and traffic signs. The software for AHP is Expert Choice 2000. RESULTS : The results of AHP analyze, the weighted value of safety was analyzed with the highest at 0.488 of survey items. The weighted value of convenience was analyzed at 0.295, the weighted value of economics was analyzed at 0.218. The results of the road traffic safety moderator robot, the weight value of efficiency and utility were analyzed with the highest at 0.284 and 0.259 of alternatives. The weighted value of initial investment cost and maintenance & management cost were analyzed with the lowest at 0.203 and 0.211 of alternatives. The consistency test results of each items, null hypothesis is rejected because the CR values were 0.000 respectively. Therefore, the study results are consistency. CONCLUSIONS : The result of this study, overall value of the road traffic safety moderator robot came off second-best of other alternatives. The road traffic safety moderator robot has been received highest praise by the result of the study as good road traffic safety equipment when road repairing because the weighted values of efficiency and utility were analyzed with the highest of survey items. The efficiency mean securing safety and the utility mean practical assistance when road repairing. The results of this study showed that the road traffic safety moderator robot will effective for traffic safety when road repairing. economics and visibility are that supplementation of the road traffic safety moderator robot because the weighted values of economics and visibility were analyzed with the lowest of survey items. The consistency test results are consistency because the CR values were 0.000 respectively.
PURPOSES: This study is to conduct the research on the design principle for the driver's safety and comfort in installing consecutive curves of superhighway. METHODS: Superhighway does not currently exist in domestic area. Thus, this study is conducted by collecting driving behavior usage of 30 people who are involved in the members of the virtual driving simulation. By identifying the distribution characteristics of each scenario in ANOVA & Tukey Test, the distribution are categorized into three groups. RESULTS : In the case of Group A in Section 3 (R2 entry part), lane departure exceeds the safety standard, which means to be risky condition. And then in the case of Group B and C, the lane departure values applying theoretical formula was evenly distributed compared to the proven values. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the result, the continuous curve design principles at superhighway should follow three standards as follow. First, an additional linear part needs to be inserted between two curves. Second, what if inserting the linear part is difficult, it would be better to insert a curve more than 2,000m. Third, R1/R2 ratio should not be over two. This design primarily aims to the safety of the operator. Such road alignment also meets the expectations of drivers, thus, it may help drivers to be compatible and amenable while driving continuous curve in superhighway.
PURPOSES: Ambiguous decision on whether rural or urban area for road design can increase the construction cost and restrict the land use of surrounding area. However, administrative classification on rural and urban area is not directly related to road design because of this classification is not based on the engineering viewpoint, so method which can explain the road design context is required. METHODS: Method which enables to identify the area for road design is suggested based on the deceleration expected to be experienced by drivers who use the road section concerned. Deceleration rate corresponding to the area such as rural or urban suggested in Road Design Guideline is used as the criteria to identify the area by comparing this value with the estimated deceleration rate at the road section concerned. Speed profile method is utilized to derive the deceleration rate, and speed estimation way for reflecting both road geometry and intersection is suggested using stopping sight distance concept. RESULTS: The procedure of the method application is suggested, and the design example utilizing the method is provided. CONCLUSIONS : The method is expected to be used to identify the area for road design with engineering viewpoint, and design consistency among the roads with similar driving environment can be made.